2011 Vol. 28, No. 1

Insects diversity of Fengyangshan Mountain in Zhejiang Province
XU Hua-chao, HAO Xiao-dong, HUANG Jun-hao, YE Tan-xian, YE Li-xin
2011, 28(1): 1-6. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.001
[Abstract](5620) [PDF](1928)
23 231 insects were collected by the methods of net,light trap,malaise trap and etc. to conduct a two years intensive survey on the diversity of insects from Fengyangshan Mountain in Zhejiang Province. Totally,1 690 species in 1 161 genera,239 families and 25 orders were found,including previous records. The four dominant orders(Lepidoptera,Coleoptera,Hymeuoptera and Diptera) were mostly composed of monotypic families,oligotypic families and mono-genus families,oligo-genus families,which suggested stable insect communities in this area. Community structures were expressed by Margalefs species richness index (d),Shannon-Wieners diversity index(H),Simpsons diversity index(D) and Pielous species evenness(J). In order to protect insect resources in this area,it was suggested creating diversified plant communities,reducing human disturbance and strengthening the research,development and utilization of the potential values of insect resources.[Ch,3 fig. 2 tab. 14 ref.]
Mould-resistance of two new preservatives on particleboard
YANG Le, BAO Bin-fu, SUN Fang-li, CHEN An-liang, WANG Pin-wei, DU Chun-gui, YU Hong-wei
2011, 28(1): 7-12. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.002
[Abstract](4828) [PDF](1033)
Two preservatives:1) a water-based colorless fungicide based on organic fungicides (OFP) and 2) a compound of chitosan metal complex/organic fungicides (CCP),were applied in two different ways (treating flakes or treating the finished board) to protect particleboard from three mould fungi:Penicillium citrinum,Trichoderma viride,and Aspergillus niger. Mould-resistance,internal bonding strength,and thickness swelling of the particleboard treated with the two preservatives were tested. Results showed that particleboard treated with OFP resisted P. citrinum and T. viride effectively having an infection value between 1 and 2 after one month of testing. However,with 10 gkg-1 of OFP treating flakes before glueing and hot-pressing,resistance to A. niger was higher. Meanwhile,particleboard manufactured from CCP treated flakes resisted the three test fungi more effectively than the finished board treated with CCP. The internal bond strength of particleboards manufactured by CCP treated flakes were almost the same or slightly higher than the controls,whereas the OFP treated flakes were lower. Thickness swelling with CCP treatments after boiling 2 and 24 hours was less than the controls,whereas OFP was higher.[Ch,6 fig. 2 tab. 15 ref.]
Micro-electrolysis treatment for hot,grinding wastewater from MDF production using Fenton’s reagent
ZHANG Wen-yan, LI Fan, SUN Pan-hua, ZHANG Qi-sheng
2011, 28(1): 13-17. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.003
[Abstract](4570) [PDF](1010)
The hot,grinding wastewater from medium density fiberboard(MDF) production contains high concentrated toxic oranic maters. It is not fit for biochemical treatment even after pretreatment of micro-electrolysis. Fentons reagent method was employed to improve the former micro-electrolysis treatment by means of jar test. Optimal parameters of the Fenton process were determined as 0.05-0.10 of [Fe2+]/[H2O2] with 1 h reaction time. When Fenton treated effluent was controlled at pH 8.5,the sedimentation process further removed pollutants,and the chemical oxygen demand(COD) concentration of the former micro-electrolysis treatment effluent was reduced from 14 000 mgL-1 to about 3 500 mgL-1 . GC-MS analysis indicated that the combined process of micro-electrolysis and Fenton oxidation broke almost all of the monocyclic terpene bonds in the wastewater,oxidizing them to esters,alcohols,and ketones with a lower carbon number. However,for double ring terpense the combined process only broke some of the bonds. These obtained results evidenced the efficiency of the combined process to the hot,grinding wastewater pretreatment and should contribute to further studies of MDF wastewater treatment.[Ch,5 fig. 1 tab. 13 ref.]
Soil respiration during the growing season with intensive management of Phyllostachys pubescens
YE Geng-ping, LIU Juan, JIANG Pei-kun, ZHOU Guo-mo, WU Jiao-sen
2011, 28(1): 18-25. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.004
[Abstract](4827) [PDF](1430)
To examine the effects of intensive management practices on soil respiration,the soil respiration rate for three stand types:1) intensively managed (IM) Phyllostachys pubescens,2) traditional practices (TP) with P. pubescens,and 3) an evergreen broadleaved (EB) forest,was measured during the growing season with a closed chamber and gas chromatography. Results showed that the average soil respiration rate in the three stand types had significant differences(P<0.05) with IM 1.01,TP 0.79,and EB 0.72 gm-2h-1. Soil respiration of the three stand types showed a similar pattern;namely,being low in April and May,rising rapidly in June,reaching a maximum in July,remaining high from June to September,and dropping dramatically in October. Significant exponential relationships(P<0.05) between the soil respiration rate and soil temperature were found at the 5 cm depth. Also,soil respiration was IM = 63%,TP = 63%,and EB = 59% with temperature coefficient (Q10) values of IM 2.46,TP 4.81,and EB 2.05.[Ch,2 fig. 1 tab.40 ref.]
Soil CO2 and N2O fluxes from four typical plantations in southern China
LI Hai-fang, DUAN Wen-jun
2011, 28(1): 26-32. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.005
[Abstract](4231) [PDF](1320)
Carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O),which mainly come from soils in forest ecosystems,are important greenhouse gases. Both CO2 and N2O fluxes in a Eucalyptus urophylla plantation(EUp),an Acacia crassicarpa plantation (ACp),a 10-species-mixed plantation (Tp),and a 30-species-mixed plantation (THp) were measured in situ using a static chamber and gas chromatography(GS) technique at the Heshan Hilly Land Interdisciplinary Experimental Station,Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS). Results from the four plantations showed that CO2 and N2O fluxes varied widely during the year,exhibited a relatively high level during the rainy season,and kept a relatively low level in the dry season. Also,peak CO2 and N2O fluxes appeared in the rainy season. Compared to Tp and THp,significantly(P<0.05) higher values of microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were found in EUp and ACp with CO2 fluxes also significantly(P<0.05) higher. The fastest NO3-N uptake was in EUp as were the lowest soil N2O fluxes. These results indicated that soil temperature,soil moisture,MBC,and soil substrate(NO3-N and soil organic carbon,SOC) could be important controlling variables for soil CO2 and N2O fluxes.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 29 ref.]
Total soil P,soil organic P,and soil available P with long-term application of pig manure in paddy soils
LIU Xiao-ling, SONG Zhao-liang, SHAN Sheng-dao, YE Zheng-qian
2011, 28(1): 33-39. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.006
[Abstract](4308) [PDF](1269)
The purpose of this study was to clarify the law of phosphorus (P) accumulation and runoff with long-term P fertilization in paddy soils. Total P,soil organic P,and available P with long-term (10 years) pig manure fertilization were studied in Jiaxing,Zhejiang Province,China using correlation analysis and significance analysis. Results showed that after 10 years of pig manure fertilization soil total P tended to decrease ,and phosphorus moved to the 40 cm soil layer . Also,soil organic P increased from 212 to 248 mgkg-1 with a significant (P < 0.05) correlation (r = 0.811) between soil organic matter and soil organic P. Additionally,soil available P increased with pig manure application. In areas with high levels of soil P,pig manure fertilization increased soil P accumulation and movement. Finally,soil P was greater than the vigilance value of the environment implying risk of a soil P release to the water. [Ch,5 fig. 1 tab. 21 ref.]
Designing and realizing the forestry sub-compartment remote sensing division system based on high-spatial resolution images
WU Chun-zheng, FENG Yi-ming, SHU Qing-tai, LI Zeng-yuan, WU Hong-gan, CHE Teng-teng
2011, 28(1): 40-45. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.007
[Abstract](5493) [PDF](1123)
Sub-compartment division plays a major role in forest resource survey. In order to reduce the workload of sub-compartment division,enhance working efficiency and ensure the consistency of sub-compartment division,a forestry sub-compartment division system was designed on the basis of high-spatial resolution remote sensing image from the angle of function requirement. Moreover,each function of the system was designed and described in detail in this paper. Some key techniques such as processing of remote sensing images,multi-scale segmentation algorithm and object-oriented classification etc. were also developed. With the help of the system,the work of generating the forestry sub-compartment boundary automatically based on high-spatial resolution remote sensing image could be done in office,and the accuracy of sub-compartment division could meet the practical demand of forestry practice. At present,the system had been applied in Chongqing and Hainan.[Ch,8 fig. 1 tab. 11 ref]
City-county synchronized monitoring system of forest resources in the city with districts under its jurisdiction
ZHANG Guo-jiang, JI Bi-yong, WANG Wen-wu, FANG Yan-jie, LI Zuo-hui
2011, 28(1): 46-51. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.008
[Abstract](5212) [PDF](1274)
A city-county synchronized monitoring system of forest resources in the city with districts under its jurisdiction was built in Hangzhou by the integrated application of permanent sample monitoring,archive updating,supplementary investigations,re-measured investigations and model projections,Markov transition model estimation,linear regression estimation and other monitoring methods. The study indicated that the monitoring system was composed of the sample survey and monitoring system at city level and dynamic forest resources monitoring system at a county-level. The city level monitoring offered a macroscopic view by sampling monitoring,and the county level dynamic monitoring was to update the subcompartment data of counties which were under the jurisdiction of Hangzhou. Through this monitoring,the researchers gained not only the forest resource data of Hangzhou City but also the forest resource data of counties under the jurisdiction of the city at the same period. Practices had proved that the city-county synchronized monitoring system of forest resources in the city with districts under its jurisdiction could be effectively integrated into the existing monitoring system to realize a synchronized monitoring of the forest resources at the city and county levels.[Ch,2 fig. 18 ref.]
Characteristics of biomass and productivity in Larix gmelinii natural forests with different stand structures
YU Bao, ZHANG Qiu-liang, WANG Li-ming, WU Jisiguleng
2011, 28(1): 52-58. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.009
[Abstract](4143) [PDF](1028)
This study analyzed characteristics of biomass and productivity in Larix gmelinii natural forests with different stand structures,and established models for the total biomass and the biomass of trunks,branches and leaves. Results show that:i) As to the productivity,total biomass and biomass proportion of branches and leaves,the grasses + larch forest is higher than the Ledum palustre + larch forest,while for the ratio of the biomass of trunks in the total biomass,the latter is higher than the former. With a density of 1 000 - 3 000 plantshm-2,the highest biomass and productivity of grasses-larch forest and Ledum palustre + larch forest are respectively 55.82 thm-2,0.99 thm-2a-1 and 50.36 thm-2,0.83 thm-2a-1. The lowest biomass proportion of trunks,branches and leaves in the grasses + larch forest is respectively 79.6%,14.6%,and 4.8%;and 83.4%,8.8%,and 3.6% in the Ledum palustre + larch forest. ii) Along with the increase of density,the productivity,total biomass of the grasses + larch forest as well as its biomass proportion of branches and leaves increase,whereas the biomass of branches decreases. iii) As the quota of larch forest increases in the species composition,the productivity,total biomass and the biomass proportion of trunks of forest stand are tending to increase,whereas the biomass proportion of branches and leaves decreases.[Ch,5 tab. 19 ref.]
Establishment and application of forest health assessment system for nature reserve
ZHANG Huan, HAN Hai-rong, KANG Feng-feng, LIU Li, YI Lita
2011, 28(1): 59-65. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.010
[Abstract](4802) [PDF](983)
Different from the general forest health assessment,the forest health assessment of nature reserves must consider the impact of forests on nature reserves. The research established an indicator system from the perspective of impacts of forests on ecosystems,social benefits,and rare species and scored forest health of nature reserves. This indicator system was applied to assess the forest health of Baihuashan Nature Reserve in Beijing. The results indicated that 8 out of 15 sample plots in Baihuashan National Nature Reserve were healthy,accounting for 53.3 per cent. The sub-healthy plots accounted for 46.7 per cent. It showed that the overall health condition of Baihuashan Nature Reserve was good,and the indicator system presented a satisfactory applicability.[Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 21 ref.]
Population dynamics of Oxalis griffithii using the Lefkovitch matrix model
YOU Hai-mei, KOIKE Fumito
2011, 28(1): 66-71. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.011
[Abstract](3709) [PDF](1087)
To elucidate the population dynamics of the perennial understory herb and explore the critical life-cycle stage affecting the population growth,the perennial herb,Oxalis griffithii,was selected and investigated. Total eight long-term plots with 2.0 m 1.6 m area were set up in three habitats (evergreen broadleaf forest,Chamaecyparis obtuse plantation,conifer and broadleaf mixed forest). The life history of Oxalis griffithii was divided into four stages(seed stage,seedling stage,juvenile stage and mature stage) according to its individual morphological characteristics. Next,Lefkovitch structural matrix models of these populations in three habitats were established based on field investigation data. Then,population dynamics and their structural changes were analyzed by mean matrix models of three given habitats. Also,critical life-cycle stage affecting population dynamics was estimated using sensitivity analysis and elasticity analysis. Results of developmental trends for population dynamics in the three habitats,given by the dominant eigenvalue of the matrices,showed that in the evergreen broadleaf forests population was stable,whereas in the other habitats population was decayed. Survival,growth and reproduction varied significantly through stage,and sensitivity parameters (sensitivity and elasticity) also varied through stage. Also,population growth rate was significantly correlated with the sensitivity and elasticity of larger stage survival. This result indicated that the plants at a larger stage were the most important to population dynamics. Therefore,conserving the plants at a larger stage is very important for protecting and conserving the perennial herb population.[Ch,2 fig. 5 tab. 19 ref.]
Image analysis of vegetation coverage and changes (1994 - 2007) in Qingyuan County using multi-temporal Landsat remote sensing
ZHANG Chao, YU Shu-quan, LI Tu-sheng
2011, 28(1): 72-79. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.012
[Abstract](4317) [PDF](1207)
It is very important to obtain vegetation information for evaluating ecology environment. In this study,the dimidiate pixel model was used to determine vegetation coverage of Qingyuan County from 1994 to 2007 based on multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper(TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image data. Then temporal-spatial changes of the vegetation coverage during this period were analyzed using a change classification method and six landscape fragmentation indexes with four types of vegetation coverage:high (>75% coverage),medium high (50% - 75%),medium low (25% - 50%),and low (<25%). Results showed that in 2007,90.8% of the total area was considered a high vegetation coverage area with 657.4 km2 of the medium high vegetation coverage area during these 13 years being converted into high vegetation coverage,especially from 1994 to 1999. During the research period,the steeper sloping area had higher vegetation coverage. However,the less the slope,the faster the vegetation coverage increased with gently sloping areas (<15) increasing to over 15% coverage. Results of vegetation coverage change showed that in the eastern part of Qingyuan County,vegetation restoration was favorable from 1994 to 1999 as it was in the Baishanzu Nature Reserve from 1999 to 2007. Also,during the 13 year research period,the landscape fragmentation index continuously decreased,whereas the mean patch size increased,especially for the high vegetation coverage area that saw an increase from 9.66 to 182.82 hm2. Thus,from 1994 to 2007,vegetation coverage in Qingyuan County increased favorably. Our study confirms that this is a feasible approach in the estimation of vegetation coverage over large area from remote sensing data.[Ch,2 fig. 6 tab. 15 ref.]
Construction of a fat metabolism-related cDNA library in Carya cathayensis
HUANG Yin-zhi, ZHOU Qin, HUANG You-jun, ZENG Yan-ru
2011, 28(1): 80-85. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.013
[Abstract](4392) [PDF](1698)
Carya cathayensis is a species with a high oil content in its nuts. In addition,its oil is mostly unsaturated fatty acids. Based on differential display of genes during fruit maturity studied by DDRT-PCR,a fat metabolism-related cDNA library was constructed by SMART. Titering the unamplified library showed a titer of 5.0 105 pfumL-1,an insert size between 0.7 and 2.5 kb and 70.0% of inserts larger than 1.0 kb;and the amplified library had a titer of 5.0 109 pfumL-1,all of the inserts larger than 500 bp,and a recombination rate of 94.5% with 66.0% of the inserts longer than 1 000 bp. This work has laid a foundation for studies of fat-metabolizing mechanism and regulatory network as well as discovery of relevant genes.[Ch,7 fig. 19 ref.]
A preliminary study on establishment of hydroponic culture system for Phyllostachys pubescens seedlings
SHAO Ji-feng, GUI Ren-yi, JI Hai-bao, LI Guo-dong, FANG Wei
2011, 28(1): 86-94. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.014
[Abstract](6702) [PDF](1259)
To establish a solution culture protocol for hydroponic culture experiments with Phyllostachys pubescens(moso bamboo) seedlings,comparisons of leaf-area,increased biomass,and reflectance spectral characteristics were made using Yoshida nutrient solution of 1/4,1/2,1,3/2 and soil culture as a control(ck). Also,experiments for N with 1.0,2.0,3.0,4.0,and 5.0 mmolL-1 treatments;for P with 0.5,1.0,1.5,and 2.0 mmolL-1 treatments;and for K with 0.5,1.0,1.5,2.0,and 2.5 mmolL-1 treatments using univariate and multivariate statistics as well as three level(N:2,3,4 mmolL-1;P:0.5,1.0,1.5 mmolL-1;K:0.5,1.0,1.5 mmolL-1) Orthogonal Tests [L9(33)] were conducted. Results showed that leaf-area,increased biomass,and reflectance spectral characteristics of with a 1/2 Yoshida nutrient solution was superior to other strengths with an increaseded biomass of 97.9% of compared to ck. For N the 3.0 mmolL-1 treatment was superior;For P 1.0 mmolL-1 were was superior;and for K 1.5 mmolL-1 was superior. When N,P,and K levels were tested together using orthogonal testing,optimum seedling growth was with 4.0 mmolL-1 N,0.5 mmolL-1 P,and 1.0 mmolL-1 K.[Ch,12 fig. 6 tab. 35 ref.]
Seedling container selection for important ecological and economic afforestation species in Zhejiang Province
YUAN Dong-ming, LIN Lei, YAN Chun-feng, ZHOU Zhi-chun
2011, 28(1): 95-102. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.015
[Abstract](4509) [PDF](1295)
To aid in seedling container selection for important ecological and economic afforestation species (Schima superba,Pinus elliottii,Castanopsis sclerophylla,Cyclobalanopsis glauca,Myrica rubra,Cinnamomum camphora,Sapindus mukorossi,and Photinia serrulata) in Zhejiang Province,effect of container types (non-woven fabric containers,tree plugs,plastic film containers,soft plastic cups,hard conical plastic tubes,paper cup containers and demountable plastic containers) and sizes (container diameter and height) on the annual and biennial seedling growth of the afforestation species mentioned above were determined using the variance and simple correlation analysis. A random block design with three replications were applied in the trials,and the traits survey were conducted in late October of 2008. Result showed significant(P<0.05) differences among different container types and sizes in seedling growth of different species. The LSD multiple range test result showed that,in the annual seedling trial,seedlings in non-woven fabric containers grew best;seedlings in tree plugs,plastic film containers,and soft plastic cups exhibited a moderate growth increment;and seedlings in hard conical plastic tubes and paper cup containers grew slower. For biennial seedlings,demountable plastic containers were the best followed by non-woven fabric containers that exhibited a relatively large growth increment and then soft plastic cups and paper cup containers where seedlings grew more slowly. For annual seedlings,no significant correlations between growth traits(seedling height,base diameter,dry matter,root volume) and container diameter and height were found. However,for biennial seedlings there were significant positive correlations(P<0.05,r = 0.758 - 0.986) between the growth traits and container diameter and height. Based on the seedling quality,production cost and afforestation effect,non-woven fabric containers were the superior container type for the species. Moreover,selecting a relatively large container type was key to cultivating larger biennial seedlings.[Ch,4 tab. 17 ref.]
Variation and genetic stability of two-year-old Liriodendron seedling growth for 39 mating combinations
ZHANG Xiao-fei, LI Huo-gen, YOU Lu-xiang, CAO Jian
2011, 28(1): 103-108. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.016
[Abstract](4537) [PDF](1167)
In order to select the best mating combinations from three mating systems (inter-species crossing,intra-species crossing,and backcross),interspecific hybridization and heterosis (two preferred genetic improvement methods) were utilized in progeny testing of all 39 mating combinations in Liriodendron(L. chinense,L. tulipifera and L. chinese tulipifera) to determine variation and genetic stability of growth,in terms of height and ground diameter,for two-year-old seedlings. Progeny testing at the seedling stage was implemented simultaneously in three sites,with open-pollinated offspring of Liriodendron chinense taken as the control. Also,the Eberhart and Russell analysis was used with a regression of genetic stability for the 39 combinations. Results showed that seedling growth for all 39 mating combinations was significantly greater (P<0.01) than the control. Seedling growth from high to low was:inter-specific mating > intra-specific mating > backcross. No significant differences were found between progenies of reciprocal crosses with the same parents,whereas significant differences(P<0.01)existed among combinations within the same mating types. Furthermore,the Eberhart and Russell analysis showed that mating combination J L had good potential due to fast growth and high genetic stability,whereas BK1 H and Z WYS1 had fast growth but low genetic stability. Thus,to utilize the hybrid vigor within Liriodendron,selection of mating parents should be a priority consideration.[Ch,5 tab. 16 ref.]
Allelopathic effects from aqueous extracts of exotic Coreopsis grandiflora on seed germination of six native ornamental plant species
DU Ming-li, GAO Yan, ZHANG Ru-min, GAO Qun-ying, FU Hang-fei
2011, 28(1): 109-114. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.017
[Abstract](4314) [PDF](981)
In order to make clear the allelopathic effects of the exotic Coreopsis grandiflora on the native plant species,we studied the effects from aqueous leaf and root extracts of C. grandiflora on the seed germination of Cynodon dactylon,Agrostis spp.,Zoysia japonica,Orychophragmus violaceus,Dianthus chinensis,and Celosia cristata using the bioassay. Results showed that the aquatic leaf extract of C. grandiflora had significant allelopathic effects on seed germination of the six plant species,with the effects varying with the concentration of the extract. Foliar extracts at a concentration of 50.0 gL-1 were found to be inhibitory(P<0.01) to seed germination for C. dactylon,Agrostis spp.,Z. japonica and O. violaceus,with inhibition rates of 39.33%,56.0%,53.33%,and 46.22%,respectively,compared with the control. In addition,the seed germination index was more sensitive to extract application than the germination percent,with allelopathic sensitivity in the order of Z. japonica>Agrostis spp. and O. violaceus>C. dactylon>D. chinensis>C. cristata. Results suggested that for the exotic C. grandiflora allelopathy may play an important role when competing with native plants.[Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 25 ref.]
Comparative leaf anatomy for six cultivars of Paeonia suffruticosa from Lijiang and Zhongyuan,China
LI Zong-yan, XIAO Juan, MENG Jin-fang, WAN Jin
2011, 28(1): 115-120. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.018
[Abstract](4489) [PDF](1224)
To determine their adaptability,the micro-morphological structures of six Paeonia suffruticosa (peony) tree cultivars:Xiangyuban Lijiangfen Lijiangzi from Lijiang of China and WulongpenshengQinlongwomochiShouanhongfrom central plains of China(Zhongyuan) were compared. Results for Zhongyuan cultivars and Lijiang cultivars showed large differences in the cellsmorphology for palisade tissue,in the ratio of spongy tissue to palisade tissue,and in stomatal density. Also,Zhongyuan cultivars had typical anatomical characteristics for drought resistance with highly developed and closely arranged palisade tissue;whereas Lijiang cultivars had degenerated palisade tissue,large intercellular spaces,and a high ratio of spongy tissue to palisade tissue. ForXiangyuban and Lijiangfen,cell morphology and stomatal characteristics,such as stomatal density and size,were similar. However,Lijiangzi was more capable of adjusting its transpiration due to stomatal density. Meanwhile,Lijiangfen had relatively developed palisade cells,most of which were columnar and closely arranged with sparse,small spongy cells. Smaller ratio of spongy tissue to palisade tissue,which has no significant difference in ratio of spongy tissue and palisade tissue and stomatal density with three Zhongyuan cultivars. Zhongyuan cultivars have different resistance of waterlogging with Lijiang cultivars by comparing their leaf anatomical structures. It showed that stomata density and ratio of spongy tissue to palisade tissue were positively correlated with resistance of waterlogging.[Ch,1 fig. 15 ref.]
Impact of production of non-timber forest products on farmer households’ income
CUI Yu-qing, XU Xiu-ying, BAO Ze-qin, CHEN Yan-gen
2011, 28(1): 121-126. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.019
[Abstract](4191) [PDF](1231)
The production of non-timber forest products production is not only the main way to protect forest resources but also an important way to develop the economy and increase farmers income. Based on the survey data of 155 farmer households in 6 villages in Linan City and Xianju County,Zhejiang Province,the regression model was set up to analyze the affecting factors of farmer households total income. The results indicated that the total production of non-timber forest products (NTFP) had significant positive impact on farmer households total income;the number of labors within the households,the production area of NTFP and whether the family members participated in the relevant trainings had a relatively significant positive impact on farmers total income;the time of family members engaged in NTFP production had a generally significant negative impact on farmer households total income. Farmers incomes from the non-timber forest products were mainly dependent on their yields. The roles of various organizations should be fully exerted to increase the yields and improve the standard production and customization of non-timber forest products,consequently increasing the added values of the products and farmer households income. [Ch,5 tab. 8 ref.]
Research on development of senic-spot-based agritainment with community participation
WANG Zu-liang, CHANG Yan-xin, LU Sen-hong, TONG Jiao-jiao, LIU Liang
2011, 28(1): 127-131. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.020
[Abstract](4460) [PDF](1198)
With the development of tourism,senic-spot-based agritainment is attracting extensive social attention. The type of agritainment discussed here depends mainly on the scenic zone,and is an important way to increase local farmers income and thus improve their living conditions. Therefore the performance of the agritainment goes hand in hand with the development of the scenic spot. The participation of the local owners and managers is a win-win strategy with the aim not only to increase operators profits,but to realize the further development of the scenic spot as well. Focusing on the community participation strategy and local operators viewpoint,the research investigated the current operation of such agritainments in Tianmu Village through questionnaire,and analyzed local operators perceptibility to the strategy through interviews,and finally put forward our suggestions to how to realize community participation in scenic-spot-based agritainment development.[Ch,2 fig. 1 tab. 12 ref.]
Hydroxypropyl cellulose grafted with poly (butyl methacrylate)
GUO Ming, SONG Chuan-hu, LU Di, WANG Huan, Li-ping
2011, 28(1): 132-138. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.021
[Abstract](4248) [PDF](1090)
Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) grafted with poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) copolymer (HPC-g-PBMA)was synthesized using emulsion copolymerization of the HPC monomer and butyl methacrylate (BMA). Structure of the grafted copolymer was described with Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy,X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis,and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) were used to analyze thermodynamic properties,and solubility was also tested. Optimum synthetic conditions for HPC-g-PBMA were determined through an orthogonal experiment. Results indicated that the structure of HPC-g-PBMA differed from HPC with thermoplasticity of the graft copolymer improved . Due to a superior resistance to strong acids,strong base and organic solvent was obtained. [Ch,9 fig. 7 tab. 18 ref.]
Differential proteomics and its application in plant salt stress
MA Jin, LIU Zhi-gao, ZHENG Gang
2011, 28(1): 139-143. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.022
[Abstract](4853) [PDF](1411)
With the development of the proteomics technology,differential proteomics has drawn more and more attentions of scholars both at home and abroad. Background and the latest development of gel technology and non-gel technology of the differential proteomics are highlighted in this paper. The recent research progresses on the application of differential proteomics in plant salt stress are reviewed. The previous studies have some deficiencies such as too much dependence on the 2DE-MS techniques,limited number of research objects,ineffective separation of related proteins,and inaccuracy in abundance analysis of differential proteomics. The prospects for research on plant salt stress with the combination of differential proteomics and genomics techniques to illuminate the salt-tolerant mechanism at the molecular level are put forward.[Ch,33 ref.]
Research progress on pathogens of witches’ broom of bamboo
YANG Yong-gang, WU Xiao-qin
2011, 28(1): 144-148. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.023
[Abstract](5182) [PDF](1089)
The witches broom of bamboo is one of the most destructive causes of the deterioration of bamboo forests. A large number of studies have shown that Aciculosporium take,Heteroepichloё,Phaeosphaeria bambusae and phytoplasma are pathogens of witches broom of bamboo. However,since the taxonomic status of these pathogens have been changing for a long time and their pathogenesis are unclear,its too difficult to control this disease efficiently in bamboo forests. The evolution of the taxonomic status of these pathogens and studies on their pathogenesis were reviewed and the prospects of the future study on witches broom of bamboo were discussed.[Ch,26 ref.]
Scientific notes
Nutritional components for kernels of two loquat cultivars
YU Xiao-jie, JIN Xiao-yan, ZHOU Cun-shan, YANG Hu-qing, HE Zhi-ping, WANG Yun-xiang
2011, 28(1): 149-152. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.024
[Abstract](5105) [PDF](1060)
To select the best loquat kernels in regards to fatty acids and nutrition from two Eriobotrya japonica cultivars (Ninghaibaiand Dahongpao),differences in normal chemical components and in fatty acid composition using a physico-chemical analysis for the nutritional component and gas chromatography and mass Spectrometer(GC-MS) for the fatty acid profile were tested. Results showed that GC-MS identified 11 fatty acids with total fatty acids for both cultivars being 94.4% in loquat seeds and 93.1% in the seed oil. The total linoleic acid,oleic acid,and linolenic acid in loquat seed of Dahongpao(507.6 gkg-1) was significantly lower (P<0.05) than in Ninghaibai(578.5 gkg-1),and their total essential fatty acids for loquat seed of Ninghaibai(509.2 gkg-1) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than in Dahongpao(444.8 gkg-1). Thus,these results could offer a scientific basis for using underexploited loquat kernels.[Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 7 ref.]
Seed germination of Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) Sweet
LIU Jian-qiang, HU Jun-fei, OU Dan-yan, HU Dong-dong, JIN Shui-hu
2011, 28(1): 153-157. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.025
[Abstract](4606) [PDF](1170)
In this research the influence of different treatments on seed germination characteristics of Ipomoea pes-caprae were studied to determine effective measures for enhancing the germination rate and germination potential. Treatments included a mechanical treatment,98% H2SO4 solution for 90 min,40% NaOH solution for 36 h,and a temperature treatment between 15 - 20,20 - 25 and 25 - 30 ℃. Results showed that the mechanical treatment was best with both the average germination potential and average germination rate of 95.3%. Also,with the H2SO4 solution,the average germination potential was 91.2%,and the average germination rate was 93.5%. The NaOH solution treatment improved the average germination potential to 79.4% and the average germination rate to 40%. For the temperature treatment,germination was highest when temperatures were between 25 - 30 ℃ with the average germination potential reaching 24.6% and the average germination rate attaining 43.4%. Thus,the mechanical,the 98% H2SO4,or the NaOH solution treatments could improve seed germination of I. pes-caprae.[Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 18 ref.]
Digital timber specimens museum system based on .NET
JIANG Guang-yu, WANG Hang-jun
2011, 28(1): 158-163. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.026
[Abstract](4208) [PDF](1265)
In order to realize the digital management and online indexing of the Timber Specimen Museum,a MIS system for the Timber Specimen Museum of Zhejiang A F University was built by using the technologies based on the .NET three-tier architecture and OO design methodology. SQL Server 2005 Database,.NET 2005 developing environment,C# language and ADO.NET database accessing skills were applied in this system. Based on the above technologies,all kinds of functions were implemented in this system,which included collecting information of timber specimens by categories and editing them. In addition,indexing and analyzing the information according to the requirements from different customers were also part of the functions of the system. Several indexing methods were combined to make the system more convenient and faster. Meanwhile,applying of dynamic charts made the analysis ability of the system more exhaustive. Furthermore,.NET environment could improve the maintainability,scalability and data security of the system.[Ch,4 fig. 15 ref.]
Choice of optimal scale for multi-source remote sensing images
CHEN Chun-lei, WU Gang
2011, 28(1): 164-172. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.01.027
[Abstract](4430) [PDF](1804)
Spatial scaling effects are a universal issue for the remote sensing. The appropriate spatial resolution can reveal the spatial structure of specific objects. Based on the First Law of the Geography,frequently used local variance and variograms methods are adopted in this research. Because of the limitation of conventional methods,the modified scheme is available for reference. With Landsat 7,Spot-5/HRG and QuickBird images in the same region,the two different methods are compared for different landscape patterns. The findings of the experiment indicate that local variance method is suitable for microcosmic field and varigrams method is competent for macroscopic domain. Furthermore,the optimal scales of multi-source images in different circumstances are also obtained. According to the results of the optimal scale,the applicability of different images is discussed.[Ch,4 fig. 4 tab. 19 ref.]