1994 Vol. 11, No. 2
Observing tree types, photosynthetic effects and respiratory enzymes (peroxidase isozymes, catalases and dehydrogenases) for some clonesof Cunninghamia lanceolata, studing various changes of C/N, nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), proteins, lipids as well amino acids, organic acids and sugars in the stages of flower bud differentiation, flowering, fruiting and embryo development, this paper gives the relationship between some genetic traits and physiological activities throughout the sexual process of C. Ianceolata.
The cuttings from 26 subtropical tree species were gathered at various seasons (December, Febrary, March and June), treated with different root-promoting chemicals (ABT-1, NAA, IBA and water), and planted at various dates (immediately planting the cuttings after treatments and planting the cuttings after storage for two months in moist sand). The results showed that the striking root percentage 60% of the tested tree species were above 25%, 30% of above 50% and about 20% of above 80%. The best effect was obtained from ABT-1 treatment. To gather hardwood cuttings in winter, to treat cuttings with growth regulators before storage for two months in moist sand and to plant in early spring were preferable for deciduous tree species. To gather cuttings in June and plant cuttings immediately after regulator treatments could obtain higher rooting percentage for broadleaved evergreen species.
In order to raise the yield of Lei bamboo sprout and move up the season of bamboo shooting, the planting trial was carried out in Phyllostachys praeocox f. prevelnalis plantations. The results showed that the mean yield of all experimental plots increased by 24.7% over the control, the highest plot increased by 78.1% over. In all experimental plots, the season of bamboo shooting was moved up 3 to 5 weeks earlier than the control, and the earliest one was 8 weeks ahead of the control. Owing to the yield of bamboo sprout increased and shooting season moved up, a vast aomunt of bamboo sprout could supply to the market of the Spring Festival with high price. The mean output value and pure income were increased by 267.3% and 321.4 %over the control respectively. To the best one, the output value and pure income were increased by 495.3 and 531.2% respectively. The mean ratio of input to output was over 1:4 in the experimental plots and the highest one was 7:12. The best way selected in this study was that at the end of November to the begining of December, urea was applied to the upper layers of the soil at the rate of 75 g per square meter, then the bamboo forest land was covered with bamboo leaves at the thickness of 30 cm immediately.
Examining the ratio of face layer of bamboo laminated boards to core layer how to affect MOR┴/MOR‖ and other properties, the authors found that there was a notable linear relationship between MOR┴/MOR‖ and the ratio of face layer to core layer. To decrease the latter could inerease MOR‖; so to decrease the ratio was necessary for using bamboo laminated boards with large width.
Analysis with roots, stems, rami and leaves from 4 species of Sageretia in Zhejiang Province, showed that the alkaloid of Sageretia was mainly hordenine, with a great difference among S. melliana, S. thea, S. henryi and S. hamosa in the hordenine content or the total alkaloid content, of which the content of S. melliana was the highest and S. hamosa was the lowest. Both hordenine and other alkaloids were basically in roots, especially root fibrils, but the aerial parts were very samll, hasing also a great difference between the underground portions and the aerial parts.
The effect of repeated planting Cryptomeria fortunei on soil fertility, the difference of root zone and bulk soil fertility, and soil fertility characters in different site types were all made. The results showed that the soil fertility of the first cultural soil was higher than that of the second, the soil fertility of root zone was greater than that of bulk soil, and the defference of soil fertility in different site types was significant.
The changes of temperature and humidity have the same tendeney on the whole in broadleaved evergreen forest and broadleaved deciduous forest in summer. Compared with the broadleaved deciduous forest, the broadleaved evergreen forest obviously has better effects of decreasing temperature and increasing humidity. In spring and autumn, temperature goes down and humidity goes up in the broadleaved evergreen forest, while in the broadleaved deciduous forest both temperature and humidity go down. In winter, the broadleaved evergreen forest results in a definite increase of soil temperature which occurs mainly at night and an increase of humidity in ground layer. While in the broadleaved deciduous forest, humidity drops and temperature rises maily at daytime.
During 1990~1991, temperature and humidity in the natural braodleaved avergreen forest were measured in the scenic spot of Hangzhou and were compared with the data in the same period from Hangzhou Meteorological Station. The results showed that this kind forest had the most remarkable effect on the ground surface temperature within the forest. The forest decreased the annual everage temperature, the annual average maximum temperature and the annual average extreme maximum temperature of the ground surface by 2.6~3.3℃, 12.1~13.2℃, and 25.3~29.4℃ respectively. Meanwhile, it inereased the annual average minimum temperature and the annual average extreme minimum temperature of the ground surface by1.2~1.4℃ and 7.9~8.0℃. The daily range of the surface temperature in the forest was lower than that in the urban district of Hangzhou. The forest had a noticeable effect on the soil temperature below the ground surface, and it could lower the annaul average temperature by 2.0~3.0℃. The most obvious decrease of the surface temperature and the soil temperature appeared at 14:00 in summer, and in winter, there was an increase of the temperature in the forest to a certain extent. Air temperature changes in the forest had the same tendency with those of the soil temperature, but fluctuated within a narrow range. Annual average absolute humidity and relative humidity of ground layer in the forest were higher than those in the urban district of Hangzhou by 0.5~0.6 hPa and 7%~8%, and the effect of increasing humidity occurred most obviously at14:00.
The studies were made during the nesting seasons of birds in 1992~1993. This paper analyzes the composition of breeding bird communities, the species densities and the dominent species in five forest types by tramp count, index of species diversity and information principal of Shannon-Wiener. This paper also divides the breeding birds into 5 bird communities and descrides their characteristics and similarity.
In the present paper, three species of the genus Mycomya from Gansu Province, northwest China, are described as new to science, e. g.M. gansuana,M. lintanana,M. terana. The types are deposited in the Insect Collections of Beijing Agricultural University.
Mulberry mosaic disease was found to be caused by a spiroplasma and distributed in several places of Zhejiang. This disease could be transmitted directiy through grafting, insects, and could be inoculated by mechanical method on to some mulberry seedlings. The crinkle spiroplasma which showed positive reaction with gram-staining, and could be cultured in liquid medium and solid medium, was still living after one year. The morphology of crinkle spiroplasma for sizes was 364~833 nm x 82~119 (elementaly helix), and 83~700 nm indiameter (spherical bodies), or 3.0~4.5m in length and 100 nm in width (myciliod). The host range of crinkle spifoplasma was wide. Theraputic tests using oxytetracycline at 250~500mg/kg spraying on to diseased mulberry plants resulted in effective control of the disease.
In recent years, soft rot of Flammulina velutiped caused by Cladobotryum sp. has become a widespread disease. The experiment showed that the suitable temperature and pH values for the mycelia were 13~27℃ and 5.6~8.1, and the optimal 15~19℃ and 6.0, respectively. The pathogen grew better on PSA medium than on others. The disease occurred from late October to November and from March to April. High temperature (more than 15℃) and moist environment were favourable to the infection of the disease. The chemical contrl in the labortory indicated that 100 percent bacteriostatic rate of the mycelia could be achieved by using 0.001~0.010 percent daconil and 0.050~0.200 percent bavistin.
In order to get a great economic effect and raise the actual strength of market competition, the small town-run wood working enterprises in collective forest region must change from a small-sized and decentralized distribution which can't adapt the demand of socialism market economy now to various types of scall management and administration.
On the basis of knowledge of ways devices and purposes of forestry marketization, problems of marketization of forestry industry are posed The contents of forestry marketization are elucidated in terms of 3 different angles. At the same time, the substance of forestry marketiz ation is put forward that the development of forestry industry bases on market with market regulation as a center. the general features of forestry marketization consist of features of forestry industry and those of forestry market on the premise of marketization of forestry industry can operate and counter measures in the near future are also discussed.
The standardization of publication's arrangements is not only advantageous to exactly propagate information which are publications carried, but helpful to speedily store informationin a computer for wide using. To do it best is one of the duties of an editor. This paper divides the main problems in publication's arrangements into six types and discusses them.
Market economy moving has different rule to planned economy, therefore collectivism morality should reflect the times characteristic to fit the socialist market economy. In concrete terms, resisting the individual departmental selfishness to influence morality, then, promoting collective unite idea in time. Private economy is the base of individual departmental selfishness. Individual departmental selfishness is internal relations to individualism Morality, and no nature relation to the market economy. Although the ownership relations need to be regulated in market economy, and economical action tends to personalized, it presupposes fitting intrinsc demand of the economical system. The morality should conform to socialism spirit civilization rather than economical interest individualization. Public economy is the base of collective unite. On the condition of market economy, collective unite should reflect essential aspect in personal will, make the new moral regulation highest pursuit of valure, and supply spirit power to the development of the individual freedom and generalization of the individual characteristic.
Various grafting tests of wild young trees of Torreya grandis were carried out in Jiande City, Zhejiang. These tests inclode grafting on the spot, transplanting after liftng and grafting of parent stock, cladose grafting at the certain hight after lifting and transplanting of parent stock and grafteing after lifting, transplanting and surviving of parent stock. A series of techniques were put forward, and they could used to develope and make use of resources of the trees, and contribute to the productive base and the high-qaulity seed ofTorreya grandis.
Parching the cones of Pinus massoniana with IHT model of hot air drier at 45~55℃ for 48h, and drawing the seeds from the cones, then carrying out sprouting tests, showed that the germination percentage and the germinating viabilities averaged 85.0% and 55.7% respectively. Drawing the seeds by oven dry the cones was better than by sun dry in economic benefit, too.
Orthaga olivacea and Orthaga achatina are two species of common pest insects beloning to sibling. Former literature about forest pests usually mixed O.olivacea with O.achatina. A differentiation was made of the distribution, hosts and morphological characteristics in this paper.
Monoembryonic seeds were 1878(40.0%) and polyembryonic seeds were 2519(60%) of 4697 seeds of Citrus changshan-huyou to be proved. Not all seeds from 11 trees and 4 combinations pollinated by hand were monoembryonic or polyembryonic. This concluded that the type of embryo for Citrus changshan-huyou was the mixture of monoembryo and polyembryo.