1999 Vol. 16, No. 3

Double fertilization and seed formation of Calycanthus chinensis
HUANG Jian-qin, HE Xiao-chun, JIN Shui-hu, ZHU Xiang-dong, WU Zheng-huang
1999, 16(3): 219-223.
[Abstract](1333) [PDF](184)
Double fertilization and seed formation of Calycanthus chinensis Cheng et S .Y .Chang were observed .It was showed that pollen tube got to embryo sac from micropylar in 8 days after the pollination .Double fertilization occurred in 10 ~ 13 days .Primary endosperm nucleus took a short dormant undergo free nuclear division .In about 18 days , the one-lined endosperm became cellular , belonging to a nuclear type .And zygote began to divide after one week dormant , and embryogenesis merges in to an oragrad type .Heart-shaped embryo developed in 39 days , then two pieces of cotyledon grew in one direct to surround the endosperm .With development of embryo , nucellus and inner integument were consumed .Endosperm differed in shape :the cells of which connected to embryo was much smaller , higher cytoplasm and the cells in central part showed much larger , extended in vertical direct , the cells in chalazal also differed in shape .This structure showed passage by which nutrition absorbed by endosperm cells in chalazal was transported to embryo .There was a specific structure in endosperm development .We called it whole endosperm haustorium .
Photosynthesis and respiration of Pinus massoniana in east mid-subtropical zone
HUANG Cheng-cai, GE Ying, CHANG Jie
1999, 16(3): 224-227.
[Abstract](762) [PDF](162)
The relations among photosynthetic rate , respirational rate and environment factors of Pinus massoniana in east mid-subtropical zone of China were studied with infrared gas analytical apparatus . The results showed that the polycorrelations of photosynthetic rate of the leaves (Pn), light and air temperature were extremely significant , and the regressive formula could be used as the model to estimate the photosynthetic rate .Meanwhile , the corrlations of the daily Pn and the mean air temperature , the respirational rate and the air temperature wer so significant that both the regressive formulas could be used to estimate the yearly Pn and the respirational rate of leaves respectively .The results based on these models of net Pn and respiration (CO2) of P .massoniana were 2.11 104mgdm-2a-1 and 2.38 104mgdm-2a-1 .
Seed dormancy and germination of Sinojackia xylocarpa
SHI Xiao-hua, LI Nian-lin, JIN Ling, ZHU Qiugui, XU Ben-mei
1999, 16(3): 228-233.
[Abstract](1188) [PDF](256)
Basic properties of Sinojackia xylocarpa seed were determined and experiments with acid erosion , chemical treatment and low temperature were carried out in order to search out dormancy and germination nature of the seed .The results showed that weight of the seed coat , which has a good water permeability , occupied 88 % to 94 % of the total seed .The germination rate could reach at 40.06 % after the seeds had been treated with sulphuric acid for two days , and with 500 mgL-1 GA3 , then stratified outdoor at low temperature for a winter , but the control seeds could not germinate .Seed dormancy of Sinojackia xylocarpa is due to not only the poor air permeability and the mechnical restraint of the seed coat but the process that its embryo needs a period of time for post ripening as well .So , it belongs to a type of comprehensive dormancy .
Growth variance and character analysis of Cinnamomum camphora seedling from different provenances
SHEN Yin-xiang, YAO Xiao-hua, REN Hua-dong, HU Wei-liang, ZHANG Jian-zhong
1999, 16(3): 234-237.
[Abstract](1127) [PDF](170)
In the seedling nursery , 8 characters of 10 Cinnamomum camphora provenances were observed .These provenanoes represented 60 ones tested .The observation data were studied by variance analysis , relationship analysis and progressive analysis .The results showed that there were significant differences for different characters among provenances ;there was extreme significant relationship among 7 characters , including seedling height and ground diameter ;and the ground diameterwas a leading factor which has the tightest relationship with total biomass at seedling stage .
Biological characteristics of Phyllostachys heteroclada
JIN Ai-wu, SHAO Xiao-gen, QIU Yong-hua, ZHANG Fa-gen
1999, 16(3): 238-241.
[Abstract](994) [PDF](207)
Two-year studies on growth characters of Phyllostachys heteroclada in Baimashan Forest Farm of Suichang , Zhejiang Province , suggest that bamboo shoots emerge from the second ten days of April to the second ten days of June , falling mainly on 3 ~ 30May .In order to increase individual shoot weight , fertilizer and water management is necessary , especially in the later stage of shoot emergence .New bamboo culture should be done in the peak stage of shoot emergence , with 4 000 ~ 5 000 new bamboos per hectare .The density of twety-thousand bamboos per hectare are suitable for a high production grove .
Stand characteristerics of evergreen broad-leaved forest with Schima superba in Hangzhou
YU Yi-wu, JIANG Zhi-biao, HU Yong-xu
1999, 16(3): 242-246.
[Abstract](971) [PDF](207)
By long-term sample plot method , non-plot sampling and stem analysis , this paper illustrates the structure of evergreen broad-leaved forest with Schima superba aged 30 in Hangzhou .The community has full-developed special structure, including tree stratum No.1 and No.2, succession layer and regeneration layer, and shows relative stability in tree species composition. But dominant tree species indicate obpyramidal age structure, could be replaced by other tree species. Diameter distribution of tree stratum reveals truncated normal distribution. Schima superba tree height with different classes approximates the same, and is similar to even-aged forest. Height growth is the fastest at 8 ~ 12 years old. DBH growth and volume growth dont attain peak value in 30 years old Schima superba.
Microclimates of Eucalyptus exserta shelter-forests
HUANG Cheng-biao, LIANG Hong-wen, WEN Yuan-guang, HE Li-you
1999, 16(3): 247-251.
[Abstract](1220) [PDF](252)
The meteorological factors inside two different ages of Eucalyptus exserta shelter-forests and in open area were contrasted at fixed positions in Shankou Forest Farm in the north torrid zone , Guangxi . The results showed that the mean daily gross energy of solar radiation inside 1.5-year-old stand and 4.5-year-old stand was 2.46 103 kJm-2 and 2.02 103 kJm-2 respectively , which were 54.7 % and 62.8 % lower than that in open area (5.43 103 kJm-2)respectively .Mean air temperature was 0.2 ℃ and 0.7 ℃ lower respectively , mean temperature of 0 ~ 20 cm soil layer 1.3 ℃ and 1.8 ℃ lower respectively , mean air relative humidity 1 % and 3 % higher respectively and mean wind speed (4.5-year-old stand)82.4 % lower than that in open area .
Studies on pesticide resistance of Panonychus cotri
HUANG Guo-yang, XU Zhan-hua, FANG Zhi-gang
1999, 16(3): 252-259.
[Abstract](1210) [PDF](173)
In order to timely understand the resistance of Panonychus cotri , guide chemical control and guarantee the economic benefit of the citrus gardens , the toxicity of 9 pesticides for this insect in Zhejiang was measured by means of slide maceration recommended by FAO of the United Nations . Results obtained show thatPanonychus cotri on citrus has created resistance to a number of pesticides to various extents .Isocarbothos was most highly resisted by the pest inHangbu of Quxian County ;Dicofol , amitraz , fenpropathrin and fentyroximate applied in Hangbu of Quxian , pyridaben applied in Huangyan City , isocarbothos applied in Xifangwu , Shangyutou and Xikou of Longyou County , and fenpropathrin applied in Xifangwu and Shangyutou of Longyou were highly resisted ;Isocarbothos used in Huangyan , dicofol used in Xifangwu , Shangyutou and Xikou of Longyou , amitraz used in Xifangwu and Xikou of Longyou , omethoate used in Hangbu of Quxian , and fenpropathrin used in Xikou of Longyou were also resisted ;Amitraz adopted in Huangyan , omethoate adopted in Xifangwu and Xikou of Longyou , cyhalothrin adopted in Hangbu of Quxian , pyridaben adopted in Xifangwu of Longyou , and hexythiazox adopted in Hangbu of Quxian were lowly resisted ;Dicofol applied in Huangyan , and cyhalothrin and fentyroximate applied in Xifangwu of Longyou were highly tolerated by the pest , but the pest was sensitive to cyhalothrin applied in Xikou of Longyou , hexythiazox applied in Xifangwu of Longyou and pyridaben applied in Hangbu of Quxian .Studies also show that its easy forPanonychus cotri to develop resistance to such pesticides as pyrethroid and the pest and pesticides have inter-resistance .The resistance to dicofol develops slowly and sensitivity resumes quickly .The resistance to such pesticides of heterocycle as fentyroximate and pyridaben either easily forms but disappears slowly .The strategies in resistance management of Panonychus cotri is suggested finally .
Investigation and analysis on litter and soil under natural secondary forests in Qiandaohu Lake area
JIANG Pei-kun, QIAN Xin-biao, YU Shu-quan, LI Sheng-rong, JIANG Wei-rui, JIANG Li-yuan
1999, 16(3): 260-264.
[Abstract](922) [PDF](247)
Investigation of tree structure and test of soil samples were conducted by means of sample plot method in three forest farms in Qiandaohu Lake area in spring 1998 , in order to understand accumulation of litter and soil basic situation .The results showed that nutrient elements contained in litter were different either in total amount or in content , and the order was N , Ca , K , Mg , Mn , P , Zn .The total amount was 67.03 kghm-2 , 52.64 kghm-2 , 23.28 kghm-2 , 12.10 kghm-2 , 3.57 kghm-2 , 3.01 kg hm-2 , 0.19 kg hm-2 , respectively .Soil nutrient content of three forest farms appeared apparent difference , owing to different sites and structure of seccndary forests .As to individual farm soil nutrient level was better under hardwood forest than under mixed forest or pure Pinus massoniana forest .
Effects of different fertilizing treatments on leaf-used Ginkgo biloba
KANG Zhi-xiong, CHEN Shun-wei, JIN Min-zan, XU Yi-qiang, WANG Xia-jian, ZHU Zhi-ming, ZHANG Nu-zhong
1999, 16(3): 265-269.
[Abstract](1252) [PDF](174)
The effects of defferent fertilizing measurements , different fertilizers and their amounts and proportions on Ginkgo biloba were studied in 1996 ~ 1997 .The results showed that spraying 3.0 gL-1 Leffingwell-2 and mixture of urea with potassium dihydrogen phosphate could increase leaf weight of single tree by 22.28 %~ 37.78 % and 20.33 %~ 24.44 % respectively .During seedling , base manure of 75.0 thm-2 could increase leaf weight by 92.07 %, compared with that of 37.5 thm-2 .Fertilization of 27.7 gm-2 urea , 35.4 gm-2 superphosphate and 11.1 gm-2 potassium shloride increased leaf weight by 12.02 %.
New management type of Phyllostachys pubescens forest
YUAN Ya-ping, XIAO Jiang-hua, CHEN Han-lin, ZHU Wen-sheng
1999, 16(3): 270-273.
[Abstract](1198) [PDF](208)
A new management type of Phyllostachys pubescens forest was researched in Quxian County of Zhejiang Province in 1992 ~ 1998 , in which cutting of tender bamboo wood to produce papermaking raw material was brought into production management of bamboo grove .This way , the main products such as bamboo shoot , tender bamboo wood and adult bamboo wood could be achieved in the same bamboo grove , and the rational use of resource was effectively promoted .The new management type was more forceful in market competion than the shoot-wood two-use bamboo grove .It is called three-use bamboo grove .
Appropriate management densities and cultivation patterns of slash pine forests for paper-pulp and resin
DONG Jian-wen, TU Yu-he, FAN Hui-hua, ZHANG Xing-zheng
1999, 16(3): 274-278.
[Abstract](888) [PDF](187)
The slash pine forest stands with different densities in mountainous region of the middle part of Fijian were studied .The results showed that the rapid growth period of slash pine was early .It was not only a good tree species to be cultivated for paper-pulp wood of short cutting period but also a fine tree species for resin .When the overlapping coefficient of crowns of paper-pulp forest stands was 1.071 5 , the stand could reach a bigger stock and the single tree could fully grow for resin .The maximum management density of the stands for paper-pulp and resin was cal-culated out by the growth model .Four cultivation patterns of slash pine forests for paper-pulp and resin were defined according to the cultivation arms of short cutting period .The forest stands of four different patterns had a series of gross stocks of 210.61 m3hm-2 , 235.10 m3hm-2 , 242.68 m3hm-2 and 273.24 m3hm-2 and their resin could be collected for ten years .The conclusion could be referred for forestry production .
Phase-varied growth model technique and its applications in subcompartment data updating
XIANG Xiao-qiang, WANG Jin-zhi, ZHA Yin-shui, LI Yue-qing
1999, 16(3): 279-282.
[Abstract](1254) [PDF](224)
Subcompartment data updating is required in local forest resource monitoring , and the prerequisits of its realization are to build up both dynamic database and data updating models for the subcompartments .This paper stresses on the latter in which the modelling of real forest stands is dealt with and a great amount of partial cutting took place among them .Based on little variation adjustment , a phase-varied growth model technique is presented .And through its use , annually accumulated and magnified errors is removed and the reliability of subcomparment data updating is improved .
Reformation of old tea plantation through grafting
LUO Yao-ping, QIAN Li-sheng, WU Shan, XU Hai-rong, TU You-ying, TONG Ting-wei, ZHANG You-jun
1999, 16(3): 283-286.
[Abstract](1515) [PDF](185)
The results of the study on rejuvenating the old seed tea by grafting with some high yield and good quality clones were those :1 .Instead of binding , earthing up the stitch was much easier and could improve the survival rate ;to bind with plastic film demands higher skills but need not special water delivery and shade , it could promote the young shoot growth early and be used in the drought place .2 . According to the climate in Hangzhou , the optimal time for grafting was the period from the last ten days of May to September , but the higher temperature and drought in July and August would bring about some negative effects on the survival rate .3 .The scion using the huge root system of the stock could ear fast . When the bud sprouts , the average growth was about 1 cmd-1 .Grafting 4 kind unions on May 20 , it could be grown to 50 cm on October 30 .4 .The affinity between the stock and scion from the different tea jat and clone was good , The survival rates of the 4 graft unions , Longjing 43/Jiukeng , Wuniuzhao/Jiukeng , Zhenong 113/Jiukeng , and Shuixian/Jiukeng (scion/stock), were all above 85 %.We can spread the grafting technique to the reformation of old tea garden and get high survival rate .
Surface treatment with chemical agents for veneered plywood of Fraxinus mandshurica
FU Sheng-yuan, ZHANG Xin-qin, YU Hong-wei, WANG Qian-ping, HE Ya-juan
1999, 16(3): 287-292.
[Abstract](1054) [PDF](173)
Veneered plywood of Fraxinus mandshurica was treated with H2O2 etc .as surface treatment agent of wood .The results of continual roller tests indicated that appearance of majority of tested veneered plywood was obviously improved , and was far beyong the national standard of decorative board . The property of veneered plywood not affected by treatment , and accorded with the relevand national standards in paint security .Treatment cost was only 0.10 ~ 0.30 yuan RMB per veneered plywood .
A further study on effects of electric field on poplar wood-bonding
QIAN Jun, JIN Yong-ming, ZHANG Wen-biao
1999, 16(3): 293-296.
[Abstract](923) [PDF](188)
Based on the orthogonal tests of PVAc bonding to poplar veneers with the electric field , the influence of the electric potential differences of backing plates andmoisture contents of veneer on adhesive strength was explored .The results showed that moisture content of veneer , the electric potential difference of backing plates and the interaction of them all had significantly effects on adhesive strength . Within test ranges , better adhesive strengthes could be obtained under 30 V of electric potential difference and 7.0 %~ 9.0 % of moisture content of veneer .
Effects of glass transition temperature on properties of laminated boards
1999, 16(3): 297-302.
[Abstract](1287) [PDF](158)
It is great important in theory and practical production to research effects of glass transition temperature (tg) on laminated boards .At different tg , thermal expansion , heat resistance , flexure strength of liminated boavds were compared .The results showed that mechanical and electronic features of liminated boards were greatly improved as tg arise .
Ways to name garden and landscape and their cultural meanings
JIN He-xian, HUA Hai-Jing, ZHOU Mu-zhen, WANG Zi-li, ZHU Yun-you
1999, 16(3): 303-307.
[Abstract](1385) [PDF](170)
Garden name and landscape name belong to important parts of humane landscape .The garden names and landscape names keeping in existence today are the crystallization of excellent traditional culture .The study shows that there are two systems of naming garden and landscape , namely concretion and imagination , both of which display a deep cultural connotation .Choosing the names should abide by the rules of combining terseness with message .
On smallest positive eigenvalues of a kind of tree
XU Guang-hui
1999, 16(3): 308-310.
[Abstract](1050) [PDF](145)
Let Kq1, q be a tree on 2q +1 vertices from K1, q by joining a new end-vertex to each vertex with degree one of K1, q .In this paper , the following results are obtained :if T is a tree on 2q +1 vertices with the edge independence number q , when q 2 , q (T)q (Kq1, q), and the equality holds if and only if T Kq1, q , q (Kq1, q)=1 .Furthermore , a similar conjecture is given for the tree on n vertices with edge independence number q .
Scientific notes
Reasons for swellings on rinds of Castanea mollisima
ZHANG Min, ZHANG Rong-feng, HU Guo-liang, YU Cai-zhu, LI Wen-biao, MA Liang-jin
1999, 16(3): 311-314.
[Abstract](1127) [PDF](181)
Swellings on trunks and branches commonly occur in spring and seriously harm growth of grafting plants of Chinese chestnut .Some field investigations and the tests of pathogene culture and inoculation about swellings on rinds of Castanea mollissima indicate that the symptom is caused by poor drainage in forest lands , poor coalescence graft unions and damage of Scolytus which occured most frequently among the three .
Chinese chestnut :patch hardwood grafting in summer
LI Jian-qing, LIAO Nian-mei, CHEN Jian-man, KE Bang-tong, ZHU Wei-fen
1999, 16(3): 315-317.
[Abstract](1093) [PDF](142)
Chinese chestnut seeds were sowed for breeding stocks in January to February .During May to July , patch hardwood grafting was taken when the ground diameter of stock reached over 0.4 cm and the diameter of grafting location (above ground 5.0 cm)growed over 0.3 cm.The results in November indicated that percentage grafting success was over 85 %, and ground diameter of grafted seedling stabilized over 0.6 cm .Seedling height related to variety and grafting season .Long branch varieties , e . g .Kuili , could be grafted before 20 , July , and short branch varieties , e .g .Duancimaobanhong , should be grafted before 20 , June .The average current increament in height of grafted seedling reached 71.8 cm .For this , sowing , grafting and planting for Chinese chestnut could be made in the same year .
No-tillage seedling of Cunninghamia lanceolata
JIANG Zhi-biao, XU Yi-xin, JIN Zheng-fa, SHAO Xiao-ping, HU Xiao-ming
1999, 16(3): 318-321.
[Abstract](962) [PDF](170)
In the first ten days of November , the elite seeds of Cunninghamia lanceolata were sowed in the rice field which fitting seedling .The rise field after just harvesting was not plowed , but the seedbeds must be made carefully , and ground fertilizer must be applied with urea 375 kghm-2 and compound fertilizer 375 ~ 750 kg hm-2 .The seedbed was 1.40 ~ 1.60 m in width , and the path (drainage ditch)between seedbeds was 0.20 ~ 0.25 m in width , with 0.30 m in depth .This no-tillage seedling was more graet value than traditional seedling :workday saved by 81.0 labours per hectare , cost saved by 1 620.00 yuan per hectare , utilization percent of land raised by 6.0 %, drought resistance of soil increased by 1.0 time , standard nursery stock augmented by 37.5 ten thousand plants per hectare , grade Ⅰ nursery stock and grade Ⅱ nursery stock increased by 10.8 % and 26.8 % respectively , and grade Ⅲ nursery stock and cull nursery stock decreased by 11.1 % and 28.3 % respectively .No-tillage seedling could obviously heighten quality of nursery stock .
Overall design of campus landscaping for Zhejiang University of Technology
JIANG Ying-xian
1999, 16(3): 322-326.
[Abstract](1242) [PDF](222)
This article discusses the overall design of campus landscaping and the structural elements of campus green culture for Zhejiang University of Technology .The design of campus landscaping should de realistic , and fully regard natural environment , institution character , cultural background of campus , teachers and studentspsychological characteristics , functional claim and expenditure etc .Many storied green space with distinct era features and unique artistic styles can meet the neeeds of teachers and students in study , communication , entertainment , athletics and moulding a persons temperamant . Campus landscapling should be regardes as an important part of campus culture construction with the aim of educating the students by environment .
Eco-village construction and sustainable agricultural development in mountain areas
QIAN Wen-rong, CHEN Jian-xiu
1999, 16(3): 327-330.
[Abstract](1200) [PDF](224)
Some positive studies on two eco-villages in Zhejiang Province indicate that the key to success in eco-village construction is that relationship between eco-benefit and economic benefit is handled correctly .For this , it proposes the following measures :innovation in eco-technique with high-efficient , free enterprise of eco-agriculture , and constructing agriculture by industry , etc .