## 2005 Vol. 22, No. 4

column
2005, 22(4): 359-362.
[Abstract](1001) [PDF](205)
Abstract:
2005, 22(4): 363-369.
[Abstract](1074) [PDF](241)
Abstract:
This study was carried out in the evergreen broad-leaved forest of Tiantong National Forest Park , Zhejiang Province .All the trees in quadrats established in the forest were identified and measured to quantify the community structure of the forest .On this basis , the biomass of the community and its main tree species were measured and analyzed , and the relations between various organ biomass of tree , tree height and diameter at breast were obtained by the method of correlation analysis , the mathematics models for every organ of main species had been established . The results showed that Schima superba and Castanopsis carlesii were the dominant species in the community and constituted the main tree species with Lithocarpus glaber , Castanopsis fargesii and Castanea gracilis .The community biomass was mostly composed of main species biomass in every layer , the biomass of Castanopsis carlesii and Schima superba was respectively dominant in the tree layer which was the main component of the whole biomass .The order of biomass of various organs in the tree and shrub layer was trunk branch leaf .[ Ch , 2 fig . 3 tab .17 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 370-374.
[Abstract](1058) [PDF](267)
Abstract:
Twelve species of epiphyllous liverworts , belonging to 8 genera and 3 families , were found in Guanshan Nature Reserve .It is a new distribution range of epiphyllous liverworts in Jiangxi Province .Cololejeunea planissima is a new record to Jiangxi Province .The common species are Cololejeunea ocellata , Leptolejeunea elliptica , Lejeunea catanduana and Lejeunea flava .Metzgeria conjugata is a new epiphyllous record to Jiangxi Province .The main element of epiphyllous liverworts in Guanshan Nature Reserve is East Asian type (41.7 %). [ Ch , 2 tab .22 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 375-379.
[Abstract](962) [PDF](310)
Abstract:
Experiment was conducted with the leaves of 3 cultivars of 3-year-old apricot Armeniaca vulgaris under soil drought stress in field conditions .The effects of soil drought stress on physiological and biochemical characteristics of apricot were studied .The results were as follows :(1)Chlorophyll fluorescence parameter (F v/ Fm), leave relative water content (LRWC) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)content decreased , and cell membrane permeation , soluble sugar content , proline content (Pro)and superoxide dismutase (SOD)activity increased under stress .(2)With the decrease of soil relative water content (SRWC), correlation among parameters lowered .(3)The drought-resistance of 3 apricot cultivars was different under different water treatments .When the soil drought stress was comparatively low , their drought-resistance could be ranked as follows :Jintaiyang Xiangbai Jinhuanghou ;it was Xiangbai Jintaiyang Jinhuanghou under higher stress .[ Ch , 9 tab .8 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 380-384.
[Abstract](938) [PDF](167)
Abstract:
Leaf gas exchange of photosynthesis in Cyclobalanopsis multinervis and Michelia foveolata seedlings were studied by ecophysiological techniques under full light , one-layer shading and two-layer shading .The curves of leaf gas exchange diurnal variation in C .multinervis and M .foveolta were changed by shading .Photosynthetic rate of C .multinervis decreased obviously during daytime .With the increasing of shading , photosynthetic rate of M . foveolta decreased before noon , its photosynthetic rate was the highest at 11 :00 am under one layer shading . Moreover there was no significant difference of photosynthetic rates under full light and two-layer shading treatments after noon .Transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were decreased obviously by shading during daytime , but photosynthetic diurnal variation of intercellular CO2 concentration was contrary to that of photosynthetic rate . Photosynthetic rates of C .multinervis and M .foveolta decreased obviously at 1 :00 pm, which led to midday depression of photosynthetic rate' .This study showed the diurnal variation of leaf gas exchange in C .multinervis and M .foveolata seedlings under different shadings and provided the scientific foundations for taking measures of scientific planting and management .[ Ch , 9 fig .12 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 385-389.
[Abstract](1235) [PDF](199)
Abstract:
Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD)and perosidase (POD)in different series of the hybrid tulip tree were measured in different growth stages , and their relationship with growth traits were analyzed .The results showed that the activities were lower in early growth stage than in late stage while there was significant difference in activities of 2 enzymes in different series .Correlation analysis indicated that the activity of SOD was significantly correlated with height and collar diameter , which suggested the high activity of SOD would facilitate the growth of seedlings .In addition , the activity of SOD in 84.2 % of the hybrid families was higher than that in their parents , and activity of POD of 63.2 % of the hybrid series was in the middle level .The SOD could be used as one of physiology and biochemistry indices to evaluate and predict the growth of the hybrid tulip tree .[ Ch , 2 fig .3 tab . 10 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 390-395.
[Abstract](1222) [PDF](238)
Abstract:
Extraction , purification and chromatographic conditions of endogenous IAA , ABA and GA3 in the buds were studied , with female floral buds of Torreya grandis Merrillii' during the differentiation as materials .The results showed that endogenous hormones could be better purified after treating with petroleum ether , water-insoluble PVP and Sep-PakC18 column .The chromatographic conditions were as follows :ODS-C18 reversed-phase column , Water 486 ultraviolet detector , the mobile phase was a mixture of methanol , water and acetic acid (methanol∶water=50∶50 , volume ratio , pH 3.0), velocity of flow was set at l mLmin-1 , temperature of column and injection volume was 25 ℃ and 20 L respectively , detecting wavelength of IAA and ABA was set at 280 nm, while that of GA3 was set at 210nm .The determining results showed that the method could be apply to trace analysis .In addition , it was found that from February 21 to April 29 the contents of IAA and GA3 in the female floral buds increased then decreased , while that of ABA increased , slightly decreased then increased obviously .[ Ch , 4 fig . 4 tab .11 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 396-399.
[Abstract](1139) [PDF](208)
Abstract:
Pinus kesiya var .langbianensis is a native tree species in Simao City , with fast-growing , barren-landtolerating and excellent timber .By adopting stepwise clustering analysis , the classification of 100-day container seedlings was studied .Three classes , i .e .Ⅰ , Ⅱ and Ⅲ , were preliminarily categorized , among which seedlings with height 18.5 cm and base diameter 0.29 cm were clustered in the Class Ⅰ , seedlings with 15.5 cm height 18.5 cm and 0.24 cm base diameter 0.29 cm were in Class Ⅱ , and seedlings with height 15.5 cm and base diameter 0.24 cm were in Class Ⅲ .The results of variance analysis and plantation experiments showed that the seedling classification was practical and could guide the seedling production and cultivation .And furthermore , fertilization experiments indicated that 100 g nitrogen , 50 g phosphorus and 50 g potassium fertilizer could meet growth requirements of young stands .[ Ch , 3 tab .11 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 400-405.
[Abstract](1224) [PDF](201)
Abstract:
The seedlings morphologic characteristics of 20 species from eight genera inMagnoliaceae were observed . The results showed that the morphologic variations among genera were different significantly , but it was difficult to distinguish species in the same genus because of such small differences .Morphologic characters of the seedlings from 20 species of Magnoliaceae were described , and some specimens were made and index which based on the morphologic characteristics such as length of cotyledon petiole , cotyledons folder in endosperm and leaf blades fold mode in shoot was compiled .[ Ch , 1 fig .1 tab .15 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 406-409.
[Abstract](935) [PDF](150)
Abstract:
The demand for native species had been enhanced with the development of near-nature forestry and the construction of urban approx-natural forest .Two native species , Ilex micrococca and I .buergeri were selected due to their excellently ecological and decorative effects .Based on the survey of their distribution and biological characteristics , the technical measures of collecting seeds , cultivating seedlings and forestation were put forward . The fruits of the two species collected in October should be stored until next March .Seeds of I .micrococca could be sowed after special treatments , but seeds of I .buergeri should be stored until October or next March to be sowed .Germination ratio of the two species was 12.0 % and 9.8 %respectively .Breast-diameter and height of I . micrococca were 1.2 cm and 2.5 m respectively three years after forestation .However , diameter at the base and height of I .buergeri were 12.0 cm and 4.1 m respectively six years after forestation .It is suggested that the two species should be used for not only the forestation but also the urban landscaping .[ Ch , 2 fig .10 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 410-413.
[Abstract](1517) [PDF](199)
Abstract:
Using wild Rosa banksiae var .normalis of explants , the effects of different plant growth regulators on differentiation , multiplication and rooting of explants , and transplant technique and cultivated material were studied .The results showed that the best medium for inducing wasMS +2.0 mgL-1 6-BA +0.1 mgL-1 NAA ; that the best medium for the multiplication of medium wasMS +2.0 mgL-1 6-BA +0.05mgL-1 NAA , and the multiplication rate was 5.5 ;that the rooting and growing was the best on the medium with1/2MS +0.2 mgL-1 IBA +0.2 mgL-1 NAA .Plant material was the best with the vermiculite + pearlite + leaf mold (1∶1∶1), and the survival rate was 98 %.High efficient regeneration system of wild Rose banksiae was established by using of wild Rosa banksiae var .normalis of eggplants .[ Ch , 4 tab .10 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 414-419.
[Abstract](1060) [PDF](220)
Abstract:
Pinus armandi blister rust is one of the most severe diseases in P .armandi forest .In order to biologically control this disease with mycoparasites , isolation and identification of mycoparasites on Cronartium ribicola were conducted .The results showed that Alternaria spp ., Fusarium spp ., Isarta sp ., Pestalotiotiopsis sp ., Trichoderma spp .and Trichothecium roseum were mycoparasites in Cronartium ribicola .Microscopic and ultra-microscopic observation of aeciospores under ESM showed that different mycoparasites had different effects on aeciospores .[ Ch , 3 fig .4 tab .15 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 420-423.
[Abstract](1319) [PDF](257)
Abstract:
The survey of amphibian and reptile was conducted in Mount Longwang Nature Reserve of Zhejiang Province fromMarch 1999 to September 2000 .There are 20 species , 15 genera , 8 families and 2 orders of amphibia accounting for 46.5 % of the total number of Zhejiang , and 36 species , 24 genera , 11 families and 4 orders of reptiles accounting for 43.9 % of the total number of Zhejiang .Both of the classes are abundant in Oriental species with 75.0 % and 77.78 % respectively .Hynobius anjiensis is an endekic species .[ Ch , 4 tab .4 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 424-427.
[Abstract](3025) [PDF](216)
Abstract:
The structure and distribution of central nervous system of female Scleroderma sichuanensis were studied with dissecting microscope .The results showed that the central nervous system consisted of brain and ventral nervecord.There were unobvious difference among protocerebrum , deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum .The protocerebrum was the biggest part of the brain .Ventral nerve-cord consisted of suboesophageal ganglion , two pairs of thoracic ganglia, five pairs of abdominal ganglia and connectives between ganglia .Thoracic ganglia were situated in prothorax and mesothoraxt and abdominal ganglia were situated below the peritoneum of 1 -6 belly .The brain and the suboesophageal ganglion of the Scleroderma sichuansis were compared with those of other Hymenoptera species . [ Ch , 3 fig .10 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 428-432.
[Abstract](1162) [PDF](157)
Abstract:
Foreign language quotations from Journal of Zhejiang Forestry College published in 1995 -2004 , were statistically analyzed on several aspects , such as citation amount , document type , language and time distribution , main cited foreign periodicals and their subject distribution .The results showed the each article averaged 4.04 foreign citations , in which periodicals accounted for 74.85 %, books for 12.66 %.English documents accounted for 94.96 %.[ Ch , 6 tab .9 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 433-437.
[Abstract](1158) [PDF](198)
Abstract:
Combination of fine brushwork and freehand brushwork is an important Chinese painting technique , which boasts both the elaborate style of fine brushwork and the simplicity style of freehand brushwork .Such technique was also applied in the construction of traditional Chinese gardens .The fine brushwork in traditional Chinese gardens was expressed by the delicacy of the structures and decorations ;while the freehand brushwork was expressed by the poetic arrangement of the scenery .The application of combined fine brushwork and freehand brushwork technique in the traditional Chinese gardens could help to create the artistic effect of blending imagination and reality , stillness and motion , density and sparseness , openness and closure , and tensity and slackness .[ Ch , 12 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 438-442.
[Abstract](1341) [PDF](231)
Abstract:
The pollution of agro-ecological environment in China are becoming more and more serious .One reason for the phenomenon is the lack of legal safeguard .There are no good laws , strict legal enforcement system and legal regulatory measures to balance the benefits among different parties .It is an urgent task to improve Chinas agroecological environment legislation and legal enforcement system, balance benefits among all parties concerned , and strengthen the construction of legal safeguard for agro-ecological environment protection in China .[ Ch , 32 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 443-448.
[Abstract](1312) [PDF](278)
Abstract:
Through making textual criticism on historical documents and investigation analysis on ancient Torreya grandis Merrillii' trees , results are showed that Torreya grandis Merrillii' is a superior cultivar of Torreya grandis , which is selected from superior trees of Torreya grandis and then cultivated by vegetative propagation . Torreya grandis Merrillii' originated from the Tang Dynasty , expanded culture in Song Dynasty , received scale development in the Yuan , Ming and Qing Dynasties .Because of the long history in application of Torreya grandis and good social economic terms in the Kuaiji mountains area , Zhejiang Province , which made Torreya grandis Merrillii' be protected and developed , Kuaiji mountains area is the country of origin of Torreya grandis Merrillii ' .Torreya grandis Merrillii' is different from common Torreya and other variety types of Torreya grandis with its peculiar morphological character , fine quality and land of origin .Torreya grandis Merrillii' is a improved superior cultivar and a famous products brand , besides traditional Torreya grandis Merrillii' , other variety types cant be called Torreya grandis `Merrillii' .[ Ch , 1 fig .1 tab .20 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 449-453.
[Abstract](1369) [PDF](228)
Abstract:
The design framework of dynamic forest resources monitoring system of Zhejiang Provincewas introduced . The objective of constructing the system was to produce annual reports of forest resources at province and county levels .Three approaches were used to achieve the objective of the system .The first was to increase the monitoring time resolution , i.e ., to monitor the forest annually at all levels including province level , county level and project level .The second was to increase the monitoring space resolution , i.e ., to make the system provide data on forest resources at all levels in the same time .The third was to expand the monitoring components according to the demands of the society and to realize the integrated monitoring of forest resources .[ Ch , 14 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 454-457.
[Abstract](1051) [PDF](172)
Abstract:
Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata)is a fast-growing tree species in the south forest area of China . Planting Chinese firs in succession can result in the degeneration of soil fertility , caused by the accumulation of vanillin in soil .When forest soil is short of nitrogen , the precursor and the energy directly flow down into the combination of sub-metabolites , and soil toxicity will strengthen with the decrease of soil fertility .The generation of the biochemical soil humus can reduce poison .The generation of eco-chemical allelopathic substances can produce poison.Both of them theoretically demonstrate that shortness of nitrogen is a critical factor affecting the two biochemistry processes .Furthermore , the broad-leaved trees in the mixed forest of Chinese firs and broad-leaved trees can supply nitrogen , which can be proved by the normal growth of Chinese fir , no incidence of toxicity and and the increase in the content of humus in soil .The degeneration point of soil fertility in pure Chinese fir planted in succession is identical with the action point of broad-leaved trees in mixed forest of Chinese fir and broad-leaved tree .[ Ch , 1 fig .23 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 458-463.
[Abstract](4463) [PDF](323)
Abstract:
The development of ecotourism study from the perspectives of concept , definition , case study of ecotourism in Japan was reviewed .The measures and features of the ecotourism models in Okinawa Prefecture and Kyoto City were analyzed .In the process of study and development of ecotourism , Japan accumulated richexperience in unification of ecotourism concept , establishment of ecotourism evaluation system , construction of ecotourism demonstration areas , improvement of local residentsawareness of ecotourism resource value , exertion of ecotourism societiesroles and so on .The experience is referential to China .[ Ch , 37 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 458-463.
[Abstract](1311) [PDF](238)
Abstract:
With social and economic development , the ecosystems are degrading more and more seriously .How to protect the existing healthy ecosystems , restore and reconstruct the degraded ecosystems has become one of the most important fields of research .On the basis of introduction on the related concepts such as degraded ecosystem, restoration and reconstruction , and interference , the aims , basic principles , methods and procedures of restoring and reconstructing degraded ecosystems were discussed .The progress of researches into the restoration and reconstruction of several degraded ecosystems in China , including degraded forest ecosystem , degraded grassland ecosystem, degraded wetland ecosystem , deserted mines , degraded island ecosystem and degraded aquatic ecosystem were expatiated .Also some research fields need to be reinforced in the future , namely , forecast of ecosystem degradation , process and mechanism of restoring degraded ecosystems , key technology for restoring and reconstructing degraded ecosystems , standards , methods , technology and index system of evaluating the restoration and reconstruction of degraded ecosystems , the relation between restoring degraded ecosystems and regional sustainable economic development , were put forward .[ Ch , 47 ref .]
2005, 22(4): 469-474.
[Abstract](1193) [PDF](254)
Abstract:
The relationship between carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystem and globe change is the key of environment issues .Forest is the largest reservoir of organic carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem , an important carbon sink and source, which has close relation with peoples activity .Forest soil is the larges reservoir of the forest organic carbon .The advances of domestic and overseas study of the effects of forest management on the soil organic carbon was reviewed .Fertilization of organic and mineral matter would improve the SOC content , and decreasing of cultivation intension , or no-tillage and cover of crop leftover , reduction of summer fallow , would be beneficial for SOC enhancement .It would be suggest that if the soil was not suitable for long cultivation or soil degeneration , the best way was to be the change of the land-use of the soil , re-afforestation and resume and protection of the vegetation .Its aims are to utilize and preserve limited land resource scientifically , to alleviate carbon containing gases emission from soil , to enhance soil carbon sequestration and to improve soil quality .[ Ch , 41 ref .]