2001 Vol. 18, No. 4

Growth model and cutting age of masson pine natural forest in Zhejiang
WEI Xin-liang, GUO Ren-jian, ZHAO Bin
2001, 18(4): 333-336.
[Abstract](1032) [PDF](238)
Masson pine natural forest is the main part of forest resources in Zhejiang Province , China .By the statistical analysis method , the authors researched the growth model and cutting age of masson pine natural forest with the sample plot inventory data .The result is that the Richards-model is the best for describing the forest growing process , the growth model of mean DBH is H =53.094 798(1 -e-0.006 186 A)0.787 890 , the growth model of mean height is D =57.665 304(1 -e-0.017 344 A)0.857 815 , the growth model of mean volume is V =M/ N =0.688 271(1 -e-0.026 333 A)0.604 964 , the quantitative maturity age is 43 a , and the economical maturity age is 40 a by the net present ward method , the cutting age is 40 ~ 45 a .
Evaluation and analysis of capacity of forestry sustainable development in Chun’an County
GUO Ren-jian, CHEN Fa-rong, ZHU Quan
2001, 18(4): 337-344.
[Abstract](1362) [PDF](190)
Administration area of county is thought as study area in the paper .The capacity of forestry sustainable development of Chunan County is measured quantificationally , with fundamental principles and index system suggested in academic studies od nature and social and forestry system in last several years .DR (degree of resourse) is 0.54 , DSS (degree of system stabilization) is 0.69 , DE (degree of economic) is 0.49 and DM (degree of management)is 0.38 DSD (degree of sustainable develoment)is 0.53 when data are dealt with the equal weight . Sustainability is thought that DSD is greater than 0.70 .The paper considers that Chunan country does not reach the criterion .Specific measures lead to sustainable development are put forward as a whole .
Think deeply about problems of forest sustainable management
SHEN Yue-qin, JIANG Chun-qian, GU Lei, WU Wei-guang
2001, 18(4): 345-348.
[Abstract](1312) [PDF](184)
Nowadays , practice of forest sustainable management has been wildly launched in world .But there are still many problems requires us to study and resolve in this field in ①Policy supporting systems .The policy coordinating with forest sustainable management should be approached on the operant level .②Case study .Based on the searching for the general laws of forest sustainable management from a lot of historical facts and cases , the relative teory would be renewed .③Solution and process of decision-making .The decision-making process of from down to up would be studied .On the other hand , the relations and roles among farmers , technicians and officials in the multi-participation should be brought into better balance .④Benefit adjustment and optimization .In the forest sustainable management , the benefit structure among different bodies should be adjusted and optimized . Furthermore , the policy should be designed to ensure the benefit of forest managers including individuals and organizations .
Changes of species composition as affected by the replacement of broad-leaved community by Chines fir community
CHEN Guang-shui, XIE Jin-sheng, HE Zong-ming, YOU Shui-sheng, YANG Yu-sheng
2001, 18(4): 349-353.
[Abstract](1058) [PDF](189)
The changes of species composition in a 76-year-old Chinese fir community , which was originally occupied by a broad-leaved community , were studied based on the data collected from sample plots with an area of 1 200 m2 in Ancaoxia , Nanping , Fujian Province .The results showed that the changes of species composition affected by slope location were greater than by forest type .The old-growth Chinese fir community in the hillside and broad-leaved community had higher percentage of species in common (46.84 %)than Chinese fir community in the hillside and Chinese fir community in the low-land (42.46 %).The old-growth Chinese fir community still had only one dominant tree species , while the broad-leaved community was secondary community with dominant tree species of Pinus massoniana , Castanopsis fargesii , and Schima superba .Percentage , relative density and importance values of tree species and intolerant tree and shrub species increased while slope gradient from lower to upper.Herb layer of Chinese fir community in the low-land were mainly shade-tolerant species , and had more shade-tolerant fern species than broad-leaved community which were mainly intolerant herb species .
Change of biomass and productivity of Pinus massoniana community after closing of hillsides and management in serious eroded red soil
XIE Jin-sheng, HUANG Rong-zhen, CHEN Yin-xiu, YANG Yu-sheng, WANG Wei-ming
2001, 18(4): 354-358.
[Abstract](898) [PDF](165)
The biomass and productivity ofPinus massoniana community by closing of hillsides and management to facilitate afforestation were studied in subtropical granite red soil seriously eroded area .The results showed that after closing of hillsides and management to facilitate afforestation , the biomass of Pinus massoniana average trees was 40.0 times as high as control , the order of biomass was trunk branch root leaf bark , but the controls biomass orderwas leaf trunk branch root bark .The biomass of tree stratum and undergrowth were 61.117 thm-2 and 1.598 thm-2 , they were 128.4 times and 4.4 times as high as control ;the bryophyte emerged in the forestry land and its biomass was 0.883 thm-2 .The mean annual net increment of Pinus massoniana community were 28.7 times as high as control , tree stratum were 105.2 times and undergrowth were 3.0 times .After closing of hillsides and management to facilitate afforestation the ratio of the biomass restoring and productivity were higher than control in the seriously eroded area , this measure was worth using and spreading .
Tree species diversity in Betula Luminifora community under different intensities of disturbance
LI Jian-min, XIE Fang, ZHANG Si-yu, CHEN Dong-hua, WU Qi-ren
2001, 18(4): 359-361.
[Abstract](965) [PDF](210)
Tree species diversity in Betula luminifora community under different human-caused distubing intensity , was studied by analyzing the important value of dominant tree species , tree species diversity index and probability of interspecies encounter in North Fujian .The results showed that the endangered cause of Betula luminifora was habitat change through the structure character and the tree species composition in the community , and therefrom the invasion of Phyllostachy pubescens , when human-caused disturbance was happened .There was another status in where Phyllostachy pubescens recently was managed .The conversation strategy would include closing hillside to facilitate afforestation and regenerating seedlings for forestation , and plating mixed forests of Betula luminifora , Liguidambar formosana and Castanopsis fargesii .
Study on erosion resistance of different land use
XU Qiu-fang, JIANG Pei-kun, YU Yi-wu, SUN Jian-min
2001, 18(4): 362-365.
[Abstract](1242) [PDF](193)
To understand ecological function of different land use , the erosion resistance of 3 kinds of natural forest and 5 kinds of planted ocmmercial forest in Huzhou , Zhejiang has been studied .Its found that 3 kind of natural forest are of ideal erosion resistance , broad-leaf forest is among the best and then the mixture forest of needle tree and broad-leaf tree , Pinus is the weakest .Comparison on 5 kinds of planted commercial forest , soil erosion resistance of Phyllostachys praecox is the strongest , which almost equal to or stranger than that ofPinus massoniana .The weakest ones are Chinese fir and Prunus mume .Erosion is easy to occur in these two kinds of forest , the prevent measure should be carry out .The erosion resistance of tea forest is not good enough .
Relationship between photosynthetic characteristics of Cyclamen persicum and environmental factors
ZHENG Bing-song, ZHENG Yong-ping, YU You-xiang, CHENG Xiao-jian, WU Jia-sen, ZHAN Wei-jun, PAN Hui-qun
2001, 18(4): 366-370.
[Abstract](1226) [PDF](211)
In order to discuss photosynthetic characteristics of Cyclamen persicum leaves and effects of environmental factors on photosynthetic rate , the experiments were conducted to study diurnal changes and seasonal fluctuation of the net photosynthetic rate and major environmental factors .The net photosynthetic rate reaches peaks at 10 :22 and 13 :42 respectively in dry-heat conditions .And it reaches also peaks on June and October in one year respectively .Hard photosynthetic photon flux , high air temperature and low relative humidity result in sleeping at noon for Cyclamen persicum leaves .The diurnal changes and seasonal fluctuation of net photosynthetic rate are affected by major factors , i .e .photosynthetic photon flux , air temperature , stomatal conductance , transpiration and relative humidity as well .The net photosynthetic rate , the light-saturating photosynthetic rate and the light compensation photosynthetic rate of middle-part leaf are higher than those of lowerpart leaf .Shading and spraying are contributed to improving the microclimate condition of Cyclamen persicum growth , increasing anti-high-temperature and efficiency for sloar energy utilization , decreasing sleeping in summer .
New records in the flora form East China
LI Gen-you, CHEN Zheng-hai, ZHONG Shan-min, HU Shao-qing
2001, 18(4): 371-374.
[Abstract](1073) [PDF](175)
New records of 2 genera and 6 species in plant distribution are reported .Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl .) Sw .is a new record in East China ;Smilacina henryi (Baker) Wang et Tang , Oenothera oakesiana (A . Gray) Robbins ex Watson et Coulter , Alpinia chinensis (Retz .) Rosc , Millettia congestiflora T .Chen and Pycnospora lutescens (Poir .) Schindl .are new records in Zhejiang , in which Stylosanthes guianensis and Oenothera oakesiana are alien species .Pycnospora R .Br .ex Wight et Arn .is a new record in Zhejiang , and stylosanthes Sw .is a new record in East China .
On Pseudotaxus chieniie coenology in Zhejiang
HU Shao-qing, FU Jin-yao, CHEN Chun-sheng
2001, 18(4): 375-379.
[Abstract](1108) [PDF](335)
With the centralized distribution forPseudotaxus chienii and the largest quantity , Zhejiang has 11 distribution points of it .Analysis on investigation data of 29 quadrates indicates that the community types belong to 4 vegetation types , 8 formation groups and 11 formations .The mossy elfin forest which is composed of Pseudotaxus chienii ,Quercus phillyraeoides and Rhododendron simiarum etc .is a typical representation of the structure of community and the physiognomic charater .The growth and distribution of Pseudotaxus chienii is closely relative to its ecological environments and accompanying species Rhododendron simiarum .
Comparative study on physico-mechanical properties of Phyllostachys iridenscens wood under different sites
YU You-ming, FANG Wei, YANG Yun-fang, YU Xue-jun, JIN Yong-ming
2001, 18(4): 380-383.
[Abstract](1008) [PDF](182)
The physico-mechanical properties of Phyllostachys iridenscens wood in different sistes and ages were determined .The results showed that the basic density and mechanical property of Phyllostachys iridenscens wood under different sites increase with the age while the full shrinkage ratio of the radial , chord and volume decrease gradually with the age ;the basic density and mechanical property of site Ⅱ are better than site Ⅰ and the full shrinkage ratio of the radial , chord and volume of site Ⅱ are smaller than those of site Ⅰ .There are significant differences on the basic density , compression strength parallel to the grain , tensile strength parallel to the grain and chord bending strength and no one on the radical bending strength in different sites .
Preliminary study on the drying technology of Nauclea diderrichii
LI Yan-jun, MA Zhang-fa, ZHANG Hong, WANG Yi-bin
2001, 18(4): 384-388.
[Abstract](1134) [PDF](173)
Drying characters data contributive to drying technology research of Nauclea diderrichii was obtained through a series of tests with 100 ℃drying test method .The results whowed that drying characteristics of Nauclea diderrichii are as following :Classifications of initial checks or cross-section deformation are 3 and classification of inner checks is 2 .The drying schedule of Nauclea diderrichii was made by these parameters of drying characteristics .
Diversity of wild ornamental trees in southwest of Zhejiang
GAO Xiao-hui, HE Xiao-yong, HE Lin
2001, 18(4): 389-393.
[Abstract](1170) [PDF](152)
On the basis of investigations on wild ornamental trees in southwest of Zhejiang , evaluation and analysis are made on the diversity of species , ornamental , growth type and garden use .There are 405 species of wild ornamental trees in Lishui City .According to ornamental organs , they are divided into 5 types :watch flower trees (138 species), watch fruit trees (118 species), watch feature trees (76 species), watch leave trees (72 species), and watch branch trees (11 species).According to growth , there are 155 arbors , 196 shrubs , 41 lianes , and 13 bamboos .They can be used as street tree , overshadow tree , plant alone or agminate in gardens . They can be plantes for vertical virescence , and be made to miniascape also .The suggestions are given for developing and utilization of the wild ornamental trees .
Study on the method applied in garden plant landscape evaluation
TANG Dong-qin, YANG Xue-jun, XU Dong-xin
2001, 18(4): 394-397.
[Abstract](1647) [PDF](427)
Some qualitative indexes and quantitative indexes which produced a great impact the landscape of garden plants were selected .The qualitative indexes mainly reflect the whole and harmony of the landscape of garden plants.The quantitative indexes mainly reflect the landscape diversity and form an index system.Using AHP method , the paper built the model tree of comprehensive evaluation .Based on giving value to qualitative indexes and calculating quantitative indexes by Simpson indexes formula , the paper evaluated an example using the AHP model .The results and analysis show that the evaluation method appropriates to evaluate the landscape of garden plants or other urban artificial landscape of plants , especially to evaluate beforehand the landscape of garden plants and to select the best one of many projects .
Artistic features of Chinese historic gardens and their inheritance
QIAN Hai-yan
2001, 18(4): 398-400.
[Abstract](1207) [PDF](603)
Six artistic features of Chinese historic gardens are concluded in view of their similarities of the constitution , conception , temperament , dynamic arrays and techniques of selecting scenery .Based on the thought of combination of heaven and human and the appreciative perception of poetic and picturesque , a further analysis is make on the influences of the inheritance of the traditional garden styles on the building of the contemporary gardens .
Current situation and development tactics of greening construction in townships of Yiwu
2001, 18(4): 401-405.
[Abstract](1106) [PDF](194)
The investigation on the current situation of greening construction in the townships of Yiwu reveals that the greening construction in these townships develops rapidly , and the area and rate of greenery patches have greatly increased , but meanwhile , there still exist such problems as the sluggish scale of greening construction , the illbalanced development of various greenery patches an the widespread olamage and occupancy of green areas .The sources of the problems are insufficient understanding , sluggish planning and cow-leveled managing of greening construction .So the paper suggests that the publicity should be strengthened , the reasonable planning documents should be made , the legalization of construction should be sped up , the fund for construction should be raised in every way , and the managing level should be improved .
Notes on fungus gnats of the subfamily Mycomyinae and their geographical distribution in China (Diptera :Mycetophilidae)
WU Hong, XU Hua-chao, WANG Yi-ping
2001, 18(4): 406-415.
[Abstract](1164) [PDF](178)
Species of the subfamily Mycomyinae from China are reviewed in the present paper .Totally 68 species belonging to 3 genera are listed .Two species are reported for the first time from China .Keys to known Chinese genera and species are given , respectively .The geographical distribution , fauna of the subfamily and its origin are also preliminarily discussed .1 table , 29 references
Bionomics and control of Chinolyda flagellicornis
LIN Qing-lan, LI Ke-en, XU Wen-chen, CAI Yi-ming
2001, 18(4): 420-423.
[Abstract](1403) [PDF](196)
Chinolyda f lagellicornis (F .Smith) is a main pest damaged Cryptomeria fortunei .It has one generation a year in Wencheng of Zhejiang and the naturation larvas hibernate in soil of 2 ~ 20 cm during winter and summer .The hibernating ungrowing larvas begin to be pupae in April of the next year , in the early May it begins to lay eggs , then the larvas begin to hatch and do harm, until in the middle of June the serious harming arrives . Control in forests could be made at the larval stage by spraying tree crowns with 1 000-fold solution (30 kghm-2) of omethoate 40EC , resulting in 97.5 %of the 1 ~ 4 instars larvae being killed , and 91.3 % of the 5 ~ 6 instars larvae being killed .With 800-fold sultion (225 mLhm-2) of deltamethrin 2.5EC , resulting in 97.8 % of the 1 ~ 4 instars larvae being killed , and 93.6 % of the 5 ~ 6 instars larvae being killed .
Popularization of higher education and credit system
CHEN Jing-you, YU Qiu-hong, ZHANG Zu-kui
2001, 18(4): 424-427.
[Abstract](1432) [PDF](168)
Popularization of higher education doesnt simply mean an increase in student enrollment , but more importantly , it means improvement in quality of education .Credit system is an effective way in which the solution to quality problem could be found .This paper , after discussing the current situation of higher education , content and characteristics of credit system, conditions and prerequisites for existence , further points out the urgent need to adopt credit system in education management in universities under market economy .
Water resources protection by law in the Taihu Lake valley
SHEN Yue-di
2001, 18(4): 428-432.
[Abstract](1138) [PDF](171)
Water pollution in the Taihu Lake valley is getting worse and worse , and it has hindered the steady economic development of the areas around the Taihu Lake .The backwardness and abuse of the facilities which dispose of sweage , the loss of water and soil erosion and the blind exploitation of tourism resources are the main causes of the deterioration of the water resources in the Taihu Lake valley .Thus , the administrative , civil and criminal laws concerning water resources protection should be reinforced and strictly carried out .Meanwhile , we should make rational use of water resources and protect the environmen of the Taihu Lake valley .
Adaptive prediction control of complex system model and its simulation
GAO Feng
2001, 18(4): 433-437.
[Abstract](1285) [PDF](232)
To the poor information and uncertain system featured by significant uncertainties and random disturbances and to the system eigenparameters varying greatly with the working conditions and surroundings , a computer control method is firstly designed , which is named as grey generalized prediction control method (GGPC), by combining the research of grey system theory with generalized prediction control theory .Main work includes :a single-step GGPC method about single-input single-output system is put forward , and the simulation experiment is done under the Matlab environment .Effectiveness of the GGPC model and its power are demonstrated well .The simulation results show that this new control method has very strong robustness and adaptability as well as good resistant disturbances and satisfied performances .It is useful for the real-time control of the poor information and uncertain system .
Chemical control of aphids damaged on Phyllostachys praecox and Phyllostachys prominens
HU Guo-liang, YU Cai-zhu, LOU Jun-fang, CHEN Xiao-zhong, WU Ji-lai
2001, 18(4): 416-419.
[Abstract](1170) [PDF](194)
Chemical control of aphid was made inPhyllostrachys praecox and Ph .prominens groves which produce bamboo shoots used as vegetable in Linan City of Zhejiang Province from 1998 to 1999 .The results showed thatMelanaphis bambusae , Takecallis takahashii , Metamacropodaphis bambusisucta and Takecallis taiwanus could be commanded by spraying bamboo crowns with 1 000 ~ 2 000-fold solution of fenvalerate 20EC or cyhalothrin 2.5EC , resulting in more than 94 % of the aphids being killed , by smoking with stock solution of fenvalerate 20EC or cyhalothrin 2.5EC , resulting in more than 97 %of the aphids being killed .Spraying bamboo crown or smoking in the groves during the aphids emerges is not only convenient in performance but also rational in economy .
A review of investigation on wild flowers plasmgerm resources in China
LIN Xia-zhen, ZHAO Jian-qiang
2001, 18(4): 441-444.
[Abstract](1169) [PDF](378)
Investigation achievements of districts and special types on wild flowers plasmgerms resources in China between 1980 to 2000 were summarized .The variety , distribution , growing environment and ornamental character of wild flowers were investigated and researched in Shanxi , Zhejiang , Anhui , Yunnan , Sichuang and Xinjiang . The investigations of special types was concentrated on Orchidaceae , high mountain flowers , Liliaceae , ornamenttal pteridophyte , ornamental plants in water and wild trees for enjoying sight of fruits .Last , the direction of the future scientific research and the problem of wild flowers investigation were also analyzed .
Progress in the response of net primary productivity of terrestrial vegetations to global climate changes
2001, 18(4): 445-449.
[Abstract](1131) [PDF](180)
Annual net primary productivity (NPP)of terrestrial vegetation is the net amount of carbon-fixed by plants through photosynthesis in one year .As a sensitive index to environmental factors , NPP of terrestrial vegetation and its relationships with environmental factors have been paid much attention during the past years due to rising CO2 concentration and global climate change .Studies on NPP are reviewed in this paper , especially on the principals , methods , characteristics and results of GLO-PEM and NASA-CASA , which have been to be two major models .Finally , The NPP research in China are also introduced in the paper .
Scientific notes
Measures for promoting the survival rate of transplanting big trees
ZHONG Tai-lin, YU Jian-jun, SHI Bai-lin, WANG Zheng-jia
2001, 18(4): 438-440.
[Abstract](1102) [PDF](213)
Transplantation of big trees (DBH 10 cm)is widely used in modern landscape gardening .The key point of survival is that moisture content and metabolism of nutrition should be kept balance .Ninety-eight trees have been transplanted nearby by using some techniques .And the results show that soft-material wrapping and the use of ABT-1# and ABT-3# growth regulators can help trees recover from the damage in transplantation and conservation , maintaining the balance of moisture and nutrition metabolism .Thus the survival rate can bet up to 90.8 %.