1998 Vol. 15, No. 4
As a non-marketable goods , formation of forest managerial externalities (FME)have plural specificity :uncontrollable , hard to measure , and noticeable .For major sake of value compensation of forest management , problems of internalization of FME are posed .After patterns of mergence and levyfee for compensation in internalization of FME are discussed ;favorable factor in the former pattern and essence of the latter one are pointed out ;and the primary eriterias testing whether internalization are efficient should be Pareto efficient or Pareto inefficient , transaction cost and organization cost are put forward. .
According to the principles of economics and marketing , this paper takes a qualitative and quantitative analysis to the major factors that affected market demand and supply of bamboo shoot products in Lin'an , Zhejiang Province .And by Box-Jenkins method and regression analysis , the prediction of the yield , the average price and the calculation of market capacity in following years are given .The yield and average price have a growth trend , and as a whole the demand will be still larger than the supply .
The half-matured cuttings of Ginkgo biloba were treated by four methods :T1 dipping the cutting base in 100 mgL-1 solution of ABT-1 rooting powder for 1 hour , and then inserting them into a stereo-device for rooting ;T2 dipping the cutting base in water for 1 hour and then inserting them into a stereo-device for rooting ;T3 after the similar ABT-1 treatment inserting the cuttings into a rooting bed ;T4 after the similar water treatment inserting the cuttings into a rooting bed .The rooting medium was composed of vermiculite and perlite in a 1∶1 ratio .A complete randomized block design was used for experiment .The results showed that the T1 treatment was the best one among others , with 73.00 % of the first year 's survival , 56.00 %of the first year 's stocking , and 89.00 % of the second year 's transplant survival which equals 17 , 29 and 2 times , respectively , that of T4 treatment .The plant density in T1 was 10 times that in T4 .In the second year the growth and biomass of roots , stems and leaves in T1 treatment were significantly larger than those in T4 .The estimates of physiological and biochemical features similarly indicated higher chlorophyll content , endogenous IAA , GA 1/ 3 and iPA contents in T1 than others , but lower ABA content in the former than the latters .It was concluded that ABT treatment plus stereodevice for rooting could greatly promote the effectiveness of ginkgo cutting propagation by regulating the physiological and biochemical mechanisms inside of plants and cultivate much more superior stocks .
There tests were conducted on 40 loblolly-pine provenances in 1982 , 1983 and 1984 respectively.The results demonstrated an obvious variation in tree height , DBH , volume , stem form-factors and survival rate of plantation among different provenances , which resulted mainly from the differences in latitudes and caloricity .Increment of provenances had a heritability of medium degree .A close relation was found existing between 3 characters of increment , but not between increment characters and stem form-factors .Increment in height and DBH of 3 to 5-year-old trees was correlated to those aged over 3 ～5 , which indicated the selection of those 5 years old might be more reliable .Nine fine provenances were selected , with genetic gain ranging between 3.05 % and 20.39 %.
Growth features , growth processes and biomass components of 16-year-old Fokienia hodginsii plantation were analysed , which was previously planted under the canopy of the 17-year-old heavily-thinned Sassafras tsumu forest .The average height and DBH of Fokienia hodginsii in the mixed forest are 2.08 m and 1.50 cm greater than that in the pure forest , respectively .The biomass of Fokienia hodginsii in the mixed forest is 113.692 thm-2 , which is 13.913 thm-2 greater than that (99.779 thm-2)in the pure forest .The total and average increment for DBH , average increment for height , and total volume increment of Fokienia hodginsii in the mixed forest are 0.97 cm , 0.06 cm ,0.1362 m and 0.028 67 m3 greater than those in the pure forest , respectively .Growth processes for height and volume comform to Logistic curves with significant regression correlation.
By suitable processing techniques , it is completely feasible that the spring shoots are processed into a series of products packed in plastic containers , such as sliced shoots in plastic bags , sliced shoots in sweet and sour sauce , sliced shoots in vinegar-pepper sauce and candied shoots .The storage duration of the products can reach more than 6 months.
The instability of wood floors refers to swelling , cracking and paint chapping of their physical shapes .The problem lies mainly in processing technique as well as moisture absorbing caused by improper installation .Something should be done in both processing technique and installation to increase the stability of the physical shapes of wood floors.
Antibacterial matter was induced from 5 instar larvae of Dendrolimus punctatus by injecting Bacillus thuringiensis into their body .The kinetics , activity and specificity of antibacterial matter were reported .The results showed that injection was able to induce antibacterial matter from the larvae of Dendrolimus punctatus and the activity peak value appeared at 42 h after treatment .After 60 h and at the dilution of 100 times , the activity of antibacterial matter in haemolymph is 1.42 10-9 mols-1 .The antibacterial matter could also have restriction effect on the growth of Bacillus thuringiensis ,Escherichia coli , Staphlococcus aureus ,Flexneris beaillus.
Via investigation into 163 sample plots, together with line and supplementary investigations ,7 species and 2 varieties of orchids are found in Longquan City 's flora .Among them , one species is recorded first time in Zhejiang Province .The distribution of orchids are related to such natural factors as elevation , landscape , climate , soil and flora itself .More orchids find their exstence on steep slopes ,middle and upper slopes and slopes facing west .Orchids love suitable luminosity and high air moisture , and grow well in loamy and granule soil containing acid and high humus in areas with easy water drainage.The growth of orchids has nothing to do with the arbores high above , but is influenced by shrubs growing in acid soil .Longquan has an orchid resource of 25.928 million bunches.Advice concerning protection of orchid resources is recommended .
The paper reports 93 families,308 genera and 820 species(including subspecies,varieties,forms and culti-species) of woody plants in Wuying County,Zhejiang.Among them ,gymnosperms are 8 families,24 genera and 47 species,angiosperms 85 families,284 genera and 773 species,wild plants 83 families ,254 genera and 656 species ,and cultivated plants 10 families ,54 genera and 164 species.
Classifies wild woody plant resources of Wuyi County , gives some principles of protection and exploitation in view of outstanding issues , and advances specific proposals .
Wuyi County is located in the center of Zhejiang Province .There are 83 families , 254 genera and 656 species (including subspecies , varieties and forms)of wild woody plants in Wuyi , which is one of the richest in woody plants of Zhejiang .This flora belongs to East China flora , with many rare and endemic trees .Its geographical elements are very complex and different from the northern parts of flora South China but not apparent .It has close relations to the floristic elements from south to north in China , and is an open flora .
According to ornamental organs , garden uses , growth habits and taxonomy , 318 species and varieties of wild ornamental trees are divided into 7 types :watch flower trees (101 species), watch fruit trees (77 species), watch feature trees (36 species), watch leave trees (33 species), dish garden trees (14 species), climber trees (52 species), and ornamental bamboos (5 species).Their ornamental characteristics garden uses and propagation methods are enumerated .Their colors of flowers and fruits and stages of flowering and fruiting are analysed .The suggestions of developing and utilizing major species are given .
This paper reports 123 species (including subspecies , varieties and forms)of wild fruit trees in Wuyi County of Zhejiang Province , which belong to 25 families and 45 genera .According to the olassification of fruit culture , they are divided into 5 categories :berry fruits (66 species), stone fruits (20 species), nut fruits (16 species), kernel fruits (12 species), and polygynaecial fruits (9 species). Each category is described in a unit of species according to Chinese name , fructescence and utilization value of every fruit tree .Some proposals about how to utilize and exploit the wild fruit tree resources are given .
This paper reports one subspecies , two varieties and one form .Among them , one subspecies Alangium chinese (Lour .)Harms ssp .strigosum Fang and two varieties Indigofera parkesii Craib var .polyphylla Y .Y.Fang et C .Z .Zheng , Rhamnus utilis Decne var .hypochrysa (Schneid .) Rehd.are considered to be new record in Zhejiang , and one form Millettia reticulata Benth .form albiflora Y .Q .Zhu et G .L .Zheng form .nov .is newly published .
Wuyi County has 17 species of rare trees, in which 7 species are classified as rare trees of national level , 10 species as provincial level, and 2 species , i .e .Buckleya lanceolata Miq .and Lindera megaphy Hemsl , are recorded first time in Wuyi .This paper gives a dicussion on the distribution, present situation and protective values of rare trees in the county , and puts forward some proposals concerning rare tree protection .
There are 1 454 ancient and famous trees inWuyi County , belonging to 25 families , 38 genera and 43 species , of which the oldest has an age of 1 200 and the biggest diameter reaches 270 cm .This paper puts forward some proposals for the protection of the ancient and famous trees .
There are 75 families , 201 genera and 380 species of wild woody Chinese medicinal herbs in Wuyi County.According tomedicinal function , they are divided into 19 categories .Medicinal organ , collecting date , processing method and medicinal function of main Chinese medicinal herbs are described .In the end , some suggestions how to develop and utilize them are given .
With the data from Database of Chinese Science and Technology(1989 ～ 1996), the number, the source , the distribution and the active authors of bird documents in Chinawere analysed by the method of document measurements .From which some regularity about the distribution of bird documents in China were found , and the present domestic situation of bird research were revealed from one aspect .