2005 Vol. 22, No. 5

Photosynthesis diurnal courses of main species in degraded habitat of Taihang Mountains
ZHANG Ming-ru, ZHAI Ming-pu, WEN Guo-sheng, WANG Xue-yong, ZHANG Jian-guo
2005, 22(5): 475-580.
[Abstract](1277) [PDF](215)
The photosynthetic diurnal courses of Ziziphus jujuba var .inermis , Robinia pseudoacacia , Platycladus orientalis and Ailanthus altissima were studied .The results showed that the diurnal changes of net photosynthesis (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr)and stomotal conductance (Cond)of Z .jujuba var .inermis were one-peaked curves , reaching a maximum at 10 :00 .The diurnal changes of Cond of R .pseudoacacia and Pn of P .orientalis were one-peaked curves , reaching a maximum at 9 :00 and 10 :00 respectively .And the diurnal changes of Pn and Tr of R .pseudoacacia were one-peaked curves , but that of Cond and Tr of P .orientalis were two-peaked curves . The Fv/F m ratio of P .orientalis , A .altissima and R .pseudoacacia reached a minumin at 13 :00 in a clear day of autumn , but Fv/Fm ratio of Z .jujuba var .inermis reached a minumin from 10 :00 to 13 :00 .The Fv/Fm ratio of R .pseudoacacia came back quickly at sunset , but that of A .altissima , P .orientalis and Z .jujuba var . inermis came back slowly at sunset compared with that of R .pseudoacacia .The diunal courses of the photosynthesis of the tree species measured are different , so some suggestions about how to selecting these tree species in reconstructing artificial communities are put forward .[ Ch , 5 fig .4 tab .17 ref .]
RAPD analysis of 16 orange varieties in Lishui of Zhejiang
ZENG Yan-ru, HU Ying, SI Jin-ping, XU Xiang-hua
2005, 22(5): 481-485.
[Abstract](1154) [PDF](232)
Sixteen orange varieties cultivated in Lishui of Zhejiang were analyzed for their phylogeny with RAPD markers .Totally 216 RAPD loci were amplified with 21 primers , with 10.29 loci per primer on the average . Polymorphic loci accounted for 96.76 %.For different varieties , 0 -10 bands could be amplified with each primer .Among all the primers used , the primer S13 is the least informative with only 48 bands amplified and S317 most informative with 143 bands amplified .Citrus grandis var. wentanyu is a very special variety , in which 8 out of 21 primers had no bands amplified .It has been found through UPGMA clustering that varieties of Ougan , Ponkan , Unshu Mikan and fruitgrape clustered separately ;Citrus unshiu C .clementina and C .hybrid were close to Unshu Mikan in genetic distance and C .paradis 'Changshanhuyou' to C .sinensis var. brasiliensis . In addition , C .suavissima 'Seedless' could be distinguished from C .suavissima with primer S304 , while C . poonensis 'Seedless' from C .poonensis with primer S356 .It is concluded that the varieties tested here are different from one another in DNA and RAPD markers could be used to distinguish them .[ Ch , 4 fig , 1 tab .8 ref .]
Distribution of nutrient elements in different organs of Phyllostachys pubescens under different managements
WU Jia-sen, ZHOU Guo-mo, QIAN Xin-biao, YANG Fang, WU Xue-min
2005, 22(5): 486-489.
[Abstract](1121) [PDF](224)
The contents of N , P , K Ca and Mg in different organs of Phyllostachys pubescens and soil nutrients under different managements were analyzed in July 2002 .The results showed that the contents of five nutrient elements in leaf is more than those in branch , and those in stem is lowest .And the content order of nutrient elements from high to low is N , K , Mg , Ca , P in leaf , K , N , Ma , P , Ca in branch , K , N , Mg , Ca , P in stem. Some nutrient elements in Ph .pubescens have a good relation to soil nutrients .Total storage of five nutrient elements in above-ground Ph .pubescens woods was 519.60 kghm-2 under intensive management , and 422.44 kghm-2 under extensive management .[ Ch , 4 tab .13 ref .]
Changes in soil organic carbon under different land use types in slope land in gully region of Loess Plateau
LIU Shou-zan, GUO Sheng-li, BAI Yan
2005, 22(5): 490-494.
[Abstract](1209) [PDF](207)
Soil erosion is serious in the Loess Plateau and soil organic carbon (SOC)in this area is lower than the average in China .SOC is a large component of the global carbon cycle and an important index to evaluate soil quality .In order to understand impact of vegetation on SOC at slope of Wangdonggou Watershed in Gully Region of Loess Plateau , SOC level and distribution characteristic along a slope under vegetation types were investigated . Through comparing the concentration of SOC and its distribution in soil profiles under crop land , orchard , forest land , grass land and clover land , the results demonstrated that compared with crop land , SOC content increased by 25.3 %, 17.1 % and 11.6 % for forest land , grass land , clover land and decreased by 2.2 % for orchard .The SOC content and the distribution in soil profile would change with the change of land use typs in slope land in gully region of Loess Plateau .In addition , there was a significantly correlation between TSN and SOC .[ Ch , 1 fig .3 tab .16 ref .]
Effects of controlled burning on species diversity of undergrowth in Choerospondias axillaris plantations
FAN Hai-lan, HONG Wei, HONG Tao, WU Chen-zhen, SONG Ping, ZHU Hui, ZHANG Qiong, LIN Yong-ming
2005, 22(5): 495-500.
[Abstract](1071) [PDF](203)
The diversity indexes and diversity indexes were used to study the species diversity of undergrowth in the Choerospondias axillaris plantations .The results showed that the species richness of shrub layer , herb layer and liana was lower in the control burning C .axillaris plantation than in the non-burning C .axikllaris plantation , and other numerical values of diversity indexes showed difference at the same period .In the aspect of time dynamics , the increasing extent of diversity indexes of shrub layer , herb layer and liana in the control burning C .axillaris plantation showed different change compared with the non-burning C .axillaris plantaion . The two diversity indexes could quantitatively and definitely show the influence of control burning on undegrowth species composition (or habitat), and different growth form plants show different ecological responses . [ Ch , 2 tab .20 ref .]
Notes on Oleaceae from Zhejiang Province
JI Chun-feng, XIANG Qi-bai
2005, 22(5): 501-501.
[Abstract](1224) [PDF](247)
A species of Oleaceae , Osmanthus henryi P .S .Green is reported as a new record to Zhejiang Province for the first time .[ Ch , 1 ref .]
Geographical variation and provenance division of Alnus cremastogyne
WANG Jun-hui, GU Wan-chun, XIA Liang-fang, WAN Jun, GAN Xiao-xiong
2005, 22(5): 502-506.
[Abstract](899) [PDF](151)
The growth , timber quality and fruits of 13 provenances of Alnus cremastogyne was tested to study the geographical variation of Alnus cremastogyne and its tendency .The climate ecology foundations for the geographical variation and divided the provenance areas were discussed .The results implied that there was significant correlation between provenance growth characteristics of Alnus cremastogyne and ecological gradient axis (EGA).The analysis of single ecological factor showed that the provenance growth quantity of Alnus cremastogyne changed with the longitude and altitude .There was no significant correlation between the bio-substance production and fiber length of single plant and longtitude and latitude .There was significant correlation between the basic density of timber and longitude .Judging by the EGA of Alnus cremastogyne provenance and the growth status of the experimental forest , there're three provenance areas of Alnus cremastogyne , namely , northwest Sichuan , central Sichuan and south Sichuan .[ Ch , 1 fig .4 tab .11 ref .]
Comprehensive evaluation and selection of geographical provenances of Dendrocalamus latiflorus in Fujian
2005, 22(5): 507-512.
[Abstract](1016) [PDF](217)
Principal component analysis was used to study and evaluate the geographical provenances of Dendrocalamus latiflorus in two pilot fields .Excellent provenances were selected according to different management purposes and different conditions of afforestation areas .The results showed that real gains of the selected provenances were significant .The average real gains of main characteristics of four selected provenances for bamboo shoots were between 1.19 % and 32.46 %;those of four selected timber-use provenances were between 4.11 %and 39.7 %.[ Ch , 6 tab .15 ref .]
Genetic variation of seedling growth traits of open-pollination families of Pinus tabulaeformis
LIU Yong-hong, FAN Jun-feng, YANG Pei-hua, HAN Chuang-ju
2005, 22(5): 513-517.
[Abstract](1042) [PDF](203)
The analysis of seedling growth traits from open-pollination families from 3 seed orchards and 1 superior provenance of Pinus tabulaeformis was made in Shaanxi Provence .The results indicated that stands and families exited abundant genetic variation and the variance components of families were more than those of stands .Families in different seed orchards and different families in same seed orchard had highly significant difference in height and diameter.The height growth of the best family progeny was one time more than the worst one .There were significantly difference among the 1 000-seed weights and the range of variation were 20.04 -65.10g .1000-seeds weight were close correlations with diameter but light correlations with seedling height .Through meritability of diameter and height were very high .Through using growth index , there were 46 excellent families be selected primarily and the expected genetic gains of height and diameter were 16.32 %-27.86 % and 6.39 %-23.08 % respectively .The selection effect was very striking .[ Ch , 7 tab .12 ref .]
Breeding on three new promising and early fruiting walnut cultivars developed by species hybridization
FAN Zhi-yuan, XI Xue-liang, FANG Wen-liang, ZHANG Yu, ZHAO Ting-song
2005, 22(5): 518-523.
[Abstract](937) [PDF](183)
Juglans sigillata 'Santai' is the dominating walnut in the southern China , which has many advantages such as big nut , thin-shell , shallow color kernel , aromatic taste , high quality , etc .But a certain characters like bad appearance , late fruiting , weakly resistance for cold , need to develop .Under these background , so new cultivars research on species hybridiztion breeding between the new group of Juglans sigillata 'Santai' and Juglans regia 'Xinzao No.13' were studied for the first time in Yunnan Province .Based on sexual hybridzing cultivation procedure , through five stages of parent selection , hybridization , cultivation of hybridism offspring , excellent trees selection and regionalized cultivation experiment of superior walnut clone , three new superior early fruiting walnut cultivars named as Yunxing 90301 , Yunxing 90303 , Yunxing 90306 were seleted to cultivate .The new cultivars hold excellent advantages after combining with the characteristics of the parents , , including the following characters of early fruiting (bloom or fruit two or three years after being planted , four to six years early than Juglans sigillata 'Santai ' , precocity (about 20 days ahead than Juglans sigillata 'Santai ' , high yield (represent distinct hybrid-superiority ), lower height and good resistance for cold .The good ends of expectant breeding and the new cultivars with enormous potential for popularization , were gained .[ Ch , 8 tab .8 ref .]
Genetic analysis of main traits and selection of superior provenances and superior individuals of Atractylodes macrocephala
HE Fu-ji, CHEN Bin-long, HE Hao-liang, FU Shun-hua, WANG Yi-feng
2005, 22(5): 524-529.
[Abstract](959) [PDF](197)
It was found through cultivation of Atractylodes macrocephala from 20 provenances distributed in 8 provinces and cities from 2003 to 2004 that there were great differences in standard and quality of original rhizomes of Atractylodes macrocephala .The main reasons for this phenomenon are that the materials to be planted are in chaos and there were no cultivars so far .A genetic analysis reveals that there are great genetic variations either between provenances or between individuals in terms of main traits , and most traits have a medium or high heredity . So selection might lead to good genetically improved results .On the basis of characteristics of genetic variation , provenance test and selection of superior individuals , it was found that Shiliang in Tiantai County and West Mount Tianmu in Lin'an City were good provenances of Atractylodes macrocephala .Methodology and standard for selection of superior individuals were worked out .[ Ch , 3 tab .4 ref .]
Big-diameter-oriented cultivation techniques of Cunninghamia lanceolata with suitable management density
TU Yu-he, YE Gong-fu, LIN Wu-xing, ZHAO Shi-rong, ZHEN Zhao-fei
2005, 22(5): 530-534.
[Abstract](972) [PDF](273)
A comparative study of Cunninghamia lanceolata forests with different forestation densities was conducted .At the age of 32 , the storage per hectare was highest for the stand with reserved density of 1 200 trees hm-2 , intermediate for 1 620 treeshm-2 , and lowest for 600 treeshm-2 .There was a great difference in diameter distribution , with the decrease of management density , the diameter inclined to big timber .The correlation between the output of different dimension stock and stand density was significant .According to the influence of different density management measure on the growth of stands, the mathematical models of crown width-DBH and maximum density were established .Based on studying the growth , diameter grades structure and output of C . lanceolata of different planting density control , quantitative relationship models were established .The results showed that the suitable density of big-diameter-oriented cultivation were 1 005 -1 382 treeshm-2 in site index 18 and 959 -1 319 treeshm-2 in site index 20 .[ Ch , 5 tab .11 ref .]
Research on methods for controlling the volume of forest management inventory
LIU Yi, XIANG Xin-nian, LIU An-xing
2005, 22(5): 535-539.
[Abstract](1533) [PDF](223)
A comparative study of systematic sampling and regression estimate for controlling total volume was conducted.The result implied that when doing regression estimate , the integrated information from sampling investigation and subcompartment investigation could be fully made use of to improve the precision for controlling the volume of forest management inventory .The efficiency of regression estimate was usually higher than systematic sampling .The utilization efficiency of the sampling statistics could be improved by regression analysis .The regression model could be used to monitor the quality of forest management inventory and correct the statistics of the forest management inventory .In addition , the systematic error could be adjusted by the regression mode so that the rejection and waste caused by systematic error could be avoided .[ Ch , 16 ref .]
Component analysis and nutrition evaluation of seeds of Torreya grandis 'Merrillii'
LI Zhang-ju, LUO Cheng-fang, CHEN Xiao-jian, FENG Xiao-jun, YU Wei-wu
2005, 22(5): 540-544.
[Abstract](1319) [PDF](280)
By component analysis of the seed samples of Torreya grandis 'Merrillii' , from many locations , the results show that the oil content of seed is 546.2 -614.7 gkg-1 .The fatty acids mainly consist of linolic acids and oleic acids .So the seed oil is easily digestible and is a super edible oil with many functions such as reducing cholesterol , promoting blood circulation and regulating endocrine system.The unsaturated fatty acids account for 79.41 % of total fatty acids .The seed kernels have 121.0 -164.3 gkg-1 protein , 17 amino acids of which seven amino acids are indispensable for health , and 19 mineral elements among which potassium (7.0 -11.3 gkg-1), calcium , phosphorus and magnesium contents are high .Heavy mental elements were not found or the contents below the safety standard , except that cadmium contents in few samples was beyond the safety standard .The pesticide residue was not found either .It is the first time to find that the seed kernel contains abundant vitamin nicotinic acid and folic acid , which can promote digesting and moistening skin , and both acids contents of the seed are higher than that of other dry or fresh fruits .[ Ch , 5 tab .18 ref .]
Species and controls of main diseases and insect pests of Torreya grandis 'Merrillii'
WU Zhong-liang, XU Zhi-hong, CHEN Xiu-long, JIN Guo-long, LI Su-ping, SHEN Yu-lin, LANG Xue-jun, HU Zhong-cheng, CHEN Li-hong
2005, 22(5): 545-552.
[Abstract](2703) [PDF](239)
Form January 2001 to December 2004 , the investigation on species of diseases and insect pests in Torreya grandis 'Merrillii' was carried out and integrated controls of the main diseases and insect diseases were researched in Zhuji , Shaoxin , Shenzhou , Dongyang and Jiande of Zhejiang Province .By field surveys , a system of regular observations and feeding on insects , 55 species of insect pests subject to nine orders and 29 families , and 4 species of diseases were found out .Among of them , Lepteucosma torreyae and Macrolveus torreyae were two new records .The biologic characteristics of the main diseases and insect pests of Eriophyidae sp ., Helicobasidium compacum , Erwinia carotovora , Chlorella sp ., Macrolygus torreyae , Lepteucosma torreyae were primarily found out , and their outbreaks and epidemics were understood .The forecasting method of Lepteucosma torreyae was established.Based on strengthening cultivation and management , integrated control measures were put forward including physical , biologic and chemical methods .Medicaments with higher effect and lower toxicity were screened by comparing effect of different pesticide treatments .[ Ch , 7 tab .11 ref .]
Anti-microbial activities of tea-polyphenol
TANG Yu-fang, ZHANG Miao-ling, FENG Bo, CHEN Quan, LIU Xin-le, DENG Xiao-ping
2005, 22(5): 553-557.
[Abstract](979) [PDF](436)
The anti-microbial activities of tea-polyphenol and the effects of the factors including concentration , pH value , temperature , NaCl concentration on the anti-microbial activities were studied by plate count and filtering paper method .The results showed that tea-polyphenol had strong inhibition on bacteria activities but no distinct inhibition on yeast and mold .The minimum anti-microbial concentration of tea-polyphenol was no more than 1.0 gL-1 and the optimum anti-microbial concentration was 4.0 gL-1 .Anti-microbial activities in natural pH value , neutral and low alkali environment were stronger than those in the high alkali environment .Anti-microbial activities of tea-polyphenol would not be affected in a certain temperature scope .NaCl could strengthen the anti-microbial activity of tea-polyphenol .[ Ch , 6 tab .18 ref .]
Preliminary survey of mammals in Mount Longwang Nature Reserve of Zhejiang
ZHU Xi, TANG Ting, WU Mei-fang, WANG Wen-wu, XIA Jian-qiang
2005, 22(5): 558-561.
[Abstract](976) [PDF](223)
The survey of mammal was conducted in Mount Longwang Nature Reserve of Zhejiang Province from March 1999 to September 2000 .There are 50 species, 40 genera , 19 families and 8 orders , including 13 species of National Conservative Animals , 29 species of fur-bearing animals , 40 species of medical animals and 29 species of ornamental animals .[ Ch , 1 tab .12 ref .]
Lophura nycthemere's choice of night roosts and their night-roosting behavior
SHAO Chen, HU Yi-zhong
2005, 22(5): 562-565.
[Abstract](1311) [PDF](236)
Silver pheasant's choice of night roosts and their night-roosting behavior were studied .The results indicated that the night roosts of silver pheasant were evergreen arbors near mountain valley , mainly including Cyclobatanolpsis glauca , Castanopsis eyrei , Castanopsis sclerophylla and Cinnamomum camphora , etc .The nightroostingtime differed in different seasons and weathers .It was 72 minutes longer in autumn and winter than in spring and summer , and 43 minutes longer in rainy day than in sunny day .The night roosting was related to illumination .It began at dusk when the illumination was below 5 lx and ended in the early morning when the umination was over 5 lx .The night roosts should be at the elevation between 600 -900 m and slope between 30- 45.[ Ch , 1 fig .4 tab .8 ref .]
Agonistic behavior among intercolony of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera :Rhinotermitidae)
TENG Li, MO Jian-chu, WANG Ai-qing, ZHANG Liang, LIU Xian-jun, HU Tian-sheng
2005, 22(5): 566-571.
[Abstract](1254) [PDF](203)
In order to explore the new technology for the control of Coptotermes formosanus , the agonistic behaviors of termite workers , soldiers and mass among six colonies from Anqing of Anhui , Lishui and Zhuji of Zhejiang , Yichang of Hubei and Hengyang and Chenzhou of Hunan were studied in the laboratory .The results indicated that there was no obvious correlation between the geographical distance and the intercolonial agonistic behavior in C . formosanus .Of the six colonies tested , the colonies from Yichang and Chenzhou showed the strongest aggressive behavior , they fought with all other colonies .But their fighting capacities were weaker , and consequently their mortalities were higher compared with other colonies tested .The colonies from Zhuji and Hengyang had no or weak aggressive behavior .However , they had strong attacking capacities , so consequently they had high survival probability .Meanwhile , it was found that the agonistic behavior of termite mass was the same as that of individual soldier in C .formosanus .We could use the individual soldier to replace the termite mass for the behavior bioassay of C .formosanus .In addition , the experimental duration would influence the final result of experiment sometimes . [ Ch , 3 tab .19 ref .]
Case study of composing commentary system for tourist attractions
MENG Ming-hao, YU Yi-wu, GU Xiao-yan, LI Tian-you, ZHANG Zhi-pan
2005, 22(5): 572-576.
[Abstract](3896) [PDF](269)
One of important tasks of management of scenic spots is to improve the commentaries , which can improve the management level of scenic spots and help tourists get better touring experience .Based on the review of the existing commentaries of scenic spots in China , the six procedures composing commentaries including target orientation , environmental investigation , analysis of receiving end , subject orientation , planning , evaluation and adjustment were put forward .Finally , a case study of commentaries on Forest Oxygen Bar of Qiandao Lake was conducted .[ Ch , 19 ref .]
Objective of Environment Protection Law and it’s amendments
XIA Shao-min, ZHANG Yun-jie, ZHAO Chi
2005, 22(5): 577-581.
[Abstract](1353) [PDF](182)
The guideline and basic idea of Environmental Protection Law of PRC (EPL)which showed egocentrism was out of date .EPL should embody the ethic of sustainable development achieving a better balance between egocentrism and anthropocentrism .Based on the thought of scientific development , EPL should be a fundamental environment protection law to conserve natural resources and environment , and to improve the coordinated development of economy and society .A proposal to amend the legislative objective of EPL was put forward .[ Ch , 22 ref .]
Experience of Pinus radiata plantation industry development in New Zealand and its implication to China
CHEN Peng, ZHANG Hui-ru
2005, 22(5): 582-586.
[Abstract](1753) [PDF](197)
Radiata pine was introduced to New Zealand from the USA in 1900s .With New Zealand peoples striving efforts , a complete industrialization system including breeding , management and processing was established , which set a good example in the world .The procedures and experience of radiata pine industry were introduced , especially its intensive cultivation , processing and utilizing .China should learn experience from New Zealand to develop plantation industry to protect natural forests and improve benefits of forestry industry .[ Ch , 6 ref .]
Development of modern Netherlands landscape design and its region characters
2005, 22(5): 587-591.
[Abstract](994) [PDF](216)
More and more Netherlands landscape architects attract our eyes at the beginning of 21th century .The research on the landscape architecture history in the Netherlands was little in China .As a result we know little about the Netherlands landscape architecture but the fascinating projects .China has a lot of similarities with the Netherlands in early 20th century , such as the high density of population , a great number of constructions , environment pollution , the destroyed traditional landscape and the external influence etc .The study on such a country that has developed its own characters will be helpful in the Chinese landscape architecture construction . [ Ch , 10 ref .]