2010 Vol. 27, No. 6

Continuum removal based hyperspectral characteristic analysis of leaves of different tree species
DING Li-xia, WANG Zhi-hui, GE Hong-li
2010, 27(6): 809-814. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.001
[Abstract](5978) [PDF](3777)
The development of hyperspectral remote sensing technology enables the precise identification of tree species possible. Because hyperspectral data are characterized by multiple bands,large database and great redundancy,the extraction and selection of the spectral characteristics is a very important process when identifying the tree species with hyperspectral remote sensing technology. The method of continuum removal was used to deal with the original spectral data of four tree species measured by ASD hyperspectral instrument. The curves of the original spectrum and the continuum removal were compared and the bands with greater differences were selected to identify the different tree species. Then the Euclidean distance method was used to test the selective bands identifying different tree species. The results showed that the continuum removal was an effective method of feature band extraction. Eight effective bands were selected with the continuum removal,including 484-493,670-679,971-980,1 162-1 171,1 435-1 444,1 773- 1 782,1 918-1 927 and 2 455-2 464 nm. They could identify different tree species effectively.[Ch,5 fig. 2 tab. 11 ref.]
ree’s 3D coordinates positioned by two-side intersection with total station
XU Wen-bing, TANG Meng-ping
2010, 27(6): 815-820. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.002
[Abstract](4154) [PDF](1387)
In forest inventory,poor visibility caused by trees and shrubs often lowers the positioning accuracy and efficiency,sometimes even makes the survey difficult to carry out. Free-station method of total station can work well in poor visibility conditions. Due to relatively low accuracy required in forest inventory and in order to calculate conveniently in field,two-side intersection method is more suitable. When observing two sides,the method of missing line measurement can timely detect accuracy of measured length. It is unnecessary to aim straight at the mark and measure of instrument height if three-dimensional coordinates of the instrument center are directly calculated. Practices indicate that the side length error of inventory unit can be less than 5 cm,the relative error is less than 1/200,and closing error of sample plot is less than 1/2 of averagee distance between adjacent trees.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 12 ref.]
Determining stand density from growth indicators for young Pinus tabulaeformis in the Miyun Reservoir,Beijing
LI Xiao-hong, GAO Jia-rong, ZHANG Jin-rui, YANG Qi-lin
2010, 27(6): 821-825. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.003
[Abstract](4476) [PDF](1223)
To determine a reasonable density for cultivating and managing forests,stand density,an important element for controlling growth characteristics and for determining the impact on growth laws,was studied. Young Pinus tabulaeformis with six stand densities(1 050,1 850,2 355,3 825,5 133,and 5 533 stemshm-2) and stand ages of 10,15,20,and 25 years with the same growing conditions in the Miyun Reservoir of Beijing were measured. Results showed that density had a strong negative relationship to diameter at breast height (DBH)(r = - 0.757,P<0.01) and volume of timber(r = - 0.618,P<0.01),had a negative relationship to height(r = - 0.479,P<0.05),and had no negative relationship to stock volume. Overall,there were positive relationships between forest age and growth indicators(P<0.01). According to growth indicators and plant production,a stand density of 1 800 - 2 300 stemshm-2 was suggested.[Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 12 ref.]
Feature extraction and recognition of wood micrograph based on FFT and ICA
FANG Yi-ming, ZHENG Hong-ping, FENG Hai-lin
2010, 27(6): 826-830. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.004
[Abstract](4438) [PDF](1388)
Wood recognition plays an important role in wood science and industry. A new method for wood micrograph feature extraction and wood recognition is proposed. The fast Fourier transform(FFT) is firstly used to get power spectrum of wood micrograph,then the independent component analysis algorithm is performed to extract feature which is the coefficient of wood micrograph projecting to the independent components. Finally the wood can be recognized by classifying the coefficients using support vector machines. A small sample experiment using 200 wood micrographs indicates a high recognition rate and effectiveness of the method.[Ch,4 fig. 12 ref.]
Nitrogen application to enhance zinc and cadmium uptake by the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii
ZHANG Yuan-yuan, DOU Chun-ying, YAO Fang1, YE Zheng-qian
2010, 27(6): 831-838. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.005
[Abstract](4917) [PDF](998)
Two hydroponic culture experiments were conducted in a glasshouse to understand the effect of nitrogen (N) nutrition on growth and the zinc and cadmium (Zn/Cd) uptake by Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. Results showed that both low(0.50 mmolL-1) and excessive(>5.00 mmolL-1) supply of N impaired growth of plant dry matter and reduced plant uptake of Zn and Cd. By contrast,2.50 - 5.00 mmolL-1 of N improved plant growth,increased concentrations of Zn(to 12.00 gkg-1) and Cd (to 2.00 gkg-1) in the shoots,and enhanced partitioning of Zn and Cd from roots to shoots. Thus,to maximize heavy metal phytoremediation efficacy for Zn/Cd contaminated soils in the field,optimal N fertilization of S. alfredii is required.[Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 15 ref.]
Water loss in growth media with continuous drought
ZHANG Xiao-qing, ZHANG Jin-chi, WANG Li, MENG Li, HUANG Jing
2010, 27(6): 839-844. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.006
[Abstract](4165) [PDF](1103)
With spray sowing,water loss in the growth medium directly affects seed germination and seedling growth. Using time-domain reflectometry(TDR),the volumetric water content(VWC) of the growth medium which composed of the same materials in a greenhouse pot culture was measured. Four plant species were cultured with three repeats for each species. Regression equations were established for the progress of water loss to show the regulation and key drought time points of the water loss in growth medium. After seeding with Trifolium repens and Cosmos bipinnatus(44 d),Amorpha fruticosa(45 d),and Lolium perenne(43 d),evaporation was near 0 with 90% of the seedlings having withered. Water content in the growth medium decreased the most between 12 : 00 - 13 : 00 followed by a strong decrease from 13 : 00 - 15 : 00. Also,water condensation was minimal at night. Regression equations composed of temperature,humidity,time,and VWC showed highly significant correlation(R2>0.92).Water content in the 0 - 5 cm layer was always lower than the 5 - 10 and 10 - 15 cm layers. In addition,the rate of water loss in layer 10 - 15 cm was slow in earlier and later stages,but fast in the middle stage. After about 19 d,water content of the three layers was about the same.[Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 19 ref.]
Shapes and nutrients of Dendrocalamopsis oldhami bamboo shoots in 12 production areas
ZHENG Rong, ZHENG Wei-peng, FANG Wei, HUANG Yao-hua, ZHANG Shan-shan
2010, 27(6): 845-850. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.007
[Abstract](4119) [PDF](1273)
Shape indexes(diameter,height,gross weight,and net weight) and nutrient components (hydrolyzed amino acids,reducing sugars,total sugars,crude protein,crude fiber,ash,and water) of Dendrocalamopsis oldhami bamboo shoots in 12 main production areas(Fuan,Youxi,Yongtai,Yongchun,Zhangping,Tongan,Zhangzhou,and Longyan of Fujian Province as well as Fengling,Cangnan,Daidi,and Longhu of Zhejiang Province) were studied with a correlation analysis being used on shoot quality traits. Results showed significant differences(P<0.01) for shape indexes in different production areas,and the coefficient of variation(C.V.) was 13.3% - 36.1%. Also,the edible rates were highest in the Zhangzhou,Fuan,and Fengling areas reaching 77% - 82%. Total hydrolyzed amino acids were higher in the Longyan,Cangnan,Longhu,Tongan,Zhangzhou,and Zhangping areas,and nutrient accumulation in the bamboo shoots showed marked differences(P<0.01),especially for crude fiber,reducing sugars,and total sugars. In addition,the correlation analysis showed high sugar content with low fiber content,and total sugars was negatively correlated to total ash (r = - 0.594 3,P<0.051). Higher available nutritional components(averaging of 85.05%) were found in Fuan,Yongtai,Cangnan,and Youxi areas. Thus,these three areas,having a long cultivation history and utilizing scientific bamboo management techniques,could provide a reference for better cultivation and management of D. oldhami. [Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 11 ref.]
Aluminum stress with seed germination and seedling growth in Phyllostachys pubescens
LENG Hua-nan, ZHENG Kang-le, LI Guo-dong, GUI Ren-yi
2010, 27(6): 851-857. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.008
[Abstract](4451) [PDF](1189)
Based on the effects of different aluminum (Al) concentrations (0,50,200,500,and 2 000 molL-1) on seed germination,seedling root growth,superoxide dismutase (SOD),peroxidase (POD),and malondialdehyde (MDA) in Phyllostachys pubescens (moso bamboo),this study determined the level of Al tolerance for moso bamboo through comparison with two rice cultivars:Oryza sativa IR1552(Al-sensitive) and Oryza sativa Azucena(Al-tolerant). Results showed that an Al concentration of 200 molL-1 did not significantly inhibit seed germination of moso bamboo,whereas with 500 molL-1,germination was inhibited but not significantly. Also,an Al concentration of 2 000 molL-1 resulted in 50% survival. For the 500 molL-1 Al treatment,seedling root growth was inhibited in 1 d,and with continued Al stress growth within 3 d did not recover. However,with continued Al stress,root growth in IR1552 recovered within 3 d. Meanwhile,with Al stress for 3 d,there was no significant increase of SOD activity in the root tips of moso bamboo (P = 0.153 1),but POD activity for moso bamboo(P = 0.018 0),IR1552 and Azucena(P<0.05) were significant. In addition,POD activity and MDA content in the root tips of moso bamboo were higher than in IR1552. These results showed that P. pubescens had a lower Altolerance than IR1552indicating a moderate Al-tolerance in plants.[Ch,3 fig. 3 tab. 29 ref.]
Photosynthetic characteristics of three species of liana seedlings in different light environments
WANG Hai-yan, YU Li-fei
2010, 27(6): 858-864. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.009
[Abstract](4282) [PDF](1292)
One-year-old liana seedlings of Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis,Mucuna sempervirens,and Pueraria lobata were grown in full light (control) and three less than full light conditions:68% - 75% of full light (S1),40% - 49% (S2),and 10% - 21% (S3) with photosynthetic characteristics of light saturation point,light compensation point,total chlorophyll,chlorophyll a/b,and root-shoot ratio being studied. Results showed that the light saturation and light compensation points of M. sempervirens were highest,whereas P. lobata were both lowest. The light saturation point of H. nepalensis var. sinensis was high,and its light compensation point was low. In 10% - 21% of full light (S3),the total chlorophyll of P. lobata (2.888 mgg-1),M. sempervirens (2.242 mgg-1),and H. nepalensis var. sinensis (2.955 mgg-1) were highest. The chlorophyll a/b ratio in different light environments also showed strong differences. Additionally,the root-shoot ratio of the three liana seedlings in different light environments increased with increasing light. From these results,M. sempervirens was shade intolerant,P. lobata was shade tolerant for a narrow range of light,and H. nepalensis var. sinensis was somewhat shade tolerant for a wide range of light.[Ch,3 fig. 3 tab. 21 ref.]
Photosynthetic characteristics with four cultivars of Aster novae-angliae
JIANG Wen-wei, CHEN Ya-qiong, HUANG Jian-rong, SUN Lei
2010, 27(6): 865-871. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.010
[Abstract](4163) [PDF](975)
One-year-old cuttings of four cultivars of Aster novae-angliae,Purple Dome,Herbstschnee,Barrs Pink,and Andenken an Alma Potschke,were studied to determine their photosynthetic physio-ecological characteristics using a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. Results indicated that the light adaptive capacity was high and in the order:Purple Dome > Herbstschnee>Barrs Pink>Andenken an Alma Potschke with light compensation and saturation points differing. For apparent quantum yield,the order was:Herbstschnee > Andenken an Alma Potschke>Purple Dome >Barrs Pink;and for the dark respiration rate it was:Andenken an Alma Potschke>Purple Dome>Herbstschnee>Barrs Pink. These four cultivars had strong diurnal changes in the net photosynthetic rate with single-peaked curves at midday in spring and autumn,but double-peaked curves in summer. These peak net photosynthetic rates were earlier in spring than in summer or winter. Double-peaked curves had greater initial peaks,and the photosynthetic noon break was strong at midday in summer(midday depression of photosynthesis). A multivariate stepwise regression showed that the key environmental factors influencing the net photosynthetic rate included photosynthetically active radiation(PAR),air temperature,and leaf temperature;however,these differed for each cultivar.[Ch,3 fig. 3 tab. 21 ref.]
Understory light environment and canopy structure of six coastal protection forests on the north coast of Hangzhou Bay
CHENG Xiang-rong, FENG Li, YU Mu-kui, LIU Zhi-long, ZHANG Cui, WANG Zong-xing, GE Le
2010, 27(6): 872-876. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.011
[Abstract](3964) [PDF](1108)
The canopy structure and environmental characteristics from understory light for six coastal protection forest stands(Taxodium ascendens mucronatum,Ailanthus altissima Hongye,Fraxinus pennsylvanica,Gleditsia triacanthos,Sapium sebiferum,and Ligustrum lucidum)on the north coast of Hangzhou Bay were measured by Tracing Radiation and Canopy Architecture(TRAC). Results showed that the canopy gap fraction of the T. ascendens mucronatum stand was greater than the other five stands which had no major difference between them. The stand leaf area index (LAI) was opposite of the gap fraction with the average LAI of S. sebiferum and L. lucidum significantly(P<0.05)higher than the other stands with the other four stands being about the same. Leaf clumping was significantly(P<0.05)lower for the A. altissima Hongye stand with the other five stands about the same. Understory photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) for the six stands had significantly(P<0.05) differences with the order of light intensity as:T. ascendens mucronatum > G. triacanthos > A. altissima Hongye,F. pennsylvanica > S. sebiferum > L. lucidum.[Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 18 ref.]
Community structure and regeneration types of Neolitsea sericea in Tiantong,Zhejiang Province
YANG Tong-hui, WANG Liang-yan
2010, 27(6): 877-883. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.012
[Abstract](3776) [PDF](945)
Neolitsea sericea,a rare tree species,is mainly distributed in the Zhoushan Archipelago Region. In Tiantong of Ningbo,the natural distribution of the N. sericea community(1 200 m2) was found within surveying ecological service forests. To determine the structure and quantify the N. sericea community,all woody species within 30 m30 m quadrats were identified and measured. Then,based on size-class and frequency distribution patterns,woody plant species were categorized into regeneration types. Forty-one species of plants,belonging to 21 families,were recorded in the woody layer with four dominant species. Woody species regeneration was categorized into four types:Inverse-J,Unimodal,Unibar,and L (layering) type,with N. sericea being an Inverse-J type species. Thus,N. sericea,which regenerated through new stems and sprouts,was a long-lived,dominant woody species in the community. The habitat of this shrub community was similar to that of Damao Island,whereas its leaves were mostly like those of Putuo Island.[Ch,2 fig. 1 tab. 24 ref.]
Selection and variation of Cryptomeria fortunei provenances in Fujian Province
HUANG Xin-jin
2010, 27(6): 884-889. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.013
[Abstract](4313) [PDF](1136)
Growth and wood quality traits of three Cryptomeria fortunei provenance tests established in the Yangmeiling State-owned Forest Farm of Fujian Province were surveyed and analyzed. The test forest established in 1979 was surveyed in 2005,whereas the forests established in 1981 and 1982 were appraised in 2007. Results among Cryptomeria fortunei provenances showed significant differences (P<0.05 or P<0.01) in tree height,diameter at breast height(DBH),volume,and wood eccentricity. Altogether 13 superior provenances,including Fujian Yangmeiling,Luoyuang Xilan,and Jiangxi Lushan,were selected. The average genetic gains were 7.2% for tree height,9.2% for DBH,and 27.9% for volume with an average wood eccentricity of 0.18%. Also,good resistance to cold and strong typhoons was found. These superior provenances should be employed extensively.[Ch,5 tab. 12 ref.]
Plant stress-resistant gene cloning for Na and Cd using an INVSc1 yeast
SONG Hong-gai, JIANG Jing, QIAO Gui-rong, YANG Ye, ZHOU Jing, PAN Luan-yin, ZHUO Ren-ying
2010, 27(6): 890-895. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.014
[Abstract](4975) [PDF](1104)
To provide a basis for studying a new stress-related gene of Salix matsudana and Sedum alfredii,the salt-stress induced full-length cDNA Library of Salix matsudana and the cadmium-stress induced,full-length cDNA Library of Sedum alfredii were constructed using an improved switching mechanism at 5 end of RNA transcript (SMART) method. The full-length cDNA fragment was linked to the yeast vector pYES2.1,and then the linked product was transferred onto the yeast INVSc1. Concentrations of NaCl and cadmium stress were utilized to construct yeast transformants library. Growth performance of yeast recombinants and their control with an empty vector were tested under the control(0),high salinity (1 molL-1 NaCl),or high cadmium(150 molL-1 cadmium) conditions. Also,a bioinformatics analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were conducted. Results for the yeast transformants library revealed two positive transformants with a tolerance of 1.709 molL-1 NaCl and two positive transformants with a tolerance of 0.123 mmolL-1 cadmium. Growth rates of the recombinants with cDNA protein under the non-stress condition indicated that the expression of cDNA was not deleterious to yeast growth. Compared to the control,yeast cells expressing cDNA showed a shorter lag period when transferred to a medium containing high salinity and high cadmium. The results of a bioinformatics analysis and real-time PCR showed that the No. 6 salt-tolerant transformant gene was a salt-resistant related gene. This study showed that the expression of cDNA could confer salt and cadmium tolerance in yeast and provided an important tool for establishing an efficient system of stress-resistant gene cloning using the yeast INVSc1.[Ch,9 fig. 12 ref.]
Floristic analyses of seed plants in Shiyang Forest Park, Zhejiang Province
WU Qing-ling, DING Bing-yang, CHEN Xuan-xing
2010, 27(6): 896-902. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.015
[Abstract](4251) [PDF](1170)
To provide basic data for biodiversity protection of Shiyang Forest Park,which is mainly above 400 m,in Wencheng County,specimens were identified,a seed plant list was compiled,and seed plant floral characteristics were analyzed. Results showed that seed plants included 132 families,440 genera,and 726 species with 43 newly record species for the Wenzhou geographical distribution area. The 440 genera were divided into 14 areal types except Central Asia in this area compared to China. For these genera 44.2% were tropical and 53.4% temperate with nine Chinese endemic genera and 10 species belonging to Chinese key wild protected plants and rare or endangered species. Thus,transitional floristic elements from temperate and tropical climes characterized the flora,but due to its elevation,temperate types dominated. These seed plants could be important for biodiversity protection in Shiyang Forest Park.[Ch,3 tab. 17 ref.]
Numerical classification of the Lagerstroemia indica cultivars
GU Cui-hua, WANG Shou-xian, TIAN Miao
2010, 27(6): 903-907. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.016
[Abstract](5916) [PDF](1005)
Based on the investigation of Lagerstroemia indica cultivars,according to their morphological features,51 Lagerstroemia indica cultivars,Lagerstroemia subcostata and Lagerstroemia limii were studied through the numerical taxonomy cluster analysis to build a complete Lagerstroemia indica classification system. Results of the Q cluster analysis indicated that germplasm source could be used as the first classification criteria and the flower color could be used as the second classification criteria. In accord with the traditional classification practice,the clustering results were reasonable.[Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 6 ref.]
Two new plant varieties from Putuo Island,Zhejiang Province
LI Gen-you, CHEN Zheng-hai, HU Jun-fei, JIN Shui-hu, MA Dan-dan, OU Dan-yan
2010, 27(6): 908-909. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.017
[Abstract](4447) [PDF](1055)
Two new varieties,Ficus pumila Linn. var. microcarpa G.Y. Li et Z.H. Chen and Rhododendron simsii Planch. var. putuoense G.Y. Li et Z.H. Chen were found on Putuo Island,Zhejiang Province. Compared to F. pumila var. pumila,F. pumila var. microcarpa had smaller achenes,elliptical or broadly elliptical leaves 2.0 - 4.0 cm in length and 1.7 - 2.6 cm in diameter with an obtuse apex,smaller leaves on fertile branchlets,and usually a roll down margin. Also,R. simsii var. putuoense,having a purplish red corolla,differed from R. simsii var. simsii. [En,2 fig. 5 ref.]
Public awareness and willingness to pay for forest carbon sequestration services
WANG Jing, SHEN Yue-qin, ZHU Zhen, CHENG Yan-gen, BAO Ze-qin, HOU Bi-cheng
2010, 27(6): 910-915. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.018
[Abstract](4274) [PDF](991)
he public awareness of forest carbon sequestration services and their willingness to pay for them are the basis to understand the demands for the forest carbon sequestration. On the basis of the review of the current domestic and international research on forest carbon sequestration,this research chose Hangzhou area as the survey site,randomly surveyed 220 people and obtained 212 valid questionnaires. The results of the SPSS analysis had the following indications. (1) The public had certain knowledge on forests ecological functions. There was a good basis of public awareness to pay for the forest carbon sequestration services,particularly there was a great potential on the purchase of ecological lottery. (2) There was a strong public willingness to buy forest carbon sequestration services,and different groups willingness to buy forest carbon sequestration services were different. Meanwhile,Logistic analysis showed the main factors affecting public willingness to buy forest carbon sequestration services included willing to pay for personal carbon emissions,whether the forest service to absorb carbon dioxide should be compensated,awareness of the role of forests on carbon sequestration,the necessity for individual emission reduction and gender. Finally,conclusions and two suggestions were made.[Ch,5 tab. 9 ref.]
Emergy analysis of ecological economic system and sustainability assessment of the Mount Mogan Scenic Area
DING Xiao-rong, WANG Li-lin
2010, 27(6): 916-922. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.019
[Abstract](8191) [PDF](1159)
The emergy analysis theory and method were applied to choose and establish an evaluation system of emergy indexes which was used to study the Mount Mogan Scenic Areas ecological system from natural and economic ecology perspectives and quantitatively analyzed the basic ecological flow of the system by a series of emergy indexes. The results indicated that the emergy application sum of the Mount Mogan Scenic Area in 2008 was 9.90 1018 J;the input emergy was 9.14 1018 J;the output emergy was 7.58 1017 J;the economic income and the feedback were 6.15 1018 J and 3.75 1018 J respectively;the net economic profit ratio was 53.22 per cent;the ecological yield ratio was 29.27;the environmental loading ratio was 12.01;the emergy index of sustainable development ability was 0.84. The results indicated that the Mount Mogan Scenic Area had long development history and more accumulation of basic emergy. It maintained a long term proper economic feedback. The ecological environment had been improved and the economic benefits had been increased. It had more sustainable development ability. However,the environment loading ratio was comparatively high,and the pressure from the tourism was increasing annually. So it is suggested expanding the territorial scope of the Mount Mogan Scenic Area,controlling the number of tourists properly,innovating the mode of tourism,making multiemergy flow sequentially,then the system will accomplish sustainable,healthy and harmonious development.[Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 16 ref.]
A scenic beauty estimation model for a natural secondary forest
LI Jun-ying, YAN Hong-wei, TANG Qiang, ZHU Yue
2010, 27(6): 923-927. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.020
[Abstract](4339) [PDF](1147)
This research determined a model of the visual qualities in a natural plant community by employing a scaling procedure that represented a visual preference of scenic beauty by using scenic beauty estimation(SBE) based on a survey of the plant community on Tianzhu Mountain of Shenyang. By relating SBE and the structural characteristics of the plant community,the value of scenic beauty estimation model of the forest landscape was developed. This study provided an empirically tested basis for forest park planning,management,and further research.[Ch,2 tab. 15 ref.]
Research progress on the hollow-bearing trees in forest ecosystems
杨廉雁, 张树斌, 郑征
2010, 27(6): 928-934. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.021
[Abstract](4384) [PDF](994)
Hollow-bearing trees are key components of forest ecosystems,which play important roles in the biodiversity conservation,especially for hollow-dependent fauna. This paper describes the progress on the research of hollow-bearing trees over recent years. First,the paper explains the definition of hollow-bearing trees and types of tree hollow and the roles of biotic factors,abiotic factors and tree characteristics in the process of tree hollow formation in forests. Second,the paper summarizes the abundance and distribution of hollow-bearing trees and hollows. Finally,the paper presents the roles on biodiversity conservation of forest ecosystems.[Ch,47 ref.]
Oil content of Camellia oleifera fruit trees
LI Zhang-ju, HUA Jia-qi, ZENG Yan-ru
2010, 27(6): 935-940. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.022
[Abstract](4769) [PDF](1598)
Oil content in Camellia oleifera fruits and seeds is an important economic trait. Multiyear and multi-site investigations,sampling and analyses have identified the factors influencing oil content,such as genetic quality,seed maturity,fruiting number,and soil parent materials of a seeded C. oleifera plantation. Based on single tree-based mean values,variation ranges and variation coefficients in the oil content of either fresh fruits or dry kernels,strong and stable variations in oil content of the fruit and seeds among individual trees were found. Studies on the relationship between seed maturity and oil content as well as that between fruiting number and oil content showed that seed maturity had a positive effect on oil content and fruiting number had a negative effect on oil content,the latter of which has been confirmed by a regressive analysis. Also except for extreme drought in one or two years,there was no obvious relationship between climatic conditions during fruit development and oil content. Seed oil from trees grown on limestone or purple sandy soils rich in calcium was relatively high. Thes conformed with results outside China that showed tree-oil crops preferred calcareous soils. [Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 11 ref.]
Pollen germination in Camellia oleifera with ascorbic acid and plant growth regulators
TAN Xiao-feng, YUAN De-yi, YUAN Jun, LIAO Ting
2010, 27(6): 941-944. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.023
[Abstract](4506) [PDF](1094)
The effects of ascorbic acid(AsA) and plant growth regulators,such as gibberellic acid (GA3),naphthalene acetic acid (NAA),2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-D),and indoleacetic acid (IAA) on pollen germination percentage of Camellia oleifera Huashuo were studied with in vitro tissue culture. Results for AsA alone showed that an optimal concentration of 20 mgL-1 increased(P<0.05) the pollen germination rate to 65.9%,which was 23.8% higher than the control(no AsA). The optimal concentration for GA3 alone was 10.0 mgL-1 with a pollen germination rate of 74.22%(P<0.05). The best germination rate was found with 1.0 mgL-1 NAA,1.0 mgL-1 2,4-D),and 5.0 mgL-1 IAA respectively. However,the best results (pollen germination of 82.91%) was with a combination of 5.0 mgL-1 IAA + 5.0 mgL-1 GA3 + 20.0 mgL-1 AsA.[Ch,3 fig. 3 tab. 13 ref.]
Establishing and optimizing the SRAP-PCR system for Salix matsudana
WANG Hong-ling, ZHANG Jue, JIAO Zhong-yi, SHI De-zong
2010, 27(6): 945-949. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.024
[Abstract](4207) [PDF](925)
To enrich the molecular marker method for willow trees,an improved reaction system from a sequence-related amplified polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (SRAP-PCR) of Salix matsudana(Hankow willow) was obtained with an orthogonal design. In addition,the temperatures for two annealing methods were optimized in the PCR amplifier and a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(PAGE) was employed. Results showed that the reaction system was 20.84 nkat Taq,2.00 L Mg2+(25.00 mmolL-1),2.50 L deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs)(2.50 mmolL-1 each),1.50 L primer(20.00 molL-1),100.00 ng template,and 2.50 L 10 Taq buffer in 25.00 L. The program was as follows:94 ℃ for 2.0 min;then,for 5 cycles,94 ℃ for 1.0 min,38 ℃ for 1.0 min,and 72 ℃ for 1.5 min;next,at 30 cycles,94 ℃ for 1.0 min,54 ℃ for 1.0 min,and 72 ℃ for 1.5 min;and finally 72 ℃ for 10.0 min. Results of PAGE showed that clarity and amount of information increased with the new procedure. Thus,this superior method could be used for research on S. matsudana.[Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 12 ref.]
Photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics with five Rubus species
SUN Jun-wei, LI Su-fang, JIN Song-heng
2010, 27(6): 950-955. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.025
[Abstract](4527) [PDF](960)
Photosynthetic pigment content,gas exchange response,and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for photosynthetic photon flux densities(PFD) in five Rubus species,i.e. Rubus lambertianus,R. buergeri,R. corchorifolius,R. parvifolius,and R. hirsutus,were determined. PED were 10 levels of 2 000,1 500,1 200,1 000,800,500,200,100,50,0(the control) molm-2s-1. Results showed that in R. hirsutus the calculated maximum net photosynthetic rate(Pmax),light saturation point (LSP),and light compensation point (LCP) were lowest with LSP below 500 molm-2s-1,whereas in the other four species LSP exceeded 800 molm-2s-1. The ratio of chlorophyll a to b (Chl a/b) of R. hirsutus and R. corchorifolius was significantly lower,but their Chl/Car was higher than three other species. When PFD exceeded LSP,changes in net photosynthetic rate (Pn),stomatal conductance (Gs),intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci),water use efficiency (EWU),photosystem II (PSⅡ) effective photochemical quantum yield efficiency (Fv/Fm),photochemical quenching (qP),and apparent electron transport (RET) in response to PFD were in the order:R. corchorifolius > R. hirsutus,R. parvifolius,and R. lambertianus > R. buergeri;however,for changes in non-photochemical quenching(qN) the species order was reversed. With PFD below LSP,maximums for EWU,PSⅡ maximum photochemical quantum yield (Fv/Fm),and quantum demand (QR) were found in R. corchorifolius with minimums in R. hirsutus and R. lambertianus. Thus,R. corchorifolius could only tolerate low irradiance and easily suffered photo-inhibition;whereas the other four species could tolerate both low and high irradiance as well as photo-inhibition with R. buergeri > R. lambertianus,R. parvifolius,and R. hirsutus.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 13 ref.]
Growth performance of Toona ciliata var. pubescens family progeny by open pollination
LIU Jun, CHEN Yi-tai, JIANG Jing-min, WANG Sheng-shan, JIANG Rong-bo, XU Jin-liang
2010, 27(6): 956-960. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.06.026
[Abstract](4250) [PDF](1156)
An afforestation trial for a 3-year-old young forest of Toona ciliata var. pubescens containing 52 families was conducted in Kaihua,Zhejiang Province. Four growing traits:tree height,diameter at breast height(DBH),number of branches,and branch height were studied. Results showed significant differences(P<0.01) in the four traits with different repeats. Broad heritability for tree height and DBH was above mid-level,whereas broad heritability of branch number and branch height were very low. Fast-growing families selected according to the growing traits of this young forests were No.65,No.31,No.10,No.9,No. 80,No.27,No.18 and No.19.[Ch,3 tab. 16 ref.]