2011 Vol. 28, No. 3

Growth,fruit quality and yield of large fruit tomato Lycopersicon esculentum ‘Zheza 204’with root restriction
FAN Huai-fu, DU Chang-xia, ZHU Zhu-jun, LI Wen-jun, YANG Li-lin, ZHANG Ying
2011, 28(3): 343-348. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.001
[Abstract](4949) [PDF](1524)
The effects of root restriction on Lycopersicon esculentum Zheza 204(tomato)plant growth,fruit yield,quality,and color-changing period in a substrate culture with 1,3,5,and 7 L cubage pots (7 L treatment served as a control) were studied. Results showed that root restriction inhibited plant growth,plant height,and stem thickness with an increase in inhibition as growth period increased. At the first measurement plant height and stem thickness cultured in 1 L pots were both 80.06% of those in the 7 L pots,but at the second measurement in 1 L pots plant height was 50.06% and stem thickness was 77.48% of the 7 L pots. With root restriction fruit quality increased,namely soluble solid content(18.72%),lycopene content (50.67%),and titratable acid content (49.28%). However,root restriction did not have a strong effect on vitamin C content. Root restriction also delayed initiation of the fruit color-changing period; whereas completion of the color-changing period was consistent with the control meaning that the total color-changing period was shortened. In addition,yield decreased with root restriction. Thus,root restrictions inhibited plant growth,improved fruit quality,shortened the color-changing time,and at the same time,reduced fruit yield.[Ch,7 fig. 1 tab. 23 ref.]
Binding interactions between rhaponticin and bovine serum albumin with mediation of metal ions
XU Xing-tao, GUO Ming, WU Zhi-wu, LI Ming-hui, GAO Xing-jun, QIAN Ci
2011, 28(3): 349-358. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.002
[Abstract](4015) [PDF](1618)
The interaction between rhaponticin (RT) and bovine serum albumin(BSA) was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy and absorbance spectra. Based on different theoretical models of fluorescence quenching,the binding constant (K) and binding sites (n) of the interactions were determined with the effects of metal ions on the interactions considered. The binding distance (r) and energy-transfer efficiency (E) between RT/RT-Co(Ⅱ)/RT-Ni(Ⅱ) and BSA were also obtained using the Fōrster theory of non-radiation energy transfer. Results showed that RT bound BSA by forming a stable complex and the micro-conformation of BSA changed greatly due to a hydrophobic change in the chemical environment of the fluorescence chromophores within the relevant subdomains of BSA. Therefore,metal ions Co(Ⅱ) and Ni(Ⅱ) could compete with RT-BSA interactions,thereby shortening the binding distance between RT and BSA;however,to precisely quantify the hydrophobic effect and micro-conformational changes of drugs on proteins,we suggest a new formula defining the entention degree ED.[Ch,8 fig. 3 tab. 31 ref.]
Water and light response on cloned fragments of Rhus typhina with different water heterogeneous patches
LI Xiao-jun, ZHANG Ming-ru, ZHANG Jian-guo, WU Gang, WANG Sheng-jie, ZHANG Hua-liu, WANG Dian-jie
2011, 28(3): 359-366. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.003
[Abstract](4489) [PDF](1363)
Physiological integration characteristics of woody clonal plants has important influence on their use of habitat resources and colonization.To explore the water sharing mechanism in genets and ramets of Rhus typhina,fragments of genets and ramets were selected as the experimental material. Then,the water and light response on cloned fragment of Rhus typhina was studied comparing the genets and ramets in different water heterogeneous patches by measuring water potential and photosynthesis with PSYPRO Water Potential System and Li-6400xT Photosynthesis Analyzer. Results showed that:(1) after adding 500 mL water to the ramets,the water potential of the genets increased 48.7% and the ramets increased 82.1%;however,there were no significant differences(P>0.05). (2) It is more sensitive than that of the ramets that the response of the net photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate,stomatal conductance,and intercellular CO2 concentration of the genets to the water,but it was not significant that the difference of increase between genets and ramets(P> 0.05). (3) The fitting of light response curve indicated light compensation point of the genets is lower;light saturation point,higher;apparent quantum efficiency,higher;Thus,for clonal ramets,water sharing mechanisms exist for the genets and ramets of R. typhina in water heterogeneous habitat.[Ch,3 fig. 2 tab. 40 ref.]
Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in three cultivars of Penstemon
TAO Wen-wen, JIANG Wen-wei, ZHAO Li-juan
2011, 28(3): 367-371. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.004
[Abstract](4717) [PDF](1850)
The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters change of the Penstemon was studied,the aim was to enhance its planting management for the region in east China. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters [minimal fluorescence(Fo),maximum fluorescence (Fm),photochemical quenching (qP),variable fluorescence (Fv),yield(Y),non photochemical quenching(NPQ),and electron transport rate (ETR)] of Penstemon campanulatus Purple Passion,Penstemon digitalis Husker Red,and Penstemon barbatus Rondo,all perennial root flowers,were measured and compared by the chlorophyll florescence measuring technique. A correlation analysis was conducted. Results of the correlation analysis showed significant positive correlations between Fo and Fm,qP and Fm,qP and Fv,Y and ETR,Fm and Fv,Fo and F,and Fm and Y;significantly negative correlations were found between Fo and ETR and Fv /Fo and Y. Also,chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for the three cultivars were significant(P = 0.05) and highly significant (P = 0.01). The values of Fv,Fv /Fm,Fv /Fo,Y,ETR,qP,and NPQ for the three cultivars were in the order:Purple Passion RondoHusker Red. Thus,the photosynthetic physiological functions of P. campanulatus Purple Passion were best.[Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 16 ref.]
Chromosome karyotype of Clerodendrum trochotomum from 14 provenances
ZENG Xian-yan, WANG Hua-tian, WANG Yan-ping, WEI Juan
2011, 28(3): 372-379. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.005
[Abstract](4330) [PDF](1275)
Taking treated tender buds in germination stage as experimental materials,the karyotypes of Clerodendrum trochotomum Thumb. from 14 provenances were observed by the conventional sheeting method. The results indicated that all the chromosomes of the 14 provenances were diploids and attributed to small chromosomes,with an absolute average length of 1.45 m. There were 5 types of chromosome karyotypes classified from the morphological observation:2n = 2x = 36 m + 16 sm,2n = 2x = 40 m + 12 sm,2n = 2x = 44 m + 8 sm,2n = 2x = 46 m + 6 sm and 2n = 2x = 48 m + 4 sm,respectively,and there was no satellite found in all the karyotypes. The karyotypes of all the provenances showed a morphological similarity,with karyotype type of 2B,except the 021 provenances of 2A type.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 22 ref.]
POD,PAL activities and fibrosis of Bambusa oldhami bamboo shoots with different storage conditions
YU Xue-jun, QIU Xian-long
2011, 28(3): 380-385. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.006
[Abstract](3852) [PDF](973)
After gathering the Bambusa oldhami bamboo shoots,we designed different treatments to storage bamboo shoots,including two storage temperatures(5 ℃ and 25 ℃),removing or remaining bamboo shell,coating 10.0 gkg-1 chitosan or not,and coating antistaling agent BYC or not. After different treatments, peroxidase (POD),phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, the change of cellulose,and lignin content of bamboo shoots were measured. The results showed that under the low-temperature(5 ℃) storage condition,PAL activity increased first then decreased(drop fast in 2 - 3 d,decline slowly after 4 d);The PAL activity increased fast under 25 ℃,and decreased also fast,and inactivation of bamboo shoots PAL under 25 ℃ is earlier than preserving under 5 ℃;The POD activity increasing and decreasing time with fresh keeping pretreatment were later than the control;The POD completely inactivated after 4 d under 25 ℃ storage temperature;The content of shoot cellulose and lignin in 25 ℃ increased faster than preserved in 5 ℃ temperature. Pretreatment and low storage temperature can keep the enzyme activity effectively and reduce the aging pace of the bamboo shoot.[Ch,6 fig. 1 tab. 14 ref.]
Fiber forms and tissue measurements of Bambusa sinospinosaBambusablumeana and Dendrocalamus yunnanicus stem
SU Wen-hui, FAN Shao-hui, PENG Ying, YU You-ming, ZHANG Da-peng
2011, 28(3): 386-390. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.007
[Abstract](4356) [PDF](1087)
To evaluate the suitability for paper-making of Bambusa sinospinosa,Bambusa blumeana,and Dendrocalamus yunnanicus,the stem fiber foms and tissue measurements of three sympodial bamboos were studied and compared to those of Bambusa textilis,which possesses favorable paper making capabilities. Analytical results showed that fiber lengths (L) of the three sympodial bamboos (B. sinospinosa 2.37 mm,B. blumeana 2.27 mm,and D. yunnanicus 2.49 mm) were longer than that of B. textilis (2.19 mm),and all three bamboos belonged to the long-fiber plant material category. The fiber length to width ratios (L/W) of the three bamboos (B. sinospinosa 145,B. blumeana 124,and D. yunnanicus 128) were equal to or a little lower than that of B. textilis;whereas the ratio of wall thickness for fiber cell to the cavity diameter (T/D) of the three bamboos were lower. Also,fiber tissue measurements were:B. sinospinosa 49.79%,B. blumeana 45.95%,and D. yunnanicus 50.50%. The three sympodial bamboos had good fiber form and tissue measurements for paper-making meaning all three were suitable as a raw material for paper. [Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 16 ref.]
Spermatophyte flora of Boshan Mountain in Henan Province
YAN Shuang-xi, YAN Li-jun, ZHANG Zhi-xiang
2011, 28(3): 391-399. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.008
[Abstract](4339) [PDF](1510)
Boshan Mountain,located in central Henan Province,is rich in flora with 120 families,410 genera,747 species,38 varieties,and 6 forms of seed plants. This study compared the composition,richness,dominant families,characteristics,and areal types for flora of families,genera,and species on Boshan Mountain and adjacent flora using a cluster analysis of their floristic spectra. Results showed that the geographic distribution for all families,genera,and species of seed plants could be divided into 15 distributional types. There were seed plants for mixed tropical and temperate flora:42 families,52 genera,and 28 species;tropical flora:49 families,130 genera,and 89 species;and temperate flora:29 families,228 genera,and 674 species with temperate genera 1.8 times tropical genera,and temperate species 7.6 times tropical species.[ Ch,1 fig. 6 tab. 17 ref.]
Vegetative composition and niche breadth of plants in a Litsea glutinosa forest on Dongshan Island
GAO Wei, YE Gong-fu, YOU Shui-sheng, HAN Meng-meng, DU Lin-mei, XIN Xiu
2011, 28(3): 400-407. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.009
[Abstract](5029) [PDF](1269)
In order to reveal the resources utilization and relationship of different plant species in coastal wind-blown sand aera,based on the using of Shannon-Wiener and Levins formulas,The vegetative composition and population niches of important plants in a Litsea glutinosa forest on Dongshan Island were studied. Results indicated 34 plant species in the Litsea glutinosa forest including 23 woody species,accounting for 67.6% of the total,belonging to 16 families and 22 genera with 11 herbs belonging to 6 families and 10 genera. Tropical and subtropical distributing were dominant in the vegetation. The layers of trees,shrubs,liane,and herbages could be distinguished clearly,Community structure showed the plant with the greatest niche breadth in the tree layer was L. glutinosa,and in the bush layer it was Sageretia thea;whereas in the herb layer dominant species were Ophiopogon bodinieri and Arthraxon hispidus. The niche overlap among populations revealed a resource sharing tendency from a stable community and offered some reference data for ecological development of forest defense system. [Ch,2 tab. 23 ref.]
Community structure of three different forests in Tonglu,Zhejiang Province
CHEN Ya-feng, YU Shu-quan, YAN Xiao-su, YI Li-ta, BAO Chun-quan
2011, 28(3): 408-415. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.010
[Abstract](5058) [PDF](1838)
To determine the difference of the growth conditions between evergreen broad-leaved forest,coniferous forest and mixed wood,nine sample sites(which is 20 m 20 m plot) were selected for three different forest communities in Tonglu County,Zhejiang Province to compare community diversity,species composition,and population distribution patterns. Through specific data analysis,results showed that(1) for plant spatial distribution,young plants mainly dominated the evergreen broadleaf forest,old-tall trees dominated the coniferous forest,and a mixture of both young and old-tall trees were found in the mixed forest. (2) The largest importance values for species among the mixed,the evergreen broadleaf,and the coniferous forests were:Loropetalum chinensis(31.27%),Castanopsis sclerophylla(47.00%),and Pinus massoniana(96.92%). (3) Species richness for the evergreen broadleaf forest was greatest in the tree layer;whereas in the coniferous forest species richness in the shrub and herb layers was largest. Also,(4) most of the species in the mixed and broadleaf forests were randomly distributed with Pinus massoniana in the coniferous forest found mainly in clusters.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 17 ref.]
Plant community diversity of the city parks of Hangzhou
JIANG Xue-li, WANG Xiao-de, CUI Qing-yun, SHENG Cai-jin
2011, 28(3): 416-421. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.011
[Abstract](4974) [PDF](1575)
By typical sampling method,the species composition,the community structure and the species diversity index of plant community in the city parks of Hangzhou were analyzed and compared. The results showed that there were abundant plants species and recorded 44 families,79 genera and 120 species in the city parks of Hangzhou. In terms of species richness(S),Shannon-Wiener diversity (H) and Simpson diversity index (D),ground shrub layer was the highest,followed by the arbor layer,small-arbor and shrub layer,the herb layer;in terms of the Pielou evenness index (J) and Alatalo evenness index (Ea),arbor layer was the highest. Compared with the natural community,arbor layer had comparatively rich species,herb layer had fewer species and shrub layer had very few regeneration seedlings. There were three types of community structure. TypeⅠwas arbor-herb (small arbor and shrub-herb);type Ⅱ was arbor-shrub-herb (arbor-small arbor and shrub -herb);type Ⅲ was arbor-small arbor and shrub -shrub-herb. In terms of species richness (S),Shannon-Wiener (H),Pielou (J) and Alatalo (Ea) index,ⅢⅡⅠ;in terms of Simpson (D) index,ⅢⅠⅡ. Type Ⅲ was more identical to the natural community;while typeⅠhad little identity to the natural community.[Ch,3 tab. 20 ref.]
Remote sensing-based dynamic monitoring of moso bamboo forest and its carbon stock change in Anji County
CUI Rui-rui, DU Hua-qiang, ZHOU Guo-mo, XU Xiao-jun, DONG De-jin, Lü Yu-long
2011, 28(3): 422-431. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.012
[Abstract](4823) [PDF](1309)
Maximum likelihood classification method was used to extract moso bamboo(Phyllostachys pubescens) forest from multitemporal Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) images. The dynamic change of bamboo forest areas in Anji County,Zhejiang Province in the past 30 years was conducted. Meanwhile,total aboveground carbon stock of bamboo forest was estimated. The results showed that (1) overall classification accuracy for each TM image was over 85%,and Kappa coefficient for moso bamboo forest ranged from 0.80 to 0.95. The relationship between moso bamboo forest area estimated from remote sensing and the forest inventory data was significant with a R2 value of 0.981;(2) during 1986 - 2008,bamboo forest areas were increased with highest rate of 86% in Xiaofeng and lowest rate of 14% in Tianhuangping,except Kuntong with decreased rate of 8.89%;(3) the increase of moso bamboo forest area in Anji County during the past 30 years was at the expense of conifer forest,broadleaf forest and farmland;(4) according to classification results and aboveground carbon density of moso bamboo (i.e.,20.297 Mghm-2),the aboveground carbon stock was 1.106 Tg in 1986,1.213 Tg in 1991,1.327 Tg in 1998,1.413 Tg. in 2004 and 1.466 Tg in 2008,respectively.[Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 31 ref.]
Diameter class diversity indices for spruce-fir conifer and broadleaf mixed stands in the Changbai Mountains
HE Lie-yan, KANG Xin-gang, ZHAO Jun-hui, GAO Yan, FENG Qi-xiang
2011, 28(3): 432-438. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.013
[Abstract](4270) [PDF](1417)
Diameter class diversity,as an important part of structural diversity within a stand,affects the economic,ecological,and social value of forests. The objective of this paper is to evaluate different diameter indices describing diameter class diversity based on discriminant ability and sensitivity to sample size. Seven commonly used diversity indices:the Margalef index,Shannon index,Gini coefficient,Simpson index,Berger-parker index,Pielou evenness and Shannon evenness were calculated for 4 spruce-fir conifer and broadleaf mixed stands with different cutting intensities(0,20%,30%,40%) during 7 investigating time(1986,1990,1993,1997,2001,2005,2009) in the Changbai Mountains. Then,the discriminant ability and sensitivity for sample sizes of different diversity indices were evaluated. Results showed that with respect to discriminant ability the Margalef index,Shannon index,and Gini coefficient were superior,but the Gini coefficient was best as the Margalef and Shannon indices were sensitive to sample size. Based on different cutting intensities,variation in the index values before and after cutting showed that diameter diversity increased when the cutting intensity was between 20% and 30%,and decreased when the cutting intensity was 40%. A wide range of applications for diameter diversity indices in forest management include comparing diameter diversity in different stands,assessing changes in tree size diversity over time in stands or on a landscape level,and evaluating the effects of different management treatments on diameter diversity in stands. [Ch,6 tab. 18 ref.]
Soil respiration dynamics for different land-use types on the shoreline of Dongting Lake
TANG Jie, LI Zhi-hui, TANG Yu-xi, WU Min, LI Yong-jin, WANG Sheng
2011, 28(3): 439-443. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.014
[Abstract](4269) [PDF](1360)
A variety of biotic and abiotic factors influence soil respiration. To contribute to a further understanding of soil respiration dynamics and to help provide an accurate calculation of carbon emissions,the relationship between soil respiration dynamics and environmental factors for three land-use types:reeds,farmland,and poplar forest,along the shoreline of Dongting Lake was field tested using an LI-8100 gas analyzer and analyzed for diurnal and seasonal changes in the soil respiration rate. A correlation analysis of the soil respiration rate among factors of near-surface temperature,0-5 cm soil moisture,0-5 cm soil temperature,and air humidity was conducted. Results showed that the dynamic performance of seasonal and diurnal changes in soil respiration were all single-peaked. Peak value times differed with the lowest value occurring about 5:00 A.M. Soil respiration intensity for land-use type was in the order:reeds poplars farmland with soil respiration rate exemely significantly correlated to near-surface temperature (P0.01),0-5 cm soil moisture (P0.01),and 0-5 cm soil temperature(P0.01). Moreover,there was highly significant correlation between popular forest and air humidity. In total,soil respiration was synergied by soil temperature and 0-5 cm soil moisture(P0.05).[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 11 ref.]
Treatments for germination of Carya illinoinensis seeds
LI Shu-fang, YANG Jian-hua, FAN Zhi-yuan, XI Xue-liang, CHEN Hong-wei
2011, 28(3): 444-449. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.015
[Abstract](5904) [PDF](1434)
A germination test of Carya illinoinensis seeds was conducted with different storage times and methods as well as various soaking methods using phytohormones,and differing seed stratification procedures. Results showed that seeds of C. illinoinensis should not be sown immediately after harvest. For seeds stored for more than 2 months,a 3-5 ℃ cold storage was best;and as storage time increased,germination rate decreased. The germination rate improved remarkably with phytohormones and stratification. Among stratification methods,soaking the seeds in phytohormone for 8 d and then stratifying them indoors for 35 d,produced seed germination rates as high as 91%.[Ch,6 tab. 20 ref.]
Standards for sorting and growth patterns of Lycium barbarum seedlings
ZHAO Jian-hua, YE Li-qin, AN Wei, ZHANG Kun, WANG Ya-jun, SHI Zhi-gang
2011, 28(3): 450-454. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.016
[Abstract](4531) [PDF](1197)
In order to discuss standards for sorting and growth patterns of Lycium barbarum seedlings,the standard for grading Lycium barbarum seedlings was studied using a principal component analysis and the mean standard deviation. Categories of basal diameter and quantity of side roots were determined as possible quality indexes for seedling grading. Using the survival rate,branch length,branch growth rate and number of secondary branches of growth targets of different seedling grades was also established. Results showed that for first-grade seedlings(Ⅰ),basal diameter was 8.0 mm with 11 side roots;second-grade seedlings (Ⅱ) had a basal diameter of 4.5 - 8.0 mm and 3 - 11 side roots;while third-grade seedlings(Ⅲ) had a basal diameter 4.5 mm and 3 side roots. After two months of planting out,the survival rates of I and Ⅱ were > 95.0%. Compared to Ⅲ,increases for Ⅰwere:branch length (17.8%),branch growth rate(25.6%),and the number of secondary branches for Ⅰ(187.5%);whereas increases for Ⅱ compared to Ⅲ were:6.5%(branch length),4.9% (branch growth rate),and 25.0% (number of secondary branches for I). Also,the number of secondary branches of Ⅰwere significantly higher (P0.01) than Ⅱ and Ⅲ.[Ch,5 tab. 11 ref.]
Heat-treatment influence on Cunninghamia lanceolata discoloration
TANG Rong-qiang, BAO Bin-fu, LI Yan-jun
2011, 28(3): 455-459. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.017
[Abstract](4763) [PDF](1591)
This paper investigates the effect of heat-treatment temperature and processing time on Chinese fir(Cunninghamia lanceolata) discoloration. Chinese fir boards were heat treated at 170 C,190 C and 210 C for 2 h,3 h and 4 h respectively,and then the color values of Chinese fir before and after heat treatment were determined by a Chroma Meter DC-P3. And the effect on color characteristics of sapwood and heartwood were compared. Results showed that with increases of time and temperature,the brightness of the specimens board brightness () decreasesd and the chroma (E) increased. Similar rules of change for brightness and chromatism of sapwood and heartwood were found with a strong relationship between and E(number of coefficients r = - 0.999 5 for both sapwood and heartwood). Color indexes b* of sapwood increased first at 170 ℃,190 ℃ and then decreased at 210 ℃. Overall,temperature had a greater effect on color of Chinese fir boards than time with heat treatment affecting sapwood more than heartwood.[Ch,4 tab. 18 ref.]
Liquefaction of Chinese fir bark in the presence of phenol
YE Jie-wang, FU Shen-yuan, YU Hong-wei, HUAI Min
2011, 28(3): 460-465. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.018
[Abstract](3731) [PDF](1032)
To assess the feasibility of using Cunninghamia lanceolata(Chinese fir) bark as a raw material for the formulation of phenol based adhesives, the liquefaction technique for Chinese fir bark was studied using phenol as the liquefacient. The effects of reaction temperature, liquid ratio(phenol/Chinese fir bark),reaction time, as well as kinds and usage of catalysts [hydrochloric acid (HCl),phosphoric acid (H3PO4),and sulfuric acid(H2SO4)] on liquefaction were investigated. Also, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR) was used to characterize the structure of Chinese fir bark and its liquefaction products. Results showed that,compared to HCl and H3PO4,H2SO4 had an excellent catalytic effect on the liquefaction of Chinese fir bark,and that a lower residue yield was obtained. Optimum liquefaction conditions were: liquefaction time 1.0 h,liquefaction temperature 150 C,liquid ratio 3/1,H2SO4 as a catalyst 72%(720 gkg-1),and catalyst dosage 0.15 mLg-1. With these conditions,the liquefaction residue rate was 9.97%. This indicated that the chemical components of Chinese fir bark were subjected to phenolization reactions. With additional studies of resole formation and glue mix formulations, it is anticipated that a resin adhesive from liquefied Chinese fir bark with improved bond quality can be developed. [Ch,6 fig. 1 tab. 20 ref.]
Liquefaction of Eucalyptus bark and resinification of liquefied products
FU Yun-lin, MO Yin-you, QING Guan-li, ZHAO Lin, RONG Yu-quan
2011, 28(3): 466-471. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.019
[Abstract](3574) [PDF](1017)
To determine optimum catalyst concentration,phenol-Eucalyptus bark ratio,liquefaction temperature,and liquefaction time on bark liquefaction,as well as factors influencing resinification;phenol in the presence of 36% (360 gL-1) sulfuric acid was used to liquefy Eucalyptus bark and analyzed using an orthogonal design with a single factor analysis. Results showed that (1) effects on Eucalyptus bark liquefaction,from greatest to least,were:liquid ratio liquefaction temperature liquefaction time. (2) The orthogonal experiment revealed optimum liquefaction processing parameters of:phenol-Eucalyptus bark ratio of 10 ∶ 3,reactive temperature of 150℃ ,reactive time of 80 min,and a 36%(360 gL-1) sulfuric acid content of 6% for the total liquefaction. (3) To prepare resin and press plywood panels using liquefied bark as a standard,the following was selected:formaldehyde molar ratio of 1.6,NaOH molar ratio of 0.3,water molar ratio of 8.0,and a reaction temperature of 95℃. Thus,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Centre detected a product moisture content of 10% which was within technical requirements,an average bonding strength of 0.835 8 MPa which met the technical requirements of Type l Plywood,and formaldehyde emission of 1.5 mgL-1 which qualified for classification at E2 levels. [Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 13 ref.]
Principal component analysis and evaluation of waterfowl habitats along the coastline of Fujian Province
2011, 28(3): 472-478. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.020
[Abstract](4130) [PDF](1183)
Seven indexes including the species and numbers of the natatorial birds,wading birds,protected birds and numbers of internationally important species were extracted from the database of waterfowls along the coastline of Fujian Province in 2006. The principal component analysis was used in the evaluation of the 21 coastal waterfowl habitats in Fujian. The results indicated that the Xinghua Bay won the highest score (5.171). The 21 wetlands were sorted as Xinghua Bay ,Minjiang Estuarine,Quanzhou Bay,Fuqing Bay,Meizhou Bay,Xiamen Coastal region,Sandu Bay,Funing Bay,Dongshan Bay,Jiulongjiang Estuarine,Luoyuan Bay,Pinghai Bay,Shacheng Harbor,Futou Bay,Zhaoan Bay,Weitou Bay,Shenhu Bay,Qinchuan Bay,Yucheng Fishponds,Wenwusha Reservoir and Yacheng Bay in descending order according to the identity degree. The results were meaningful upon making the order of priority of conservation of coastal wetlands in Fujian. More and stronger protection activities should be launched in some important wetlands including Xinghua Bay,Minjiang Estuarine and Fuqing Bay.[Ch,7 tab. 18 ref.]
Pesticide toxicity and selection for the pine wood nematode
LAI Yan-xue, CHI Shu-you, WANG Ya-hong, ZHANG Yi-feng, HAN Zheng-min
2011, 28(3): 479-485. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.021
[Abstract](5039) [PDF](1368)
To determine highly toxic and fast-acting pesticides to combat the pine wood nematode(Bursaphelenchus xylophilus),a toxicity test of 22 kinds of pesticide used against the pine wood nematode (PWN) was conducted using a PWN suspension liquid plus pesticide with a processing time of 1 h to determine a median lethal concentration(LC50) for each pesticide. Results showed that the LC50 after a 1 h treatment was best with emamectin (0.3 mgL-1) and worst with cartap (21.053 gL-1). In addition,four kinds of pesticide revealed acute activity toward the pine wood nematode with an LC50 after 1 h treatment of:matrin (1.2 mgL-1),chlorfluazuron (2.5 mgL-1),deltamethrin (4.2 mgL-1),and abamectin (4.5 mgL-1). This meant that emamectin and abamectin could quickly and efficiently kill PWN,and the selected pesticides with acute activity to PWN could be used to develop a trunk injection against pine wilt disease. [Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 25 ref.]
Research progress on gene regulation in the flower development of orchid
TIAN Min, GONG Mao-jiang, XU Xiao-yan, WANG Cai-xia
2011, 28(3): 494-499. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.023
[Abstract](4448) [PDF](1332)
Orchidaceae have unique floral morphology and structure including gynostemium and Labellum. Recently,some homologous floral organ identity genes and meristem identity genes have been identified and separated from different orchids. These researches indicated that the homologous MADS-box genes played important roles in the flowering transition and the floral morphogenesis of orchids. Especially,the B-function genes might regulate the development of the floral perianth. This review summarized the recent progresses on the flowering control in orchids. [Ch,1 tab. 33 ref.]
Research on hydrological effect in different interfaces under bamboo forests
LIU Wei-yi, FAN Shao-hui, SU Wen-hui, LIU Guang-lu, YU Lin
2011, 28(3): 486-493. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.022
[Abstract](4081) [PDF](1151)
As an important component in hydrological process,forest vegetation influences critically the spatial distribution of hydrological fluxes such as precipitation,evapo-transpiration,and runoff. Based on the recent research literature at home and abroad,the authors summarized the effects of bamboo forest on the spatial distribution of those hydrological fluxes,from the interfaces of crown layer,litter layer and soil layer of bamboo forest. The results indicated that the main functions of bamboo forest vegetation including protecting water resources,reserving water and soil,controlling erosion and improving water quality. However,the study of hydrological phenomena is still in the initial stage focusing mainly on Phyllostachys pubescens,and limited to single index and process. Therefore,the physical mechanisms of hydrological process should be stressed in various bamboo forest hydrology study,which was of great importance for analyzing and evaluating forest hydrology effects in different varieties,zones,and forest types.[Ch,55 ref.]
Scientific notes
Plant growth regulator treatments for a tissue culture of Euodia rutaecarpa
XU Yong, SUN Jun-wei, CHEN Zhen
2011, 28(3): 500-504. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.024
[Abstract](4088) [PDF](1372)
To determine the effects of different plant growth regulator treatments,including 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA),1-naphthlcetic acid (NAA),2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D),and N-phenyl-N-1,2, 3-thidiazol-5-yl-urea(TDZ),on various processes of tissue culture in female plants of Euodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth,leaves of regenerated shoots were used. Results showed that 1.0 mgL-1 6-BA alone or with 0.1 mgL-1 NAA induced both callus and adventitious buds. The other plant growth regulator treatments induced the formation of callus,but failed to induce adventitious buds. NAA by itself did not induce adventitious buds,but it did promote the effects of 6-BA. As the concentration of 6-BA increased,the rate of bud differentiation first increased and then declined,a similar trend happened with 6-BA on morphogenesis of adventitious buds. With an optimal concentration,6-BA promoted proliferation,whereas a high concentration led to vitrification. Also,0 - 0.1 mgL-1 NAA promoted rooting and roots appeared faster and stouter as NAA increased. Moreover,the survival rate after transplanting increased. However,0.5 mgL-1 NAA inhibited the growth of lateral roots and the transplanting procedure. After transplanting in the field for 1.5 years,the regenerated plants bloomed.[Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 10 ref.]
Establishment of a SRAP analysis protocol in Carya cathayensis and a comparison among SRAP,RAPD,ISSR analysis protocols
LI Yuan-chun, SHEN Lin, ZENG Yan-ru
2011, 28(3): 505-512. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.025
[Abstract](4395) [PDF](1627)
In order to have a good molecular marker to reflect inherent genetic characteristics of Linan hickory (Carya cathayensis),the genomic DNA extracted from hickory leaves was used to optimize parameters (constituents) included in a sequence-related amplified polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (SRAP-PCR) protocol run under the following conditions:pre-denaturing at 94 ℃ for 5 min;5 cycles,each of which denatured at 94 ℃ for 30 s and annealed at 35 ℃ for 30 s with an extension at 72 ℃ for 2 min;30 cycles,each of which denatured at 94 ℃ for 30 s and annealed at 50 ℃ for 30 s with an extension at 72 ℃ for 2 min;and a final extension at 72 ℃ for 8 min. Then,15 pairs of primers out of 100 pairs were screened for SRAP analysis and a comparison was made among SRAP,random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD),and inter-simple sequence repeat(ISSR). The optimized(SRAP-PCR) protocol was as follows:a total volume of 25.00 L containing 1 buffer,0.20 mmolL-1 dNTPs(deoxynucleotide triphosphates),0.20 molL-1 primers,2.00 mmolL-1 Mg2+,33.34 nkat Taq DNA polymerase,and 0.80 mgL-1 genomic DNA(all at a final concentration). On the average,SRAP,compared to RAPD and ISSR,had the most loci and polymorphic loci amplified by each pair of primers,but SRAP percentages for both polymorphic primer pairs and polymorphic loci were between RAPD and ISSR. The optimized SRAP-PCR reduced the reaction time by half compared with the former protocols. It has been shown that both SRAP and RAPD should be considered when studying hickory.[Ch,6 fig. 4 tab. 28 ref.]
Constituent analysis of volatile organic compounds in three Liliaceae
FENG Qing, GAO Qun-ying, ZHANG Ru-min, GAO Yan, HOU Ping
2011, 28(3): 513-518. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.026
[Abstract](4427) [PDF](1283)
To understand the constituents of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Liliaceae,VOCs from Chlorophytum comosum,Aspidistra elatior,and Asparagus plumosus were collected using the dynamic headspace air-circulation method. Then,the main VOCs compounds were identified with thermal desorption system-gas chromatography/ mass spectrum(TDS-GC/MS). Results showed that C. comosum emitted 34 types of VOCs (mainly as terpenoids,esters,alcohols,aldehydes,and acids) with dihydro-citronellol the most abundant compound (28.79%). Aspidistra elatior emitted 25 types of VOCs (mainly as aldehydes,esters,alcohols,terpenoids,ketones,and hydrocarbons) with Nonanal the most abundant compound (12.12%). Asparagus plumosus emitted 38 types of VOCs(mainly as terpenoids,esters,alcohols,and aldehydes) with lemonol the most abundant compound(27.90%). Thus,these three species,with alcohols,terpenoids,aldehydes,and esters all found in the VOCs,will provide a theoretical basis for multiple utilization and development of Liliaceae.[Ch,2 fig. 1 tab. 21 ref.]
Biomass models for Bambusa textilis var. tasca
YANG Qian-yu, XIE Jin-zhong, ZHANG Wei, LIN Zhen-qing
2011, 28(3): 519-526. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.03.027
[Abstract](4403) [PDF](1076)
The biomass of Bambusa textilis var. tasca was studied using regression models that were constructed for biomass components:bamboo pole-dry (Bt),bamboo leaf-dry (Bf),bamboo culm-dry (Bs),aboveground part-dry (Ba),and bamboo-dry (Wbt);based on diameter at breast- high(DBH)(D)and the average thickness of the culm-base(A). For the purpose of Bambusa textilis var. tasca rational operation and development to provide theoretical basis and basic data. Results showed that culm biomass of B. textilis var. tasca counted for 74.62%,which was much higher than Phyllostachys pubescens. Regression equations in terms of DBH were:Bt = - 2 672.765 + 1 299.919D + 59.298D2 -36.222D3,Bf = -2 756.615 + 1 290.910D + 95.822D2 - 34.991D3,Bs = -4 016.535 + 2 161.650D + 21.755D2 - 45.453D3,Ba = -7 445.916 + 3 952.480D + 45.439D2 - 96.666D3,and Wbt = -7 360.122 + 3 933.155D + 41.158D2 - 93.171D3,and in terms of A were:Bt = -1 914.129 + 739.465A + 30.261A2 -61.285A3,Bf = -3 342.800 + 1 228.745A -1.165A2 -104.356A3,Bs = -6 103.838 + 1 790.994A + 44.430A2 - 13.674A3,Ba = -9 770.036 + 2 464.708A + 19.688A2 -23.782A3,and Wbt = -9 914.842 + 2 912.175A + 25.624A2 -23.513A3. With these equations,Bambusa textilis var. tasca had an average yield in stem biomass of 1.52 kgplant-1;an average biomass bamboo of 2.31 kgplant-1;a stem biomass per unit area of 3.28 kgm-2;and a bamboo biomass of per unit area of 4.96 kgm-2. View of the high yield of Bambusa textilis var. tasca,wood is better features,both for the development of Bambusa textilis var. tasca ease the current difficulties facing the bamboo industry,or the use of bamboo species diversity has important economic and ecological significance.[Ch,8 tab. 29 ref.]