2010 Vol. 27, No. 5

Articles
Adsorption kinetics with Zn2+ on bamboo charcoal loaded with chitosan
ZHANG Wen-biao, LI Wen-zhu, JIN Shou-wen, CHEN Bin, REN Hong-xing, SUN Jin
2010, 27(5): 641-645. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.001
[Abstract](4742) [PDF](1981)
Abstract:
A compound absorbent was made from bamboo charcoal and chitosan (bamboo charcoal/chitosan-BCCTS). Then the compound was characterized with a Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM),a Fourier Transform Infrared(FTIR) spectrometer,and X-ray diffraction(XRD). Using BCCTS as the absorption reagent,adsorption to Zn2+ was studied. Results showed that:(1) chitosan was efficiently loaded onto bamboo charcoal forming an increased,but uneven,honeycomb structure with an absorption reagent rate up to 93%. (2) Adsorption characteristics matched those of a vesicular structure with simulation results producing a second order kinetic equation. (3) Comparing the infrared absorption spectrogram results of Zn2+ before and after absorption showed that adsorption sites for Zn2+ on the bamboo charcoal/chitosan absorbent were mainly located at N atoms in NH2 and O atoms in OH and C O groups.[Ch,9 fig. 11 ref.]
Stiffness prediction of laminated flooring
WANG Zhi-qiang, JI Xue-ping, LU Xiao-ning, ZHU Lin
2010, 27(5): 646-650. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.002
[Abstract](4428) [PDF](1213)
Abstract:
On the basis of the classic theory on plywood,the stiffness computation model of laminated flooring was built in this paper. In the model test,the test specimens were under single axial tensile load or pure bending moment load,the strain of face and back plies,x and y were obtained through strain gage,so the experimental and theoretic value of some compliance coefficients were tested. The result from experiments showed the stiffness model could have a good prediction of the stiffness of laminated flooring.[Ch,1 fig. 5 tab. 8 ref.]
Monocular vision technique based real-time location of fire-point in forest
QIU Jin-hong, SHEN Ming-xia, CONG Jing-hua, LI Long-guo
2010, 27(5): 651-658. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.003
[Abstract](4263) [PDF](1514)
Abstract:
To make up for the defects of the traditional manual observation of fire-point location in forest,a real-time location method based on monocular vision technique for fire-point in forest was studied. A geometrical model suitable for identifying the specific location of fire-point in forest was proposed. Meanwhile,a real-time method,used to calculate the FOV (field of view) of camera for monitoring the fire in the forest,was studied. At last,an algorithm based on monocular vision for this purpose was put forward and proved by experiments. The results of experiments indicated that the algorithm satisfied the precision requirements of the real-time location of fire point in forest.[Ch,5 fig. 7 tab. 15 ref.]
Soil biological properties with weed removal in a Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) plantation
XU Qiu-fang, WU Jia-sen, JIANG Pei-kun
2010, 27(5): 659-663. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.004
[Abstract](4145) [PDF](1434)
Abstract:
Clearing weeds in an intensively managed Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) plantation is a common practice;however,this could change soil quality. To test the effects of clearing weeds in a Chinese chestnut plantation on soil biological properties,a field trial was conducted. Treatments of deep plowing,spraying herbicides,cutting and no treating(control) were done in Linan City. Results showed that soil with deep plowed weeds had more abundant soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) compared to the control. The opposite was observed under Chinese chestnuts with weeds cleared using herbicides. The Biolog Micro-plate revealed that soil in the control plot had the greatest microbial biodiversity with the highest C utilization capability. Also,all analyzed soil biological parameters in the weed cutting plots ranked in the middle. Since soil plowing often results in soil erosion,cutting weeds but not plowing them into deep soil is recommended for farmer-managed Chinese chestnut plantations in subtropical zones with high precipitation.[Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 15 ref.]
Soil organic carbon mineralization with urban plant communities in Shanghai
HAO Rui-jun, FANG Hai-lan, SHEN Lie-ying, CHE Yu-ping
2010, 27(5): 664-670. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.005
[Abstract](4245) [PDF](1266)
Abstract:
Soil samples for five typical urban plant communities:Osmanthus fragrans,Lolium perenne,Cinnamomum camphora,Taxodium ascendens,and Bambusa multiplex,were collected in Shanghai Gongqing Forest Park. Laboratory incubation tests were then used to analyze soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and to examine soil organic carbon(SOC) mineralization with its dynamic patterns. Analyses included fitting to a logarithmic equation and a correlation analysis. Results showed that SOC and MBC had significant differences among the different plant communities,but both decreased with increasing soil depth. Daily SOC mineralization was significantly different (P<0.05) with O. fragrans>L. perenne>C. camphora > T. ascendens > B. multiplex. For a given plant community,SOC mineralization decreased as soil depth increased with the extent of decrease different for each plant community. SOC mineralization patterns for all plant communities were alike:decreasing rapidly as incubation began and then being relatively constant fitting a logarithmic equation. Cumulative SOC mineralization was O. fragran>L. perenne>C. camphora> T. ascendens>B. multiplex and was linearly correlated with the incubation time. Thus compare to lawn (L. perenne),deep-rooted plants could increase SOC and MBC,thus increasing the soil carbon pool.[Ch,3 fig. 4 tab. 20 ref.]
Carbon density and allocation in young Jatropha curcas stands of the Honghe Region,Yunnan Province
GU Li-ping, GUO Yong-qing, LANG Nan-jun, YANG Xu, ZE Sang-zi, LI Jiang, RUAN Hong-hua, GU Xiao-ping
2010, 27(5): 671-676. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.006
[Abstract](3955) [PDF](1003)
Abstract:
Stand density of Jatropha curcas and the soil organic carbon content ratio of different organs compared to the whole plant in the Honghe Region,Yunnan Province was determined. Using the mean tree sampling method(20 m 20 m) a regression equation for estimating biomass of different organs in young stands was established,and carbon content ratios were determined with a VARIO EL elemental analyzer. Then vegetative biomass and organic carbon allocation of the stand were calculated. Results showed that the best regression equation for calculating the biomass of young J. curcas was y = 25.005(D2H)0.952. Based on this equation and the sampling plots,biomass of the young forest was 26.03 thm-2. Carbon content ratios for the different organs ranged between 39.35% - 56.74% with fruit = 56.74%,stems = 45.87%,roots = 45.12%,leaves = 39.35%,and the mean carbon content ratio for the whole plant = 47.3%. Also,carbon density was:J. curcas = 5.54 thm-2,shrub-grass = 3.78 thm-2,and litter = 2.59 thm-2. Additionally,the organic carbon content ratio was highest (16.61 gkg-1) at the 0 - 10 cm soil layer depth.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 25 ref.]
Physiological and biochemical characteristics of Jatropha curcas seedlings under osmotic stress
CHEN You-gen, LI Kun, SUN Yong-yu, ZHANG Chun-hua
2010, 27(5): 677-683. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.007
[Abstract](4698) [PDF](1440)
Abstract:
To reveal the effects of drought and water shortage on physiological and biochemical characteristics of Jatropha curcas seedlings,osmotic stress treatments (0,5%,10%,15%,20%,and 30% concentrations of PEG 6000) were applied. Also Duncans multiple comparisons and a correlation analysis were carried out. Results showed that with prolonged stress (up to 10 d),the leaf relative water contents(RWC) with the 15%,20%,and 30% osmotic treatments decreased significantly(P<0.01). For all treatments,soluble protein and chlorophyll,O2- production rate,and protective enzymes super- oxide dismutase(SOD),glutathione reductase(GR),and catalase(CAT) increased then decreased. Compared to the control,Malondialdehyde(MDA) content for the 15% osmotic treatment up to 10 d,significantly increased(P<0.01). A correlation analysis showed significant negative correlations between RWC and 1) MDA(r = -0.483,P<0.05),2) SOD (r = -0.464,P<0.05),and 3) GR (r = -0.453,P<0.05);whereas significant positive(P<0.05) correlations were found between soluble protein content and the protective enzyme activities and chlorophyll(chl) The O2- production rate and MDA were significantly and positively (P<0.01) correlated with SOD or GR activities;while the protective enzymes system activities had significant positive(P<0.01) correlations with chl. Thus,J. curcas seedlings resisted drought stress by increasing the protective enzyme activities which increased its tolerance to osmotic stress. [Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 27 ref.]
Sex-differentiation and number of female flowers for polygamous inflorescences of Jatropha curcas in two drainage basins
LIU Fang-yan, LI Kun, WANG Xiao-qing, ZHANG Chun-hua, LUO Chang-wei, CUI Yong-zhong, PENG Hui
2010, 27(5): 684-690. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.008
[Abstract](4020) [PDF](1169)
Abstract:
Based on random samples(30 trees for each area) and tracking observations,sex-differentiation characteristics and female flower numbers of semi-wild Jatropha curcas in the hot,dry valleys of the Jinshajiang and Red River Basins during the first and second flowering periods were studied. Results showed only a few polygamous inflorescences growing on one-year-old branches in both river basins. Polygamous inflorescence differentiation in both river basins was more than the male inflorescence during the first flowering with slightly less than the male inflorescence in the second flowering. Male flowers more than female flowers in polygamous inflorescence(>15 ∶ 1). In both river basins,during the first flowering,most of the polygamous inflorescences had 6-10 female flowers,and only 2% - 3% had more than 16 female flowers;during the second flowering,the female flowers numbered fewly with more than 80% of the polygamous inflorescences having 1-5 female flowers and no polygamous inflorescences having more than 16 female flowers. Polygamous inflorescence number,female flower number,and the rate of fruiting during the first flowering periods were greater in the Jinshajiang River Basin.[Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 17 ref.]
Short-term effects of anthropogenic disturbances on plant species diversity in undergrowth vegetation for limestone soils of Xuzhou City,Jiangsu Province
CHEN Ping, WAN Fu-xu, GU Tang-hua, LI Meng, QIN Fei, GUAN Qing-wei
2010, 27(5): 691-698. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.009
[Abstract](3998) [PDF](1246)
Abstract:
The objective is to find the effect of anthropogenic disturbances including cultivation and intermediate cutting on forest plantation. Based on data collected from eight plantation plots(eight plant communities) in Xuzhou City,the Patrick(dP),Menhinick(dMe),Simpson(SSP),Shannon-Wiener(SSW),and Pielou(JSW) indices were employed to determine species richness,evenness,and species diversity of eight plant communities. Sorenson indices were also used for coefficiency between two communities. Results showed that:(1) species diversity in shrub and herb layers for the same plantation,except for the Platycladus orientalis community,were:shrub > herb. (2) Species diversity for shrub layers of the eight plantations was:Platycladus orientalis (control-ck) > Koelreuteria paniculata + Platycladus orientalis (downslope) > Platycladus orientalis (2-year-old,2 a) > Platycladus orientalis + Pistacia chinensis > Platycladus orientalis + Celtis sinensis + Firmiana simplex + Robinia pseudoacacia > Ligustrum lucidum + Cedrus deodara (2 a) > Platycladus orientalis + K. paniculata (upslope) > L. lucidum (2 a);for the herb layer diversity was:Platycladus orientalis + Celtis sinensis + F. simplex + R. pseudoacacia > L. lucidum (2 a) > L. lucidum + Cedrus deodara (2 a) > K. paniculata + Platycladus orientalis (downslope) > Platycladus orientalis + Pistacia chinensis > Platycladus orientalis + K. paniculata (upslope) > Platycladus orientalis (2 a) > Platycladus orientalis (ck). Also,(3) Sorenson Indices in plantations were 0.056 0 - 0.585 4 showing fewer common species and greater biodiversity between communities.[Ch,4 tab. 17 ref.]
Community features of rock vegetation of Danxia topography in Mount Jianglangshan,Zhejiang Province
ZHOU Yuan-yuan, WANG Xiao-de, FU Xiu-yu, ZHOU Su-qin, LI Dong
2010, 27(5): 699-705. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.010
[Abstract](4115) [PDF](1623)
Abstract:
There are 6 types of rock vegetation of Danxia topography in Mt. Jianglangshan,namely,moss community,sedum community,Neyraudia montana community,Gesneriaceae community,fern community and woody plant community,relating 71 families,136 genera and 193 species. The dominant families are Ranunculaceae,Crassulaceae,Rosaceae,Leguminosae and Gesneriaceae. There are hardly tall arbors in the upper layer of the community. Although a certain amount of shrub and vine distribute therein,they have relatively low richness and density. The herbs have a striking advantage,relating over 100 species. Species such as Sedum makinoi,Neyraudia montana,Sedum bulbiferum,Selaginella moellendorffi and Conandron ramondioides are so important and widely dispersed species in the community. Moss layer has a comparatively small number of plant species. Its advantage in the saxicolous environment is not yet clear,but has a larger coverage,mostly covering the bare rock cliff. Species such as Racopilum aristatum,Campylopus flexuosus,Trachypus bicolor are dominant. Rock vegetation of Mt. Jianglangshan could grow and breed in the bare rock which is arid,barren and stony,and also plays an important role in protecting and shaping the peculiar Danxia topography.[Ch,4 tab. 25 ref.]
Stability of hybrid larches (Larix) with seedling height growth
ZHANG Lei, ZHANG Han-guo, DENG Ji-feng, GUAN Chun-yu
2010, 27(5): 706-712. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.011
[Abstract](4065) [PDF](1411)
Abstract:
Thirteen treatments of hybrid larch (Larix spp.) were sown and raised in nurseries at seven sites in Heilongjiang,Jilin,and Liaoning Provinces. Pearsons and Spearmans correlation analyses between one-year old and two-year old trees were conducted. Also,seedling stage stability was analyzed,and treatments with high stability and good growth were tested with five models:Eberhart Russell,the additive main-effect and multiplicative interaction(AMMI),the George C. C. Tai,HSC,and Shukla. Results showed significant positive correlations between one-year old and two-year old for Pearsons(r =0.535) and Spearmans (r = 0.536) correlation analyses. For two-year old trees,using the AMMI ANOVA,differents of treatments at each location were extremely significant(P<0.01) with variance components for treatments = 16.00% (P<0.01),locations = 56.25%(P<0.01),and treatment location = 27.75%(P<0.01). Four treatments (Larix kaempferi 5 L. olgensis 78-3,L. gmelinii 9 L. kaempferi 76-2,L. kaempferi 11 L. gmelinii 2,and L. gmelinii 5 L. gmelinii 9) showed good growth and high stability;whereas four treatments(L. gmelinii 12 L. gmelinii 2,L. kaempferi 5 L. gmelinii 9,L. kaempferi 3 L. gmelinii 9,and L. kaempferi 5 L. olgensis 77-3) grew well in some areas.[Ch,1 fig. 6 tab. 13 ref.]
Trait variances of Cornus officinalis fruit from Henan and Zhejiang major producing areas
YU Wei-wu, FU Qing-gong, ZENG Yan-ru, TONG Zai-kang
2010, 27(5): 713-718. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.012
[Abstract](4391) [PDF](1205)
Abstract:
To identify the variance within and between two major producing areas of Cornus officinalis and to lay a theoretical foundation for selection of elite varieties,traits and effective medicinal ingredients from morphologically ripe fruit of individual trees propagated by seeding from Henan and Zhejiang Provinces were collected. Then the following indexes were measured:fruit weight of a single tree;cross-sectional and vertical diameters of a fruit;percentage of fresh fruit flesh;moisture content;content of soluble solid substances;and the content of ursolic acid,oleanolic acid,and loganin. Data showed that:1) among individual trees in the same production area a certain difference in fruit traits and effective medicinal ingredients existed with all indexes showing a similarity within a production area. Also,2) a strong difference between production areas for fruit traits and loganin was found,but no differences for ursolic and oleanolic acids. Additionally,strong intra-specific variance in single fruit weight,soluble solid substance content,and the content of ursolic acid,oleanolic acid,and loganin were found with the average weight of a single fruit from Zhejiang being 1.68 times greater than Henan and an extreme value of 2.52 times. Thus,as an important indicator for future selective breeding,content of ursolic acid,oleanolic acid,and loganin could be considered with selective breeding for yield utilizing the Zhejiang source.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 9 ref.]
Establishment and application of tree species assessment system on fast-growing handle making raw material forests
LI Yin-gang, YING Guang-ming, LIU Xin-hong, HE Xiao-yong, YING Shang-jiao, CHEN Jun-xiao
2010, 27(5): 719-724. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.013
[Abstract](4586) [PDF](1086)
Abstract:
Based on the special requirements for the wooden handle processing,9 indexes of 4 categories affecting raw material species,namely,output characteristic,adaptability,afforestation features and timber properties were used to determine the weight of indexes and build a comprehensive assessment system for the selected 16 cloned tree species through an analytic hierarchy process. The results indicated that DBH and height growth,site requirements,sprout ability and timber properties were main factors affecting target selection. The species with the best comprehensive performance were Liriodendron chinense and Koelreuteria bipinnata var. integrifoliola,the worst were Sapindus mukorossi and Cyclobalanopsis glauca. According to the assessment results,the tree species characteristics,and the recent applications of the tree species in middle Zhejiang,it was suggested that Liriodendron chinense,Camptotheca acuminata,Ilex micrococca,Salix spp.,Liquidambar formosana and Schima superba could be used as the main tree species for the fast-growing handle making material plantation in middle Zhejiang and extended first according to the local conditions. [Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 28 ref.]
Flora of the national key preserved wild plants in Henan Province
YAN Shuang-xi, ZHANG Zhi-xiang
2010, 27(5): 725-733. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.014
[Abstract](4136) [PDF](1404)
Abstract:
The field investigation indicated that there were 30 families,45 genera,51 species and 3 varieties of national preserved wild plants in Henan Province. Of them,13 families,21 genera,25 species and 1 variety were national key preserved wild plants,3 species under the first class protection,22 species and 1 variety under the second class protection. 26 families,36 genera,40 species and 3 varieties were rare,endangered and preserved wild plants,11 species and 1 variety under the second class protection,29 species and 2 varieties under the third class protection. 21 families,25 genera and 31 species and 2 varieties were national preserved wild plants from other province which were cultivated in the Henan Province. The flora character and the life form of national preserved wild plants were analyzed. The character and the ex-situ conservation actuality were discussed.[Ch,5 tab. 17 ref.]
Configuration of species and cultivars of Osmanthus in urban green spaces
LU Shan, HU Shao-qing, CHEN Bo
2010, 27(5): 734-738. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.015
[Abstract](4774) [PDF](1141)
Abstract:
Osmanthus has many kinds of garden plant species with good shape,color,smell and taste. Based on the analysis of Osmanthus species and cultivar resources in China,this paper had an in-depth research on the configuration of Osmanthus with different flower periods,colors and tree shapes in the urban green spaces. Combined with the landscape design requirements of plants,the paper pointed out that in the process of ecological landscape design,on the basis of the Osmanthus plant community landscape configuration requirements,the relationship among Osmanthus,architectures and rocks should be adapted to local conditions by a certain percentage,forming a mutual coordination among populations,beautiful appearance and rich seasonal landscape views. Finally,development trend and requirements of Osmanthus in the modern configuration were discussed. [Ch,11 ref.]
Renewal of urban green space system through four transformations
LIU Yuan, WANG Hao, HUANG Jing, ZHAO Yan, FEI Wen-jun
2010, 27(5): 739-744. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.016
[Abstract](4897) [PDF](1158)
Abstract:
Its a universal and urgent task to reform and renew,optimize and improve the existing urban green space systems in the new round of urban green space system construction for many cities. Taking Wuan City,Hebei Province,as an example,the paper put forward a method of four transformations,namely,transforming the isolated into systematic,transforming the simple into the diversified,transforming the plain into the featured,transforming the backward into the advanced,and explored how to achieve this goal.[Ch,2 fig. 1 tab. 5 ref.]
Inhibitory rate of a coptidis rhizoma decoction against Riemerella anatipestifer bacteria
JI Li-sha, YING Hong-fu, WANG Li-fen, ZHANG Xian-fu
2010, 27(5): 745-749. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.017
[Abstract](3892) [PDF](1041)
Abstract:
To determine the inhibitory rates for effective ingredients of a coptidis rhizoma(Coptis chinensis) decoction against the bacteria Riemerella anatipestifer and to further the study of drugs acting on the outer membrane of a bacterial protein,extractions were made from a coptidis rhizoma decoction made of coptidis rhizoma,cortex phellodendri(Phellodendron amurense),and licorice root (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) using water extraction and alcohol precipitation methods. First,a standard concentration curve for R. anatipestifer was used. Next,bacteria of 250,190,120,50 and 20 L were added to drug concentrations of 115.0,77.0,57.0,46.0,38.0,33.0 and 29.0 gL-1 with three replications. Then,after oscillating the culture for 12 h,the optical density(OD) values were measured. Afterward,the bacterial content for each drug concentration was calculated,the bacterial inhibitory rate was determined,and an analysis of variance was conducted on the inhibition rate. Results showed that for a drug concentration of 38.0 gL-1 and 20 L of R. anatipestifer,the antibacterial rate was 99.99%,whereas with 50 L the rate was 99.98%. However,for 46.0 gL-1,the antibacterial rate against R. anatipestifer with 120 L was 99.99%,with 190 L it was 99.98%,and with 250 L it was 99.98%. The optimal and critical drug concentration for antibacterial action was 29.0 gL-1. It showed a strong antibacterial effect for this medicine indicating further research would be beneficial.[Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 14 ref.]
Farmers’ willingness to adopt ecological management model for Carya cathayensis
XU Yan, SHEN Yue-qin, HUANG Jian-qin, LIN Jian-hua
2010, 27(5): 750-756. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.018
[Abstract](4091) [PDF](1351)
Abstract:
As one of the special forestry industries in Zhejiang Province and the main income sources of local farmers,the Carya cathayensis industrys traditional management model has caused some ecological problems. Therefore it is quite necessary to adopt an ecological management model of the C. cathayensis industry. Taking the main production areas of C. cathayensis in Zhejiang Province,namely,Linan City and Chunan County as examples,the research analyzed the farmers willingness and motivations of ecological management of the C. cathayensis,through a sampling survey of 152 farmer households and participatory group interviews in 5 towns and townships. The results indicated that farmers gave more priority to the benefits in the process of decision-making. The operation cost,technologies and capitals were the main factors affecting farmers willingness to adopt the ecological management and farmers willingness in different regions varied significantly. At last,it was suggested that the ecological management model of the C. cathayensis industry should be promoted through publicizing and education,technical development,forest road construction and better loan services.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 14 ref.]
Evaluation of forest ecosystem services in Chun’an County
WANG Zu-hua, CAI Liang-liang, GUAN Qing-wei, CAI Xia
2010, 27(5): 757-761. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.019
[Abstract](4626) [PDF](1427)
Abstract:
This paper evaluated the main services of forest ecosystem in Chunan County,based on the second forest resources inventory data,and by applying the methods of market value and shadow project. The results indicated that the total value of forest ecosystem services was 224.04 billon yuan in 2008;the ecological value was 4.55 times the socio-economic value. The sequence of the service function values of forests was as follows:erosion control>water storage>forest travel>biodiversity conservation>air quality purification>C fixation and O2 release>provision of forest byproducts. The sequence of the ecological value of different forest types was as follows:broadleaf forest>shrub>conifer>bamboo. The sequence of the unit area value was broadleaf forest>conifer>bamboo>coniferous forest>shrub. In the same type of ecological services,the broadleaf forest had larger unit area values of C fixation and O2 release;water storage and erosion control and the coniferous forest had larger air quality purification.[Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 18 ref.]
Wireless sensor networks and its application in facility agriculture
GAO Feng, LU Shang-qiong, XU Qing-xiang, JIANG Qing-chen
2010, 27(5): 762-769. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.020
[Abstract](4574) [PDF](1416)
Abstract:
Exploring the applications of wireless sensor networks (WSN) in facility agriculture and developing the WSN-based monitoring systems for facility agriculture environment has become a hot research topic. In this research,the general architecture of the WSN-based monitoring system for facility agriculture environment was put forward,the typical application results at home and abroad were reviewed,the main drawbacks of these monitoring systems were analyzed,and the directions for future work were pointed out. The existing WSN-based monitoring systems for facility agriculture environment had many disadvantages in the functionality of sensor networks,the sensors plug-and-play,the interconnection between WSN and wide area networks(WAN),the functionality of the host-computer,the power consumption of sensor nodes,and the security of the monitoring system. These problems should be solved to further enhance the automation and intelligence level of the WSN-based monitoring system for facility agriculture environment,and meet the actual needs of facility agriculture applications.[Ch,2 fig. 1 tab. 33 ref.]
Rural informationization in the mountainous areas of Lin’an City,Zhejiang Province:problems and solutions
YE Fu-quan, HUANG Hong-xing
2010, 27(5): 770-775. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.021
[Abstract](9804) [PDF](1106)
Abstract:
To improve the application level of rural informationization in the mountainous area,it is extremely necessary to go deep into the realities and study them. On the background of informationization of the socialist new countryside in China and through the random questionnaire surveys on local residents and interviews with village leaders,this research studied the status quo of the rural informationization in Shangluo village,Linan City,which included basic information,construction process,serving system,farmers mailbox,e-administration and their performance. Taking Shangluo village as an example,it analyzed the existing difficulties and problems in the process of rural informationization in the mountainous areas of Linan. It is suggested that the government should strengthen the application and extension of the information technology,promote the farmers skill training,enhance the construction of information platform and attract the investment of IT enterprises,to facilitate the healthy development of the rural informationaization in the mountainous areas of Linan.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 9 ref.]
Agricultural intellectual property rights protection and solutions
BI Hui, HUANG Rui-yao, YANG Tong-xu, YUAN Fang
2010, 27(5): 776-780. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.022
[Abstract](4196) [PDF](963)
Abstract:
Chinas agricultural genetic resources are confronted with a severe threat from bio-piracy. However,agricultural intellectual property rights play a significant role in agricultural technological innovation,increase and safety of grain production,and the increase of farmers income as well. This paper discussed the full meaning and the legal protection of agricultural intellectual property rights,analyzed the existing problems in the protection of the agricultural intellectual property rights and their fundamental causes. Solutions to strengthening the protection of the agricultural intellectual property rights were put forward on the basis of the review of the international conventions and successful experiences of foreign countries. It was suggested extending the protection scope for the patent objects and new plant cultivars by various laws and bringing them into benefit-sharing system,making a special law on genetic resources,and defining farmers rights as intellectual property rights.[Ch,8 ref.]
Cloning and expression of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in Phyllostachys nigra
WANG Yi, GUO Xiao-qin, LOU Yong-feng, YANG Hai-yun, LIN Xin-chun, FANG Wei
2010, 27(5): 781-785. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.023
[Abstract](4029) [PDF](1111)
Abstract:
To study the relationship between polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and tissue browning in Phyllostachys nigra,homologous cloning was used to obtain a partial sequence of the PPO gene in Phyllostachys nigra (named PnPPO). The gene structure and the expression pattern in tissue cultured seedlings with different degrees of browning were checked using reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction(RT-PCR). The sequence revealed a homolog of the PPO gene in Oryza sativa and Triticum aestivum with the amino acid belonging to tyrosinase. Also,RT-PCR results showed that with high levels of browning,PnPPO had strong expression. Thus,the expression of PnPPO was related to the degree of browning.[Ch,4 fig. 15 ref.]
Seedling growth and leaf pigments of Cleyera japonica with shade treatments
WU Jiang, LIU Peng, WU Jia-sheng
2010, 27(5): 786-789. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.024
[Abstract](3966) [PDF](1416)
Abstract:
To determine branch yield and quality as well as to provide a theoretical basis for the formulation of cultural practices in a branch-producing plantation of Cleyera japonica,a shading experiment was carried out to measure growth indexes and leaf pigment content with shading treatments of 100% full-light (control),50%,20% and 12%. Results showed that(1) chlorophyll a,chlorophyll b,and anthocyanin in the leaf of C. japonica increased with an increase in shading with chlorophyll a,b and anthocyanin highest with the 12% shading treatment,which was significantly more than the control. (2) With 50% shading,seedling height,diameter,biomass,root to shoot ratio,specific leaf area were highest,whereas leaf spacing was lowest. As shading intensity increased from 50% to 12%,seedling growth was inhibited. Since the one-layer shading treatment (50%) promoted seedling growth,increased chlorophyll content,and reduced leaf spacing,utilization of C. japonica branches increased.[Ch,3 tab. 15 ref.]
Analysis of metallic elements in Porphyra haitanensis by ICP-OES
DU Li-hua, JIANG Hao, XUE Liang-yi, RUAN Xiao, WANG Qiang
2010, 27(5): 790-793. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.025
[Abstract](3942) [PDF](1040)
Abstract:
To explore the altar of the rapid detection Porphyra haitanensis metal elements,a new method for analyzing the contents of metallic elements,such as As,Cd,Cr,Hg,Pb,and Zn in Porphyra haitanensis by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was developed. Three representative areas were chosen at Qidong(Jiangsu Province),Xiangshan (Zhejiang Province),and Fuding (Fujian Province) to collect the samples. The samples processing procedures involve two steps,being first decomposed by standing digestion,and then by microwave digestion at different temperature gradient (100 ℃,180 ℃,100 ℃) each for 10 minutes. Standard curve method was used as quantification of samples;the interference was eliminated by the digestion solvent. This method showed satisfactory precision and accuracy with the relative standard deviation(RSDs) between 0.35% and 5.14%. The recovery rates of As,Cd,Cr,Hg,Pb and Zn were between 95.8% and 105.3%,89.0% - 98.0%,93.0% - 103.2%,90.5% - 96.0%,86.5 % - 107.5% and 94.7% - 98.4%,respectively. Survey also found that the Cd in Qidong the content is 3.57 mgkg-1,Pb level 2.15 mgkg-1;Xiangshan in the sample Hg content is 1.54 mgkg-1;a sample of Zn in Fuding the content is 161.12 mgkg-1,from metal content were exceeds bid badly. [Ch,3 tab. 10 ref.]
Physical properties and chemical composition of a hemp core
TANG Xiao-li, MA Ling-fei
2010, 27(5): 794-798. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.026
[Abstract](3902) [PDF](1295)
Abstract:
With reference to the national standard for physical and chemical properties of wood and the raw material for paper,the main physical and mechanical properties of a hemp core were analyzed. Results showed that the air-dry density of the hemp core wall was 0.240 gcm-3;whereas the hemp core was 0.193 gcm-3;the air-dried tangential shrinkage ratio for the hemp core wall was 5.68%,but for the hemp core it was 7.37%. Water absorption for the hemp core and the hemp core wall increased over time maintaining a balance for up to 12 d. Additionally,holocellulose of the hemp core was 799.1 gkg-1,the acid insoluble lignin was 191.6 gkg-1,the hot water extractive was 56.6 gkg-1,the cold water extractive was 42.6 gkg-1,and the benzene and alcohol extractive was 57.2 gkg-1. Also,the 10.0 gkg-1 NaOH extractive was 308.1 gkg-1,the ash content was 14.8 gkg-1,and the moisture content was 95.8 gkg-1.[Ch,2 fig. 5 tab. 7 ref.]
Vertical densification gradient of Populus deltoides lumber with vertical density profile (VDP) technology
XU Xin-wu, CUI Yue, TANG Zheng-jie
2010, 27(5): 799-802. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.027
[Abstract](4782) [PDF](1254)
Abstract:
Plantation wood,as a potential substitute for naturally grown wood used in flooring or furniture manufacture,is normally characterized by low-density and low-hardness,which compression can improve. To accurately locate and quantify the compression rate (CR) of Populus deltoides (poplar) lumber at each micro-layer of densified fast-growing wood,vertical density profile (VDP) technology was introduced. The 12 mm thick,fast-growing poplar lumber was compressed under 1 MPa at 100 ℃ for 2,3,and 5 min. Corresponding VDP data were transformed into CR data following a deduced mathematical equation and then graphically analyzed. Results showed that the compression rate distribution (CRD),having a V-shaped curve,was similar to VDP with a maximum surface CR of 34% - 37%. Meanwhile,the thickness in a core showed no great compression. Overall,VDP technology precisely quantified the different compression rates for different micro-layers of P. deltoides lumber.[Ch,4 fig. 7 ref.]
Light medium formulas for container seedlings of three broadleaf tree species
LIU Wei, CHEN Zheng-jin, LI Yin-gang, ZHANG Xian-xiang, ZHOU Shan-sen
2010, 27(5): 803-808. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.05.028
[Abstract](3678) [PDF](1242)
Abstract:
For bi-level,multi-objective decision-making,the effects of four light medium formulas (peat soil,perlite,waste mushroom-stick,and rice chaff) on container seedling quality of three broadleaf tree species:Schima superba,Phoebe sheareri,and Dalbergia hupeana,were studied. A single shape barycenter design with four mediums,three species,and three levels having 30 replications was used. Results of the medium formulas showed significant differences(P<0.01) in species for height,ground diameter,ratio of height to diameter,biomass,and quality index. For peat soil,70% peat promoted growth,60% peat showed moderate growth,and 40% peat inhibited growth. For best production,P. sheareri having early but slow growth should use a medium that promotes growth,S. superba having moderate growth should use a medium that moderately promotes growth,and D. hupeana having fast growth should use a medium that inhibits growth.[Ch,6 tab. 9 ref.]