2011 Vol. 28, No. 2

Articles
Spatial structure of bamboo culm of an almost natural,pure Phyllostachys pubescens forest in Mount Tianmu
DENG Ying-ying, TANG Meng-ping, XU Wen-bing, CHEN Yong-gang, LOU Ming-hua, ZHAO Ming-shui
2011, 28(2): 173-179. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.001
[Abstract](4846) [PDF](1541)
Abstract:
An almost natural Phyllostachys pubescens pure forest is a special vegetation type in the National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmu,Zhejiang Province. Study of this bamboo forest was done to help understand the relationship of the structure and function of the ground part. A typical plot of 100 m 100 m was surveyed in the reserve. Each Ph. pubescens stem was located in terms of x-,y-,and z-coordinates using a total station method with eight neighborhood edge corrections. Then the spatial structure of the stand was analyzed with the uniform angle index,by a neighborhood comparison,and by mingling of culm age. Results showed that the average uniform angle index of living Ph. pubescens was 0.554,for dead stems was 0.556,and for the entire stand was 0.553,which meant a clumped distribution. The average neighborhood comparison of living stems was 0.511 meaning there was no apparent trend of relative dominance. The mean mingling of culm age was 0.713 closing which showed strong mingling. Therefore,this Ph. pubescens stand had both diversity and a high degree of segregation with culm age.[Ch,6 fig. 1 tab. 28 ref.]
Photosynthesis,light-use efficiency and water-use efficiency for woody species in the hilly area of the Taihang Mountains
LI Xiao-jun, ZHANG Ming-ru, ZHANG Li-yang, WU Gang
2011, 28(2): 180-186. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.002
[Abstract](4458) [PDF](1242)
Abstract:
To determine woody species for vegetative restoration in the hilly areas of the Taihang Mountains,the diurnal photosynthetic course of five woody plants (Rhus typhina,Robinia pseudoacacia,Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa,Ailanthus altissima,and Vitex negundo var. heterophylla) was measured using a LI-6400xT portable photosynthetic system. Light-use efficiency and water-use efficiency were calculated and analyzed with formulas ELU = Pn/PAR and EWU = Pn/E respectively. Results showed that:(1) maximum net photosynthetic efficiency for all five trees occurred at 12 : 00 noon with no midday depression. (2) Light-use efficiency of R. typhina,R. pseudoacacia,and Z. jujuba var. spinosa were not significantly(LSD,P>0.05) different,but they were significantly greater (P<0.05) than A. altissima and V. negundo var. heterophylla. (3) The diurnal changes curves of water-use efficiency in Z. jujuba var. spinosa belonged to a W-type,while the other four woody species a V-type. Water-use efficiency of R. typhina was not significantly different from R. pseudoacacia (P>0.05),but was significantly different from Z. jujuba var. spinosa,A. altissima,and V. negundo var. heterophylla (P<0.05). Thus,light and water-use efficiencies of the exotic species R. typhina and R. pseudoacacia were better than the other three species.[Ch,4 fig. 1 tab. 31 ref. ]
Four light-response models to estimate photosynthesis of Phyllostachys pubescens
ZHANG Li-yang, WEN Guo-sheng, WANG Sheng-jie, LIU Zhao-ling
2011, 28(2): 188-193. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.003
[Abstract](4075) [PDF](1394)
Abstract:
The objective of this research was to determine the best light response model for Phyllostachys pubescens. Based on measurements of leaf photosynthesis response curves from January 2009 to January 2010,the light response curves for photosynthesis of Ph. pubescens were fitted to four different models:a non-rectangular hyperbolic model,a rectangular hyperbolic model,a quadratic function,and an exponential equation. Results of R2 obtained from the four methods were in the order:non-rectangular hyperbolic model and rectangular hyperbola model(R2>0.95)>exponential equation>quadratic function. Using the non-rectangular hyperbolic and rectangular hyperbolic models for maximum net photosynthetic rates(Pmax) and dark respiration rate (Rd),the calculated results were much greater than the measured data;whereas with the index model,Pmax was accurate and Rd was slightly lower than measured values. Also,a quadratic function was used to fit the light saturation point (PLS) and Rd. Thus,an exponential equation could be used to calculate PLS and Pmax with a linear fitting of YAQ,light compensation point(PLC),and Rd using values following 100 molm-2s-1.[Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 22 ref.]
Photosynthesis and seed characteristics of five-year-old Camellia oleifera with fertilizer and brassinolides (BRs) applications
HU Yu-ling, HU Dong-nan, YUAN Sheng-gui, GUO Xiao-min
2011, 28(2): 194-199. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.004
[Abstract](4435) [PDF](1293)
Abstract:
To explore the effects of photosynthesis and seed characteristics with fertilizer and brassinolides (BRs) application to Camellia oleifera,organic fertilizer,a special fertilizer of Camellia oleifera,and a compound fertilizer of N-P2O5-K204%,with a BRs spray in concentrations of 0.067,0.033,and 0.020 mgL-1 were applied to five-year-old Chang-lin 4,Chang-lin 18,and Chang-lin 166cultivars of C. oleifera using an L9(34) orthogonal test design. Then leaf photosynthetic rates and fruit characteristics were measured and analyzed using DPS 12.1 software. Results showed that(1) the highest photosynthetic rate was with Changlin 166using the compound fertilizer and 0.067 mgL-1 BRs;(2) the heaviest 100-seed weight and the highest seed extraction rate were found with Changlin 18 using the organic fertilizer and 0.020 mgL-1 BRs;(3) the highest benevolence extraction rate was withChanglin 18employing the specialty fertilizer with 0.020 mgL-1 BRs;and (4) the highest extraction oil rate was fromChanglin 4using the special fertilizer with 0.033 mgL-1 BRs.[Ch,4 tab. 12 ref.]
Aero-anion ecological efficiency of 13 tree species in Zhejiang Province
ZHOU Bin, YU Shu-quan, ZHANG Chao, YI Lita
2011, 28(2): 200-206. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.005
[Abstract](4005) [PDF](1440)
Abstract:
To provide a theoretical basis for choosing suitable tree species for urban afforestation,diurnal variation of the aero-anion concentration surrounding 13 different stand types(Sapindus mulorossi,Michelia maudiae,Michelia chapensis,Elaeocarpus sylvestris,Cinnamomum camphora,Magnolia grandiflora,Acer palmatumAtropurpureu,Dendronenthamia japonica var. chinensis,Osmanthus fragrans,Koelrenteria paniculata,Prunus serrulata+Buxus sinica,Magnolia denudata+Buxus sinica,and Liquidambar formosana) in the nursery of Xincheng Town,Jiaxing City in Zhejiang Province was compared by LSD and studied using a correlation analysis with environmental factors and characteristic of plant communities. Results showed that among the 13 stand types,a mixed plantation of Prunus serrulata with Buxus sinica (822 particlecm-3) and a pure plantation of Acer palmatumAtropurpureu(743 particlecm-3) had higher aero-anion concentrations with Koelreuteria paniculata (533 particlecm-3) and Sapindus mukorossi (532 particlecm-3) pure plantations having lower concentrations. A multilayer tree-shrub structure had the highest aero-anion concentration (751 particlecm-3) followed by shrubs (700 particlecm-3) then trees (622 particlecm-3). According to the 6 : 00 to 18 : 00 diurnal variation curves,the aero-anion concentration tended to peak at 10 : 00 and with an another general increase from 16 : 00 to 18 : 00. The correlation analysis showed a strong significant,positive correlation between aero-anion concentration and relative humidity(P<0.01,r = 0.473);a strong significant,negative correlation for aero-anion concentration and temperature(P<0.01,r = - 0.504);a significant negative correlation between aero-anion concentration and ultraviolet radiation intensity(P<0.05,r = - 0.305);and a significant positive correlation for aero-anion concentration and planting density(P<0.05,r = 0.648). The plant communities were able to improve the aero-anion concentration of mini-surrounding.[Ch,2 fig. 5 tab. 14 ref.]
Growth and biomass carbon sequestration of young Eucalyptus grandis with fertilization
WANG Dong, GONG Wei, HU Ting-xing, CHEN Hong-zhi, WANG Jing-yan, LI Xiao-ping
2011, 28(2): 207-213. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.006
[Abstract](3796) [PDF](1238)
Abstract:
Eucalyptus is one of three fast growing tree types used widely in tree plantations,and Eucalyptus grandis has the largest cultivated area of all species because of its fast growth and favorable economic opportunities. To determine the effects of fertilization on growth and biomass carbon sequestration of E. grandis,a compound fertilizer containing 15% N,15% P2O5,and 15% K2O was applied with different treatments of (in gstem-1) 0 (ck),90 (Ⅰ),180 (Ⅱ),and 270 (Ⅲ),and a correlation analysis was employed. Each treatment has three replicates and each was arranged in random blocks. The soil was a Purple soil with an average pH of 5.60,and contained soil organic matter 15.3 gkg-1,total soil N 1.23 gkg-1,available N 82.8 mgkg-1,available P 51.38 mgkg-1 and available K 61.45 mgkg-1 prior to the start of the pot experiment. Results showed that compared to the control,fertilization treatments Ⅰ,Ⅱ,and Ⅲ significantly (One-way ANOVA Duncan Multiply Test) increased the stem base (P <0.05,16.3% - 38.3%),crown width (P<0.05,17.1% - 44.5%),tree height (P<0.05,15.8% - 45.5%),biomass (P<0.05,21.8% - 59.5%),and root-shoot (R/S) ratio (P<0.05,2.1% - 5.8%). For stem base and tree height,fertilized treatments Ⅲ were significant higher than Ⅰ,but no significant difference was observed between Ⅱ and Ⅲ or Ⅰ. Among fertilized treatments,crown width was significantly different (P<0.05). Growth of the stem base,crown width,and tree height were significantly and positively correlated with the amount of applied fertilizer (P<0.01) and with growth faster in July and August than other months(June and September). For R/S,Ⅲ was significantly greater than ck. Also,among different treatments,significant differences in biomass(P<0.05) and biomass carbon sequestration(P<0.05) were found. Thus,for scientific management and for global warming mitigation,fertilization (at the rate of 0 - 270 gstem-1) could be beneficial for promoting growth of E. grandis,and increasing biomass,biomass carbon sequestration,and root-shoot ratio(R/S).[Ch,4 fig. 36 ref.]
Particle fractionation and organic carbon content in coastal saline soils with natural fallow and pig slurry amendments
SONG Zhe-yue, SONG Zhao-liang, SHAN Sheng-dao
2011, 28(2): 214-218. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.007
[Abstract](4070) [PDF](1193)
Abstract:
To provide a reference for coastal saline soil improvement,an experiment with pig slurry amendments from coastal saline soils was conducted to determine the effects on content and particle fractionation of organic carbon and to demonstrate the accumulation and evolution law of soil organic carbon. Results showed that soil total organic carbon(TOC) and carbon content for different sized soil particles decreased with an increase of soil profile depth and increased with the length of time that pig slurry amendment was used. Also,soil carbon consisted mainly of silt carbon. In natural fallow land TOC was 8.90 - 14.40 gkg-1,and on fertilized land it was 5.45 - 13.55 gkg-1. Thus,both natural fallow and pig slurry amendments could improve TOC and carbon from different sized soil particles in coastal saline soils,thereby improving their quality.[Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 16 ref.]
Growth and P-uptake for Larix olgensis seedlings with phosphorus top-dressed using fertigation
SUN Yu, LI Guo-lei, LIU Yong, MA Lü-yi, ZHU Yan, JIANG Chang-ji, LIU Fu-sen, LI Xue-lian
2011, 28(2): 219-226. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.008
[Abstract](4147) [PDF](1218)
Abstract:
With the aim to improving the phosphorus efficiency and finding the best phosphorus applying method,two types of phosphorus (P) fertilizer application to Larix olgensis transplanted seedlings were undertaken:1) into the soil as a basal fertilizer before transplanting and 2) by fertigation as a topdressing three times during the growing season. A split-plot experimental design with P (163,326,and 489 kghm-2) as main treatments and fertigation ratios (0,25.0%,33.3%,50.0%,and 100%) as sub treatments was established.There were three replications,and the rapidly-available phosphorus content in the soil is 37.11 mgkg-1. Results showed that P application did not significantly affect seedling growth or P content,however,seedling height,diameter,first-order lateral root in diameter at a junction 1 mm,and biomass increased with increasing P. With a top-dressing of 163 kghm-2 P,seedling height and diameter reached the national seedling standard(the seedling height>35 cm,the seedling dimater>5 mm). Also,with the 33.3% fertigation ratio,P concentration in the stem;P content in the root,stem,as well as the entire seedling;and P use efficiency were maximum with the total P content of 0.405 g and P use efficiency of 11.4%. Therefore,163 kghm-2 P with 33.3% of it to be applied as a top-dressed fertigation during the growing season was the best P application for L. olgensis transplanted seedlings.[Ch,1 fig. 9 tab. 18 ref.]
Study on the correlation between taxol,10-DAB of Taxus media and its major soil factors
FU Shun-hua, SHI Xiao-juan, MIAO Guo-li, XU Zhi-ming, ZHANG Xin-feng, HE Zhao-bin, SI jin-pin, DU Hong-liang
2011, 28(2): 227-233. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.009
[Abstract](4514) [PDF](1210)
Abstract:
To know the difference of taxol,10-deacetylbaccatin Ⅲ (10-DAB) content of Taxus media at different site,about 500 g more branch and leaf of 10 individuals,2 500 g more soil each sampled from eight different domestic origins -Qiuchuang,Jingcheng,Dongwu,Renhe,Shanghu in Zhejiang,Tianpen in Sichuang,Luolong in Henan,Xiaotangshan in Beijing- were collected,the taxol and 10-DAB content were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC),and soil mineral elements content and soil structure were determined by standard methods. Then,with the data,a stepwise multiple regression analysis by stepwise and a partial correlation analyses by the temperature when sampling as control variable were conducted. Results showed that taxol content decreased along the north latitude(north latitude from 285527 up to 401139,taxol content from 0.330 4 gkg-1 down to 0.030 6 gkg-1). Also,taxol and 10-DAB were merely correlated with most soil factors;taxol was significantly(P<0.031) and positively correlated (r = 0.800) with soil organic matter,but significantly (P<0.047) and negatively correlated (r = - 0.761) with site north latitude;10-DAB was significantly (P<0.026) and negatively correlated with mineral elements Co (r = 0.813) and Mn (P<0.030,r = - 0.801);there was no linear correlation between taxol and 10-DAB (r = - 0.197);and the regression equation established was:y = 0.067 - 0.003 x1 + 0.000 012 08 x2 - 0.001 x3. Overall,taxol content,as a derivative of T. media,was similar to other Taxus species such as Taxus wallichiana var. mairei,with its content changing largely with soil organic matter.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 23 ref.]
An SSR reaction system for Abies beshanzuensis progeny with artificial pollination and progeny identification
LIN Er-pei, MA Hai-quan, FAN Min-liang, LUO Wen-jian, HUANG Hua-hong, TONG Zai-kang
2011, 28(2): 234-240. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.010
[Abstract](4302) [PDF](1341)
Abstract:
To establish a Simple Sequence Repeat with Polymerase Chain Reaction (SSR-PCR) system for Abies beshanzuensis and to optimize the factors which affect the PCR reaction,the cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) method was used to extract DNA from its leaves. Then,to evaluate the universality of the primers,the amplified product of one pair of primers were cloned and sequenced. Finally,primer pairs with good amplification and diversity were selected. Results showed that the optimal PCR reaction system was 60 ng template DNA,3.75 mmolL-1 Mg2+,0.15 mmolL-1 dNTPs,0.4 molL-1 primers,and 16.67 nkat (1.0 U) Taq polymerase in a volume of 20 L. Blast results also showed that the identity value reached 94%. Then,15 pairs of primers with good amplification and diversity were obtained with four that could produce differing DNA fragments between Abies beshanzuensis and Abies firma. Identity value results indicated that SSR primers from other Taxodiaceae species could be used with Abies beshanzuensis;additionally the SSR-PCR technique was applicable to preliminary identification of progeny from artificial pollination.[Ch,7 fig. 2 tab. 16 ref.]
Species diversity and seedling regeneration of three Terminalia franchetii communities in the hot-dry Yuanmou Valley
WANG Xiao-qing, LIU Fang-yan, LI Kun, CHEN You-gen
2011, 28(2): 241-247. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.011
[Abstract](3976) [PDF](1328)
Abstract:
The hot-dry Yuanmou valley is a typical ecological system in the fragile Jinshajiang River area. To research the community structure and regeneration of Terminalia franchetii forest,a vitally important and typical natural forest ecosystem in Yunnan Province,China,Three T. franchetii communities were investigated using the quadrat survey procedure in 100 m2 with seven repeats for species diversity and seedling regeneration and analyzed using the Shannon-Wiener,Simpson,and Pielou indexes. Results showed that these communities,having 32 species belonging to 16 families and 28 genera,had a relatively low richness with dominant species of Heteropogon contortus and Arthraxon lancifolius. Recordings for the indexes were:Shannon-Wiener 1.35 - 2.82,Simpson 0.63 - 0.81,and Pielou 0.68 - 0.85. The Shannon-Wiener and Pielou in community Ⅰ was markedly low to community Ⅱ which was remarkably low to community Ⅲ,but the Simpson in community Ⅰwas slightly high to community Ⅱ which markedly high to community Ⅲ. Seedling regeneration in the T. franchetii community occurred at the start and in the middle of the rainy season;then it gradually decreased towards the end of the rainy season and ceased with the beginning of the dry season. During drought,the number of one-year-old seedlings was sharply declined to 0.5 in 1.0 m2 which maybe survived in shielded during the dry season that was most serious in March and April. Less drastic changes for the year occurred with two-year-old and older seedlings,which implied that they were more stable and showed better adversity resistance in the differing community environments. Thus,reducing disturbances would improve the community environment making seedling establishment of T. franchetii possible,then allowing a viable spontaneous recovery of the native vegetation through natural regeneration.[Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 16 ref.]
Regeneration potential of natural Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in the Hulun Buir sandy land
WANG Yan, LU Qi, WU Bo, CHENG Li-yan, WANG Yu-hua
2011, 28(2): 248-253. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.012
[Abstract](3904) [PDF](975)
Abstract:
Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (Mongol scotch pine),which is important for degraded ecosystem reconstruction and for establishment of green ecological barriers in northern China,adapts well to cold,droughty,and barren environments with favorable regeneration capability when wind erosion is controlled and shifting sand is fixed. This research was conducted to explore the regeneration potential of Mongol scotch pine and to promote its natural regeneration process in sandy lands. Based on the traditional community investigation and data statistical analysis,the conclusion can be drawn that the Mongol scotch pine in Hulun Buir sandy land distributed with great regeneration potential. Results showed that seedling density on the north-facing slope was four times larger than density on south-facing slope,and the Mongol scotch pine forest showed the trend of northward expansion from large-scale view. The forest seedling population age structure showed a greater percentage of young growth. Also,the seedling population age pyramid was a stable balanced type. Additionally,the seedling population had a clumped distribution pattern with high contagion and diffusion resulting in high spatial dispersion to population seedling density.[Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 19 ref.]
Sedum tricarpum:a new record of Sedum(Crasulaceae) from China
XIA Guo-hua, LIU Chuan-he
2011, 28(2): 254-255. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.013
[Abstract](4541) [PDF](1324)
Abstract:
Sedum tricarpum Makino. was found to occur in Anhui Province,China. This represents a new record of this species for China. A morphological description of the species is given based on the newly discovered population,which grows on rocks along a small stream at an altitude of 200 - 400 m. The population in near a village,and thus easily accessible by human beings,and in the neighborhood of the population occur other sedums. The specimen examined is preserved in Herbarium of Zhejiang A F University (ZJFC).[Ch,1 fig. 4 ref.]
Optimum areas for Carya cathayensis planting in Zhejiang Province based on GIS
JIN Zhi-feng, ZHAO Hong-bo, LI Bo, LI Ren-zhong, HUANG Jing-feng
2011, 28(2): 256-261. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.014
[Abstract](4786) [PDF](1242)
Abstract:
Carya cathayensis, a special forest and fruit product, is suitable to the soil and climate of Zhejiang, but its development has been restricted due to irrational distribution. To provide a scientific basis for distribution and sustainable development of C. cathayensis in Zhejiang Province, geographical information system(GIS) was used to determine the best planting locations. Based on yield and weather relationships as well as biological characteristics,four climate indexes for planting:1)average annual temperature,2) annual rainfall,3)annual duration of sunshine,and 4)favorable days in florescence, were established. Then,these four climatic factors along with factors of slope, aspect, altitude, soil type, and soil texture were used with an analytical hierarchy process to weight nine factors. Next,a comprehensive regional evaluation model of C. cathayensis was established based on applied statistics and GIS techniques. Soil geographical conditions and actual landuse in Zhejiang Province were combined and regions unsuitable for planting were shielded. Planting zones were divided into three grades:optimum,suitable,and unfavorable. Results of the evaluated area for Zhejiang Province indicated that about 26.31% was optimum,33.39% was suitable,and 40.30% was unfavorable.[Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 17 ref.]
Poplar resistance to Melampsora rostrupii rust in Xinjiang
YUE Chao-yang, LIU Ai-hua, ZHANG Xin-ping, MA Pei-pei, JIAO Shu-ping
2011, 28(2): 262-268. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.015
[Abstract](4703) [PDF](1357)
Abstract:
Many new cultivars and clones followed stock breeding of poplar. Here,resistance to a leaf rust Melampsora rostrupii with 57 poplar species or cultivars was studied using a pathogenic index and a confrontational index. Results revealed strong differences among the 57 hybrid poplars for resistance to the leaf rust. The incidence rate was 0 - 100% with a disease index of 0 - 82.1 and a confrontational phase index of 0 - 100. For poplar species or cultivars (clones) 18 (31.6%) showed high resistance to the rust,6 (10.5%) showed mid-resistance,15 (26.3%) showed low resistance,10 (17.5%) showed mid-susceptibility,and 8 (14.0%) showed high susceptibility. Thus,different poplar hybrid combinations from the same cross showed diversity in resistance to this leaf rust.[Ch,4 tab. 18 ref.]
Vitrification of chondrocyte from Ovis aries
HUANG Pei-long, ZHANG Shao-zhi, YU Xiao-yi, HU Jun-xiang
2011, 28(2): 269-274. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.016
[Abstract](4360) [PDF](1004)
Abstract:
The effects of vitrification on survival rate and succinate dehydrogenase(SDH) activity of ovine chondrocytes were studied. Results showed that the SDH activity decreased remarkably within 20 d after vitrification, whereas the survival rate decreased slowly. VSb selected according to the trend of survival rates and vitality of SDH. After being cryopreserved for 5,10,15,20 and 30 days,the survival rates were 85.47% 1.78%,80.73% 1.81%,78.62% 2.06%,76.35% 2.58% and 73.83% 1.49%,and the vitality of SDH showed 0.49 0.064,0.444 0.073,0.394 0.039,0.354 0.082 and 0.339 0.053. This indicated that cryopreservation of ovine chondrocytes by vitrification had some practical value. [Ch, 4 fig. 2 tab. 17 ref.]
Edge effects of grasshopper communities in the North-Luo River Valley of Yan’an
LI Ya-ni, WANG Wen-qiang, LIAN Zhen-min
2011, 28(2): 275-279. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.017
[Abstract](3941) [PDF](976)
Abstract:
With the advance of biodiversity and landscape research,the studies on edge effect has enter a new phase since the concept of edge effect came into being,and the study on the response of creature to edge effect has become a hot research topic too. Grasshopper as one group of the important insects,the study on the edge effect would help us to grasp their distribution patterns precisely and hence offer some of basic theory on the analysis on grasshoppersedge response and its intensity . Four types of edge zones:farmland-grassland,farmland-shrub,farmland-road,and grassland-road,were selected and analyzed based on ecological characteristics of the North-Luo River Valley of Yanan using the Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index(H),Pielou index(J),Simpson index(C)and species quantity. Results showed that both species quantity(25 species) and H of 2.574 5 for the grassland-road treatment were highest. Edge effects with four edges for the farmland-shrub treatment was below 1 (0.916 0);whereas the other three treatments had positive effects(> 1). Thus,for effective grasshopper prevention and control,edge effects should be considered as an important factor so as to combine different types of grasshoppers to different edge types.[Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 20 ref.]
GIS-based analysis of spatial characteristics of soil erosion in Fuyang
WANG Xiao-ming, ZHONG Shao-zhu, ZHOU Ben-zhi, CAO Yong-hui, WANG Gang
2011, 28(2): 280-286. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.018
[Abstract](3954) [PDF](1230)
Abstract:
This paper analyzed the geographical features of different soil erosion intensities such as gradient,slope direction,altitude and land utilization with the ETM remote sensing images and geographical spatial database by the platform of ArcGIS analysis,to reveal the spatial relationship between soil erosion and its geographical environmental background. The results showed that soil erosion had high selectivity of geographical factors. 94.57% of soil erosion occurred in areas below the altitude of 500 m,85.33% in the areas with gradients between 15 - 35,and 57.23% in southern slopes,49.40% in areas with yellow soil;76.85% of high-intensity soil erosion were found in garden land and 58.35% in low mountains and hills.[Ch,1 fig. 7 tab. 22 ref.]
Analysis of global industry roundwood production and major end products in 1961-2009
XIE Jia-li, KANG Xin-gang, GONG Zhi-wen, LI Yang
2011, 28(2): 287-292. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.019
[Abstract](4015) [PDF](1006)
Abstract:
In order to gain a better understanding of the future development trend of global timber production,and provide the basis for the formulation and adjustment of policy guidelines,this paper gave a brief analysis of the changes in production of global industry roundwood and major end products between 1961 - 2009 on the basis of reports and data from FAO and other research on the global forestry. The result proved that global industrial roundwood production showed a decreasing growth rate,while wood-based panels,paper and paperboard remained high-speed growth. Besides,the production was gradually transferred from the developed to the developing countries. It was concluded that those changes resulted from factors including accessible area of forest,market demand,policies and regulations,technology development and natural disasters. To meet the increasing global demand and reduce our dependence on imported timber,we should enhance the cultivation and management of forest to improve forest quality and attach great importance to improving the wood utilization rate and reducing timber demand by recycling and replacement technology.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 12 ref.]
Dye uptake with four dye combinations and types on two rattan species
WANG Zheng-guo, WANG Zhao-hui, DUAN Xin-fang, ZHOU Yu
2011, 28(2): 293-298. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.020
[Abstract](4006) [PDF](1451)
Abstract:
Rattan dyeing can improve its visual characteristics and color stability. To obtain the best dyeing conditions for two species of rattan,Calamus simplicifolius and Daemonorops margaritae,monochromic dyeing experiments were conducted using four dye types (Reactive Red 2 and Reactive Yellow 1,Direct Red 23 and Direct Blue 15,Basic Red 14 and Basic Yellow 2,and Acid Red 85 and Acid Yellow 11). Dye uptake capability for the two rattan species and the main factors that influenced dye uptake of split rattan were also determined. Results showed that the four types of dye could color the split rattan,whereas the original,unsplit rattan,even with acid or alkali preconditioning,could not. Suitable dyeing conditions for the four dye types were:1) reactive dyes concentration:5.0 gkg-1,time:2 h,temperature:40 ℃;2) direct dyes concentration:Direct Red 23 is 9.0 gkg-1,Direct Blue 15 is 7.0 gkg-1,dyeing time:2 h,temperature:40 ℃;3) basic dyes concentration:Basic Red 14 is 9.0 gkg-1,Basic Yellow 2 is 5.0 gkg-1;dyeing time:2 h,temperature:70 ℃;and 4) acid dyes concentration:Acid Red 85 is 7.0 gkg-1,Acid Yellow 11 is 9.0 gkg-1,dyeing time:2 h,temperature:70 ℃. Within the same dye type,preferences for dye uptake were:Reactive Yellow 1 > Reactive Red 2,Direct Red 23 > Direct Blue 15,Basic Red 14 > Basic Yellow 2,and Acid Yellow 11 > Acid Red 85. This research could have a positive influence on production in the rattan industry.[Ch,3 fig. 21 ref.]
Reviews
Status quo and prospect of the research on adaptability to climate changes from a socio-economic perspective
SHEN Yue-qin, WANG Xi-feng, ZHU Zhen, L ü Qiu-ju
2011, 28(2): 299-304. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.021
[Abstract](4333) [PDF](1073)
Abstract:
As one of the key problems affecting the environment and sustainable development in the world,climate changes have brought about serious hazards to human socio-economic activities. Therefore,all countries in the world have to adapt to the climate changes. Under the background of climate changes and common actions of the international society,this paper summarized the related concepts and analysis framework,and reviewed the major research areas focusing on the adaptation to climate changes from the socio-economic perspective. These research areas were as follows: (1) The social and economic impacts of climate changes. (2) The determinants of adaptability to climate changes. (3) The adaptability strategy of climate changes. On this basis,it also had a comprehensive review of the existing literature in terms of research contents,perspectives and methodologies. Finally,it tried to give a prospect of the future research on the adaptability to climate changes.[Ch,45 ref.]
Research progress on the bryophytes tissue culture
ZHANG Nan, DU Bao-ming, JI Meng-cheng
2011, 28(2): 305-313. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.022
[Abstract](5025) [PDF](1159)
Abstract:
Bryophytes are widely spread plants with abundant resources and various species. However,the study on bryophytes has just started and many of its applications have not yet been developed. This paper reviewed the application values of bryophytes according to related researches at home and abroad. The research progress and history on tissue culture of bryophytes were introduced. Meanwhile,the studies of culture materials of bryophytes,disinfection methods,basic media and culture conditions were analyzed and summarized. It was suggested strengthening physiology research and biochemistry research of bryophytes,exploring the application value of bryophytes,establishing tissue culture and rapid propagation system of bryophytes. The application prospects of bryophytes were put forward.[Ch,61 ref.]
Canadian forest fire weather index (FWI) system:a review
XIN Xiao-ying, JIANG Hong, ZHOU Guo-mo, YU Shu-quan, WANG Yong-he
2011, 28(2): 314-318. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.023
[Abstract](5866) [PDF](1706)
Abstract:
To forecast forest fires,a forest fire danger rating system is important. The Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) is currently one of the most widely used and complete systems in the world and is the only system that can adapt to any scale from regional to global levels. Within CFFDRS,the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the most important component. FWI,based on a theory utilizing time lag and equilibrium moisture content,calculates changes in fuel moisture according to weather conditions and then determines the potential fire danger rating by location or size of forest fuel. This study provides a simple introduction to development of the FWI system along with its basic structure and programs as well as its strengths and limitations. Developing a forest fire danger rating system for China based on FWI technology is also discussed.[Ch,1 fig. 1 tab. 22 ref.]
Scientific notes
Soil properties of ancient Cinnamomum camphora at different sites in the lakeside scenic area of Hangzhou
QI Yuan-chun, WANG Xiao-de, XIAO Kun-lun, WU Jia-sen, QIAN Xiao-ping, DING Shui-long
2011, 28(2): 319-325. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.024
[Abstract](4457) [PDF](1243)
Abstract:
Soil physical and chemical properties as well as nutrient contents under ancient Cinnamomum camphora crown projections were studied at the lakeside scenic area of Hangzhou,where a high water table and strong human disturbance were found,using a correlation analysis. Results showed that soil pH was partially alkaline varying from 6.57 to 7.58;soil bulk density was loose varying from 0.75 to 1.28 gcm-3;organic matter content varied from 16.1 to 78.8 gkg-1;and overall the soil nutrient levels were above average. A strong positive correlation(P<0.05) among soil total N,total P,total K,hydrolysable N,and available P were found. Additionally,a negative correlation was found between soil exchangeable Ca and exchangeable Mg (P<0.05),but there was no correlation among different microelements. Soil properties in the green space of the Three Pools Mirroring the Moon Scenic Area were superior to the green space,lawn,and tree ponds at Round Lake which was more beneficial to the growth of ancient C. camphora trees. In tree ponds,soil properties with ceramic and bark mulch were superior to turf grass or seeded grass as mulch;however,the human activities that readily disturbed ancient C. camphora growing in tree ponds meant that the coefficient of variation with ceramic and bark mulch was higher than with grass mulch. The higher pH would be harmful to the growth of Cinnamomum camphora. Therefore,the balance of soil pH,aeration,water and fertilizer conservation will be improved by covering the tree pool with organic mulch such as bark and wood chips,avoiding laying sod and seeding within the projection region of the crown,and reducing the alkaline substances such as soil cement,lime and bricks mixed in the soil after the transformation in the scenic spots.[Ch,5 fig. 1 tab. 18 ref.]
Aromatic composition in three plant species using TDS-GC/MS
GAO Qun-ying, GAO Yan, ZHANG Ru-min, DU Ming-li, LI Gang
2011, 28(2): 326-332. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.025
[Abstract](5554) [PDF](1136)
Abstract:
In order to make clear the aromatic composition of the landscape plants and provide a theoretical basis on obtaining a reasonable distribution for landscape,we analyzed the aromatic composition and content in Coreopsis grandiflora,Rudbeckia hirta,and Tagetes erecta under near-natural conditions using the thermal desorption system gas chromatography/mass spectrometer technique (TDS-GC/MS). Results showed that the major aromatic composition were as follows:-pinene(relative content of 23.43%),D-limonene(22.75%),phellandrene(4.37%),sabinen(3.78%),and myrcene(3.56%) in C. grandiflora;phellandrene (31.36%),cis-linalool oxide(11.88%),sabinen(9.54%),nonanal(6.52%),and octanal(5.08%) in Rudbeckia hirta;and terpinolene(23.63%),ocimene(22.40%),D-limonene(16.12%),caryophyllene(6.36%),and trans-ocimene(3.50%) in Tagetes erecta. Thus,different aromatic compositions and their relative content determined the aromas of the three plants.[Ch,1 fig. 1 tab. 23 ref.]
Root exudate constituents and allelopathic effects from forests of Pinus tabulaeformisOstryopsis davidiana,and a mixed forest
SHAO Dong-hua, REN Qin, Ning Xin-zhe, BAI Shu-lan
2011, 28(2): 333-338. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.026
[Abstract](4095) [PDF](1256)
Abstract:
In order to research the chemical communications in a pure Pinus tabulaeformis forest (PT),an Ostryopsis davidiana forest (OD),and a mixed forest of the two (MPO),the components from rhizosphere soil exudates were analysedusing the gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) technique. Then,the allelopathic effects of potted P. tabulaeformis seedlings were tested using exogenous phthalic acid and -coumaric acid. Results showed that organic acids comprised most of the detected compounds with PT 63.82%,OD 71.15%,and MPO 69.12%; esters accounted for: PT 8.38%,OD 12.65%,and MPO 14.42%;and phenolic acids were: PT 27.80%,OD 16.30%,and MPO 16.46%. Seven phenolic acids were detected in the 3 forest types: hydrocinnamic acid (not in MPO); -hydroxybenzoic acid; 4-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid; phthalic acid; 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid; 3,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid; and -coumaric acid. For the seven phenolic acids PT more than MPO and except for 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid were 2.5 times greater in OD than MPO with -coumaric acid being 8 times greater. For PT seedlings compared with the controls,after treatments of 2.5 mgL-1 phthalic acid,the height increased,and after treatments of 2.5 mgL-1 -coumaric acid,the biomass increased. Also,their allelopathic response index was positive with an increased inhibiting effect as concentrations increased; however,the inhibiting effect of phthalic acid decreased more than -coumaric acid. Thus,a lower content of phenolic acids may be one of the important reasons that mixed forests grew better than two other pure forests.[Ch,2 fig. 1 tab. 12 ref.]
Causal agent of Cryptomeria fortunei gall disease
GONG Xiao-feng, ZHU Yun-feng, LIU Liang, YANG Shu-zhen, GE Xiao-feng, GAN Qi-xing, YE Jian-ren, JIANG Ping
2011, 28(2): 339-342. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.02.027
[Abstract](5111) [PDF](1082)
Abstract:
To determine the casual agent of Cryptomeria fortunei gall disease,which is very serious,this study was conducted in the National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmu,Zhejiang Province using pathogenic morphology,pathogenicity testing,and ribosomal DNA intergenic transcribed spacer(rDNA ITS) sequence analysis. Results revealed that the pathogen causing the gall disease of C. fortunei was Cryptosporiopsis sp. [Ch,3 fig. 10 ref.]