2006 Vol. 23, No. 1

Definite forest rights in collective forest area , south China
XU Xiu-ying, YIN Run-fu, WANG Zheng-rong
2006, 23(1): 1-6.
[Abstract](1150) [PDF](279)
Collective forest area in south China is an important forest area in China .However , indefinite forest rights have always been a main factor restricting the sustainable forestry development in south China .Based on the expatiation on the basic requirements for definite forest rights , the paper analyzes the problems of indefinite forest rights existed in the collective forest area in south China and puts forward the following contents of definite forest rights :(1)Reforming the connotations of forest rights and adding new rights .(2)Defining the subjects of the forest ownership and improving the relation between clients and agencies .(3)Defining the subjects of forest use rights .(4)Reasonably allocating various forest rights and defining the rights and obligations of the owners and users of collective forest .[ Ch , 1 fig .12 ref .]
Construction of evaluation indicators system for informatization of forestry industrial enterprises
YANG Xue-yan, PENG Li-fang
2006, 23(1): 7-12.
[Abstract](1629) [PDF](305)
The evaluation of informatization of enterprises effectively promotes the informatization of forestry industrial enterprises .Its necessary to establish an integrated evaluation system to evaluate and guide the informatization of forestry industrial enterprises .On the basis of the defining the indicators system , the evaluation indicators system of forestry industrial enterprises should include five primary-level indicators , namely , application environment , informatization resources , informatization projects and running level , informatization benefits and implementation results , informatization suitability .Finally , some primary applications of the indicators system in the forestry industrial enterprises were introduced. [ Ch , 1 tab .7 ref .]
SWOT analysis-based management strategy of National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmu
WU Wei-guang, ZHAO Ming-shui, LIU Wei, ZOU Zu-xing, GU Lei
2006, 23(1): 13-18.
[Abstract](1435) [PDF](293)
After the interviews with 12 groups of stakeholders such as the Management Office of National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmu , West Tianmu Township Government , the representatives of villagers in the neighborhood communities and etc ., questionnaire surveys of 104 farm households and 59 public persons , the strengths and weakness , opportunities and threats (SWOT)in the conservation of National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmu were put forward on the basis of SWOT analysis .The strengths and opportunities include (1)implementation of sustainable development strategy at the state level ;(2)local ecotourism development ;(3)industry structure based on non-wood resource utilization ;(4)local residentsgood sense of environment protection ;(5)establishment of co-management model in the communities .The weakness and threats include (1)incomplete benefits compensation system for local residents ;(2)incomplete mechanism of sharing benefits between the Nature Reserve and the local communities;(3)incomplete community co-management system;(4)backward overall planning of the Nature Reserve ;(5)degradation of nature resources and ecosystem .Finally , a partnership mechanism of sharing benefits between the Nature Reserve and the neighborhood communities was put forward .[ Ch , 4 tab .8 ref .]
Changes of physiological characteristics of eight Alnus cremastogyne clones under salt stress
WANG Shu-feng, CHEN Yi-tai, PAN Hong-wei, WU Tian-lin
2006, 23(1): 19-23.
[Abstract](1177) [PDF](261)
Eight Alnus cremastogyne clones , which simulated with different concentration of sodium chloride , were measured with four physiological indexes , including SOD activity , MDA content , chlorophyll content and soluble proteins content .The results showed that there were obvious differences of salt tolerance in eight Alnus cremastogyne clones because of the different concentrations of sodium chloride and their genetic characteristics .When the concentration of sodium chloride in soil remained 2 gkg-1 , the order of salt tolerance of eight clones was X42 , S17 , M19 , D5 , N22 , D10 , A6 and A1 .When the concentration came to 4 gkg-1 , M19 and S17 became most tolerant to salt stress and A6 was extremely sensitive to salt stress .When the concentration was 6 gkg-1 , most tolerant clones were M19 , S17 and D5 clones , A6 was still the last one .Through the analyze of the physiological indexes and growth phenology , M19 and D5 were more tolerant to salt stress among the eight clones .[ Ch , 2 tab .13 ref .]
Effects of straw mulch cultivation on growth and photosynthesis of Cerasus avium
WANG Qi-rui, TAN Xiao-feng, ZHANG Lin
2006, 23(1): 24-28.
[Abstract](1148) [PDF](213)
Straw mulch trial was conducted with 6-year-old cultivars Cerasus avium 'Hongdeng' in sweet cherry orchard.As a control , bare soil was reciprocally arranged with covered region for three times in 0.033-hectare testing plots .The results showed that straw mulching could predate vigorous growth of vegetative shoot of cherry . Compared with control , the length , diameter , 100-leave weight , and dimension per leaf of vegetative shoot were increased by 20.4 %, 30.2 %, 20.5 % and 5.3 %, respectively .There had been 35.8 % and 54.7 % increase in the content of chlorophyll and photosynthetic rate .Straw mulching could significantly increase contents of N , K , Ca , and decrease contents of Fe , Mg , Mn in cherry tree .Furthermore , straw mulching increased number of roots , and raised root position .[ Ch , 2 fig .4 tab .16 ref .]
Diurnal variation and effective factors of photosynthesis on the canopy layer of young Pinus elliottii forest
GONG Wei, GONG Yuan-bo, HU Ting-xing, CHEN Lin-wu, ZHANG Fa-hui, WANG Jing-yan, ZHU Zhi-fang
2006, 23(1): 29-34.
[Abstract](1106) [PDF](281)
Diurnal variation of photosynthesis , leaf temperature , air temperature , relative humidity , light intensity and CO2 concentration on the canopy layer of young Pinus elliottii forest in the low hilly area of northern Sichuan basin and their chlorophyll content of leaf were measured .The results showed that the net photosynthesis rate of 1-year-old leaf and 0-year-old leaf increased with the enhanced light intensity ;the phenomenon of midday depression of photosynthetic rate wasn't found .The leaf temperature was lower than air temperature all the time except between 12 :00 -14 :00 .The variation regularity of stomatal conductance and transpiration rate was similar , their max value both emerged at 14 :00 .The diurnal variation of air relative humidity was in a U curve .The CO2 concentration was gradually decreased from 8 :00 to 16 :00 , and it started to increase at 18 :00 .The net photosynthesis rate of 1-year-old leaf was always lower than that of 0-year-old leaf , however , chlorophyll content of the former was higher than the latter .Through the correlation analysis , we found the main factors causing the diurnal variation of photosynthesis included leaf temperature , air relative humidity , light intensity and stomatal conductance .[ Ch , 3 fig .1 tab .17 ref .]
Effect of everygreen brood-leaved trees on Phyllostachys pubescens growth and their competition in the mixed forest
CAO Yong-hui, XIAO Jiang-hua, CHEN Shuang-lin, WU Bo-lin, WU Ming, ZHANG De-ming
2006, 23(1): 35-40.
[Abstract](1090) [PDF](239)
A quantitative analysis of the growth of moso bamboo (Phyllastachys pubescens)in the mixed forest of moso bamboo and evergreen broad-leaved trees and their competition were studied .The results were as follows :(1) the broad-leaved trees had great influence on the spatial distribution of bamboo and DBH of new culms in the different annular zones around the trees .The number of culms increased from average 0.27 culmsm-2 in 1.5 m annular zone to average 0.42 culmsm-2 in 5.7 m annular zone , according to the distance from the broad-leaved trees .As for the effect on bamboo , the maximum effective scope was about 6.0 m .(2)The average DBH of new bamboo increased with the increasing distance from the tree .The maximum effective scope of broad-leaved trees was about 7.0 m and the mean DBH of bamboos within the scope was 10.4 cm.(3)The intraspecific competition of moso bamboo and interspecific competition between moso bamboo and evergreen broad-leaved trees were increasing along with DBH.The interspecific competition intensity of evergreen broad-leaved trees was about 20.3 %.[ Ch , 6 tab .11 ref .]
Species diversity of Fokienia hodginsii community in Nature Reserve of Mount Fengyang in Zhejiang Province
AI Jian-guo, MEI Sheng-long, LIU Sheng-long, DING Bing-yang
2006, 23(1): 41-45.
[Abstract](1124) [PDF](268)
The species richness index , species diversity index and community evenness in different plots and layers of Fokienia hodginsii community in Nature Reserve of Mount Fengyang , Zhejiang Province were analysed .The species richness (161 species)and species diversity index of woody plants were obviously bigger than those of herb (14 species).Their community evenness had slight different significance .In the vertical structure of community , the species richness , species diversity index and community evenness of the shrub layerwere greater than those of the tree layer .The various indexes of diversity between the tree layer and the shrub layer had slight differences .The species richness and species diversity index of the tree layer and shrub layer were obviously bigger than those of the herb layer .It was not very different from those between tree layer and shrub layer and herb layer .[ Ch , 4 tab .29 ref .]
Analysis of vegetation types and woody plants flora in Yushan of Changshu
LI Dong-lin, LI Rong-jin, WANG Bao-song, WANG Xi-hua
2006, 23(1): 46-51.
[Abstract](1423) [PDF](298)
In virtue of Relev method , a systematic vegetation survey was conducted in Yushan of Jiangsu Province , and 5 vegetation types and 10 forest communities were divided .There are 227 species of woody plants , belonging to 61 families and 124 genera .The analysis of woody plants families in Yushan of Changshu showes that tropic elements are dominant and the plants displays a characteristic of transition and blending .With relation to the areal-types of woody plants genera , the temperate areal-types are the most (68 genera), which accounting for 54.85 % of total genera ;and the tropic areal-types are more (49 genera), which accounting for 39.52 % of total genera .This showes that the former are full developed and become the dominant elements of woody plants .[ Ch , 3 tab .14 ref .]
Optimization of the reaction system for CAPS marker analysis in Cryptomeria fortunei
YANG Ping, ZHENG Qian-jian, ZHAO Ming-shui, TANG Ding-qin
2006, 23(1): 52-55.
[Abstract](1749) [PDF](254)
An optimized system for CAPS reaction in Cryptomeria fortunei is a precondition for analyzing genetic diversity of Cryptomeria fortunei .The authors optimized a reaction system for CAPS in Cryptomeria fortunei by analyzing different factors .The results showed that the best one was 20 L amplification reaction solution composed of 2.0 L 10 Buffer , 0.08 mmolL-1dNTPs , 200 mgL-1 template DNA , 1.5 mmolL-1 Mg2+ , 0.1 mol L-1primer and 41.675 nkat Taq DNA polymerase , which was amplified under the program of predenaturing at 94 ℃ for 5min , followed by 35 cycles of denaturing at 94 ℃for 40 s , annealing 58 ℃for 40 s , extension 72 ℃for 80 s , and a final extension 72 ℃ for 5 min .The restriction digestion system consisted of 10 L PCR products , 2.0 L 10 Buffer , 83.350 nkat restriction enzyme and 7.5 L ddH2O .[ Ch , 5 fig .1 tab .8 ref .]
Anatomy of stamen development on Carya cathayensis
HUANG You-jun, WANG Zheng-jia, ZHENG Bing-song, HUANG Xiao-min, HUANG Jian-qin
2006, 23(1): 56-60.
[Abstract](1371) [PDF](302)
To master the development law of reproduction on Carya cathayensis , flower-bud differentiation was studied by paraffin section .The results indicates that :(1)Stamen primordia form from the apex of a male-flower primordium in the last ten days of March next year , then stamens form and further differentiate in the middle ten days of April .(2)In the last ten days of April , 4 pollen sacs form in a stamen , then tetrads emerge in a pollen sac for pollen mother cellsmeiosis .Later , tetrads are separated to 4 single-cell pollens .Middle layer and tapetum disappear gradually during the pollen development .(3)2-cell pollens form and escape from pollen sacs , and then , inflorescences shed in the first ten days of May .(4)Corresponding relationship is established between external forms and anatomical structure .[ Ch , 1 fig .2 tab .18 ref .]
Effects of fertilization on flavonoid content of Ginkgo biloba leaf in seedling stage
LOU Chong, TANG Er-chun, WANG Gui-bin, ZHANG Wang-xiang, CAO Fu-liang
2006, 23(1): 61-64.
[Abstract](1210) [PDF](284)
To research the effects of nitrogen , phosphorus , and kalium on flavonoid content of leaf of two-aged ginkgo seedling , field test including single diathesis test and formula fertilization test were done .The results showed that kalium had the greatest effect on flavonoid content of ginkgo leaves (the differentiation of both tests are quite notable);nitrogen took the second place ;and the effect of phosphorus was little .When one seedling was fertilized 3.2 g nitrogen and 2.4 g kalium respectively , the falvonoid extracted from total leaves of one seedling were 1.09 g and 1.00 g respectively .Their diversification trends are similar to the trends of individual plant biomass .The best fertilization formula is 4.8 g nitrogen and 2.4 g kalium one plant , and the worst is 6.4 g nitrogen and 0.8 g phosphorus one plant .[ Ch , 5 tab .15 ref .]
Decomposition of Cunninghamia lanceolata litter with different control measures
ZHANG Zhi-qin, LIN Kai-min, ZOU Shuang-quan, CAO Guang-qiu
2006, 23(1): 65-69.
[Abstract](955) [PDF](225)
Based on the fact that Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir)litter decomposes slowly , the effects of different control measures on the decomposition of Chinese fir litter were studied .The results implied that different control measures had different effects on the decomposition of Chinese fir litter .The burying of Chinese fir litter could quicken its decomposition .The mass loss ratios of leaves and branches were 46.5 % and 32.0 % respectively , 14.5 % and 38.5 % higher than those put on the ground .Different N fertilizers had different effects on the decomposition rate of Chinese fir litter .When applying NO-3 -N , the annual mass loss ratio of Chinese fir litter was 46.0 %, 13.3 % higher than those without nitrogenous fertilizer (control group).While applying NH+4 -N , the annual mass loss ratio was 40.7 %, approximate to the control group .Burying under the ground and applying NO-3 -N could significantly improved the decomposition rate of Chinese fir litter and shorten the decomposition time by 50 % and 95 % respectively .[ Ch , 4 tab .14 ref .]
Dynamic changes of soil microbial biomass carbon in Phyllostachys praecox stand with different fertilizers
YANG Fang, WU Jia-sen, QIAN Xin-biao, WU Li-jun
2006, 23(1): 70-74.
[Abstract](1083) [PDF](265)
Phyllostachys praecox , a favorite bamboo shoot species , has been widely planted in these years .The practice of surplus fertilizing and winter mulching has been conducted to gain good economic benefits .To study the effects of fertilizing and winter mulching on microbial biomass carbon (MBC)in soil , a trial with different types (manure , oil cake and mineral fertilizer)and rates of fertilizers was conducted from August 2002 to April 2003 . The first 3 treatments applied with both fertilizer and manure but with different rate .The highest microbial biomass carbon in soil was measured in October and December , medium one in August and February , and lowest one in April .It was always true that treatments with mixture of fertilizer and manure were detected much more MBC (P 0.05)compared with pure fertilizer treatments, and MBC in soil was increasing with augment of manure amount applied per plot .It was found that winter mulching practice enhanced MBC in soil , and the average ratios of MBC in mulching treatments to non-mulching treatments were 1.60 and 1.52 respectively in February and April .MBC in soil was significantly correlated with total organic carbon , total nitrogen and hydrolysable nitrogen (P 0.05). [ Ch , 4 tab .20 ref .]
Changes of organic C, N and P pools in red soil in transformation between agricultural land and forestry land
ZHANG Lǜ-qin, ZHANG Ming-kui
2006, 23(1): 75-79.
[Abstract](1149) [PDF](248)
Physical fractionation and chemical-analysis were used to assess the composition and distribution of organic C , N and P in different sizes of water-stable aggregates of red soil under different land uses .The change mechanism of soil nutrients in transformation between forestry land and agricultural land was analyzed .The 27 soil samples were collected for testing and were divided into three groups :natural forest land , agricultural land and afforested land .The results showed :that forest clearing and continuous cultivation for upland led to significant depletion of total soil organic C and N , and led to transform of organic P into inorganic P in surface soil .The decline of organic C was more than that of N in the soil .Organic C and total N content in natural forest land were 3.19 and 1.15 times more than those in agricultural land respectively .The proportions of particulate organic C to total C in natural forest land , agricultural land and afforested land were 65 %, 11 % and 47 %, respectively .The change of land use has great influence on the contents of particulate organic C and organic P in the 1 mm aggregates .[ Ch , 5 tab .14 ref .]
Sensitivity of 8 manure bacteria to chemical fertilizer and common pesticide
TAO Shu-xing, FANG Wei
2006, 23(1): 80-84.
[Abstract](1074) [PDF](239)
The sensitivity of 8 bacteria used to produce microbial manure to 10 chemical fertilizers and 5 pesticides with double dilution were studied .The results showd that the 8 chemical fertilizers didn't have the sterilization to the 8 strains when the experimental conentration reached 200.00 g L-1 .The bacteriostasis of ammonium bicarbonate was stronger than other fertilizers while its inhibitory action to Azotobacter chroococcum ACCC 8011 was the greatest .The 5 pesticides didn't have any sterilization to the experimental strains when the experimental concentration reached 10.00 gL-1 .The bavistin , thiophanate-methyl , deltamethrin and the avermectin had some inhibition to Bacillus mucilaginosus ACCC 10013 , Azotobacter chroococcum ACCC 8011 , Bradyrhizobium japonicum 61A76 and Streptomyces microflavus 5406 , but the glyphosate had inhibitory action to the 8 strains . [ Ch , 2 tab .10 ref .]
Integrated control of termite in standard seawall
SONG Xiao-gang, RUAN Guan-hua, REN Huo-liang, HU Hai-zhong, HU Zhen-hua
2006, 23(1): 85-88.
[Abstract](1246) [PDF](231)
Research on the control of termite in standard seawall was conducted to find out the measures and methods of integrated termite control and detect their effects .The results showed that the effective osmotic extension of termiticide grouting could reach more than one meter in 50 kPa pressure .Thetermiticide grouting could not only fill up the cracks in the seawall but also kill the termites and form a continuous termiticide screen in seawall .The stuffing level of termiticide grouting could be detected by filling the same material in the inspection holes in the same conditions .The effect of termiticide grouting on termite could by examined by the control of termite in the seawall. [ Ch , 3 tab .7 ref .]
Anti-fungi test of chitosan metal salts
MAO Sheng-feng, SUN Fang-li, DUAN Xin-fang, WEN Gui-feng
2006, 23(1): 89-93.
[Abstract](1136) [PDF](282)
The restraining effects of Chitosan metal salts series on Trichoderma viride , Penicillam citrinum , Aspergillus niger , Aspergillus flavus and Microzyme sp .were studied .Results showed as the follows :chitosan Cu salt had good restraining effects to all chosen fungi than other fungistat , and the persistence of restraining was longer .Chitosan with the concentration of 20.0 gkg-1 had the best effects to Trichoderma viride and Microzyme sp .and with the longest persistence .Chitosan Zn salt had better effects to Trichoderma viride and Microzyme sp . than boric acid .Boric acid only had some effects to Aspergillus niger .[ Ch , 9 fig .11 ref .]
Application of additives in preparing light-colored rosin glyceride
GAO Hong, SHANG Shi-bin, RAO Xiao-ping, SONG Zhan-qian
2006, 23(1): 94-97.
[Abstract](1141) [PDF](270)
Primary antioxidant , secondary antioxidant , thermal stabilizer , light stabilizer and UV absorber were used in preparing light-colored rosin glyceride , which could improve rosin glyceride's thermal stability and antiaging .Better dosage of primary additives were attained through cross experiment , which were 5 gkg-1 primary antioxidant , 3 gkg-1 secondary antioxidant , 3 gkg-1 thermal stabilizer , zero light stabilizer and 5 gkg-1 UV absorber .Color grade of rosin glyceride was 1.5 after thermal stability test , and weight gain rate was 0.14 %, color grade was 3.0 after anti-aging test .The performance of the rosin glyceride is better than other kin products on markets .[ Ch , 6 tab .7 ref .]
Countermeasures for green barrier and trade of China’s agricultural products
GAO Ying
2006, 23(1): 98-102.
[Abstract](1595) [PDF](408)
Green barriers are a series of environment and health concerned laws and regulations made by developed countries to restrict the import of products from the developing countries .There are profound political , economic and environmental causes of the green barriers .As far as the international trade of agricultural products is concerned , green barriers include green tariff system , green technical standard system , green environmental label system, green packing system, sanitation quarantine system and green subsidy system .Green barriers have both positive and negative effects on the trade of China's agricultural products .With the greater importance attached to the environment-friendly global economy , green barriers will become the broader and more covert trade barriers .As a member of WTO , China should promote the construction of the environment-friendly industries .China's agricultural enterprises should attach more importance to the production of environment-friendly agricultural products and take various measures to cope with the green barriers and promote the sustainable growth of import of China's agricultural products .[ Ch , 20 ref .]
Progresses of aeroanion in tourism environments
ZHANG Zhi-pan, YU Yi-wu, MENG Ming-hao, KONG Bang-jie
2006, 23(1): 103-108.
[Abstract](1262) [PDF](384)
Aeroanion is sanative , which is called air vitamin and growth factor , so aero-anion concentration is the important index of assessing air quality of tourism environments .Its concept , generation mechanism, health and medical effect , assessment methods in tourism environments and distributing rules of concentration are reviewed .On the bases , the exploitation of ecotourism health products and popular science products based on aero-anion are put forward , and the major study field in future is analyzed .[ Ch , 3 tab .31 ref .]
Scientific notes
Correlation between the natural curve of Osmanthus fragrans ‘Jiulonggui' with air temperatures
ZHONG Tai-lin, ZHU Ting-pu, LAI Shui-fang
2006, 23(1): 109-111.
[Abstract](1067) [PDF](229)
Osmanthus fragrans Jiulonggui ' is a kind of noble and graceful plant in China .It is highly appreciated for its miraculous curved branches , purple twig and purple young leaves.The research shows Osmanthus fragrans Jiulonggui' suits to plant in majority area of China .Temperatures and daylight hours are the major factors to effect the branchs curve .The branches of Osmanthus fragrans Jiulonggui' curve and keep it when the mean daily air temperature over 21.8 ℃ and more daylight hours.While the branches curve little or returns straightly when the mean daily air temperature under 21.8 ℃, even if there is much longer daylight especially obvious under 15.7 ℃.[ Ch , 2 tab .8 ref .]
Impact of indoor virescence on annoyance of indoor low-frequency noise
NI Yong-zhou
2006, 23(1): 112-114.
[Abstract](1038) [PDF](223)
The possibility of low-frequency noise existed indoor and the influence of annoyance of indoor lowfrequency noise were studied .The Survey of indoor low-frequency noise frequency spectrum characteristic , the investigation of subjective response to indoor low-frequency noise and analytic calculation with principle of fuzzy subordinate grade were made .The results indicaed that the noise of electric appliance was low-frequency noise , people had less noise annoyance when the sources of indoor low-frequency noise hide behind the potted plant than they were visible .People have less noise annoyance when the sources of indoor low-frequency noise hide behind the potted plant .[ Ch , 2 tab .9 ref .]