2011 Vol. 28, No. 4

Construction of a large genomic DNA fragments, BIBAC library for Phyllostachys pubescens
GUAN Yu, YANG Yang, ZHANG Zhi-jun, LUO Shu-ping, TANG Ding-qin
2011, 28(4): 527-532. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.001
[Abstract](4668) [PDF](1810)
One plant-transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome(BIBAC) library was constructed which represents the first large genomic DNA fragment library generated for Phyllostachys pubescens. High-quality,genomic DNA extracted from young leaves of Phyllostachys pubescens was gradiently enzyme-digested with a gradient using BamH I. Desirable DNA fragments were isolated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis,ligated to the dephosphorylatedion carrier pCLD04541 with a mass ratio of 3∶1,and then transformed to Escherichia coli DH10B competent cells. This was followed by blue-white screening with establishment of a binary bacterial artificial chromosome(BIBAC) genome library. Results showed a high recombination positive colony from which a BIBAC genome library,consisting of 104 clones with an average insert fragment size of about 105 kb after detection with a pulsed field gel electrophoresis, was constructed. The BIBAC library was 5 times larger than the Phyllostachys pubescens genome. The construction of this BIBAC genome library laid a good foundation for related genome research. [Ch,8 fig. 18 ref.]
Organic acid exudates from roots of Phyllostachys pubescens with aluminum stress
LIU Ying-kun, CAI Sha-yi, YU Wei-wu, LENG Hua-nan, GUI Ren-yi
2011, 28(4): 533-537. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.002
[Abstract](5487) [PDF](1904)
To develop a simple method to determine the organic acids exuded from roots of Phyllostachys pubescens,root exudates were obtained using a water culture method with treatments of 0,100,500,1 000,and 2 000 molL-1 AlCl3 as the culture solution and analyzed through ultra performance liquid chromatography(UPLC) with ultraviolet(UV) detection. The exudate was concentrated in a rotary evaporator,and separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC high-strength silica(HSS) T3 C18 column with 3% CH3OH-KH2PO4(0.01 molL-1)(pH 2.6)(V/V) as the mobile phase of an ACQUITY TM UPLC system. Analysis included the effect on separation of 4 organic acids(oxalic acid,malic acid,citric acid and succinic acid)using UV detection wavelength,chromatographic column,and the pH of the mobile phase. Results showed favorable recovery(95%-105%),satisfactory precision (RSD < 2%),and a good linear relationship (0.022-1.100 g for the 4 organic acids). According to the retention time and the spectrum of the analytes,the organic acids exuded were an oxalic acid and malic acid. The Al3+ ions interacted with organic acid exudates with the strongest interaction when the concentration of AlCl3 was 500 molL-1. [Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 14 ref.]
Germ plasm and distribution of Gesneriaceae in Zhejiang Province
WANG Hui, MA Dan-dan, ZHONG Tai-lin, LI Gen-you
2011, 28(4): 538-544. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.003
[Abstract](4494) [PDF](1513)
This study conducted in Zhejiang Province arranged Gesneriaceae plants into 11 genera which included 20 species of Gesneriaceae wildling found in herbariums,documents,and investigations. Included were two newly recorded genera:Deinocheilos and Chiritopsis,as well as four newly recorded species not previously recorded as Flora of Zhejiang:Deinocheilos jiangxiense,Chiritopsis xiuningensis,Chirita fimbrisepala,and Oreocharis auricula. This research analyzed the distribution of the characteristics of these plants in Zhejiang Province on the basis of topography,habitat,soils,and mountains. Results showed that these plants were widespread across the province with most of them located in the western and southern hills and with nearly half of the species preferring limestone soils. Differences in habitat among different species were also found. Plants of this family could be grown in damp flower-beds,as groundcover,with rockeries,and in other garden spaces. For protection,priority for conducting biological and ecological research using rapid propagation techniques to expand the population,should be given to rare,endemic species as well as to those with high ornamental value. Wild regression of rare species should also be tried. To help demarcate protected areas,suggestions could be offered for distribution of some endemic and rare species found in relatively concentrated areas. [Ch,2 tab. 14 ref.]
Effects of ultrasonic wave and osmotic treatments on germination of Pinus tabulaeformis seed
SHI Feng-hou, ZHU Can-can, SHEN Yong-bao, SHI Ji-sen
2011, 28(4): 545-549. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.004
[Abstract](4300) [PDF](1259)
The effects of ultrasonic wave and polyethylene glycol(PEG) osmotic treatments on germination and the metabolic mechanism during initial germinating stages of Pinus tabulaeformis seeds were studied through an orthogonal design(L934). The results showed that:PEG osmotic adjustment and ultrasonic treatments have different effects on the seed germination and the metabolic mechanism during initial germinating stages of Pinus tabulaeformis seeds. The effect of PEG promotes seed germination,which increases with the increment of PEG soluble concentration,and 20% PEG solution significantly promotes seed germination and significantly increases the content of soluble sugar and soluble protein during the initial germinating stages. The germination rate and germination index could be significantly increased,the decomposition of starch could be accelerated,and the content of soluble protein could be increased during initial germinating stages after the seeds treated with 59 kHz ultrasonic wave on 10 min. The best treatment combination of ultrasonic and PEG osmotic adjustment treatment was:the seeds soaked in 20% PEG solution for 24 h,and then treated with 59 kHz ultrasonic wave for 10 min. [Ch,3 tab. 17 ref.]
Light intensity changes on Cunninghamia lanceolata in mixed stands with different concentrations of Phyllostachys pubescens
LIU Shuo, ZHOU Guo-mo, BAI Shang-bin
2011, 28(4): 550-554. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.005
[Abstract](4476) [PDF](1391)
To help accumulate knowledge on the causes of death of Cunninghamia lanceolata due to expansion of nearby Phyllostachys pubescens bamboo stands,light intensity of three forest stands: a P. pubescens forest;a needle,broadleaf mixed forest with C. lanceolata;and a needle,broadleaf with C. lanceolata,and bamboo mixed forest;at the edge of P. pubescens bamboo stands was obtained using a quantum meter in 8:00-17:00,from July to September,to detect the light intensity(I),and using Li-6400 Portable Photosynthesis System to detect the light compensation point(LCP),from 9:00 to 10:00. Results showed that light intensity(I),increased with greater concentrations of P. pubescens within the forest stands:P. pubescens (bamboo)forest > needle,broadleaf with C. lanceolata,and bamboo mixed forest > needle,broadleaf with C. lanceolata mixed forest. Compared with an open field light intensity decreased 49.31% for the P. pubescens forest;55.91% for the needle,broadleaf with C. lanceolata,and bamboo mixed forest;and 85.70% for the needle,broadleaf with C. lanceolata mixed forest. A light intensity relationship was shown with the equation:Ineedle,broadleaf = 0.027 3 Ineedle,broadleaf,bamboo + 0.032 0 Ibamboo + 2.297 0. Also,the highest LCP was found with P. pubescens (19.60 molm-2s-1),then adult C. lanceolata (9.77 molm-2s-1),and then C. lanceolata saplings (9.78 molm-2s-1);thus,light intensity of adult C. lanceolata and its seedlings was higher than the LCP,and the forests with C. lanceolata could continue to make organic matter. But because of the shadow characteristics of C. lanceolata seedlings,the increased light intensity could influence the C. lanceolata seedlings due to less shade. [Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 15 ref.]
Climate change response using a simulation study of photosynthetic physiology on Phyllostachys pubescens
ZHANG Li-yang, WEN Guo-sheng, ZHANG Ru-min, WANG Dian-jie, ZHANG Jun
2011, 28(4): 555-561. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.006
[Abstract](4525) [PDF](1460)
To reveal the response of Phyllostachys pubescens to climate change,an Li-6400 was used to measure CO2 response curves and light response curves under different temperatures,humidity,and CO2 concentrations. The data above was used to simulate climate change in a short time with SPSS. Results showed that photosynthesis doubled as did the light saturation point,the transpiration rate decreased,and the CO2 response curve fit a quadratic function where the CO2 concentration doubled from 400 to 800 molmol-1 in a short time. Temperatures above or below external temperature 3 ℃ caused a net photosynthetic rate increase with stomatal conductance surge increasing sharply. Also,the transpiration rate continuously increased with temperature. As stomatal conductance increased,the net photosynthetic rate increased slightly. When humidity decreased suddenly the transpiration rate had a seven-fold increase. Therefore,thefertilization effectcould lead to an increase in the net photosynthetic rate with the CO2 concentration increasing in the short-term;however,the greenhouse effect and possible drought caused by an increase in CO2 concentration could make stomatal sensitivity and the quantity of Rubisco activity limiting factors,even limited the whole plants normal physiology and growth.[Ch,4 fig. 3 tab. 21 ref.]
Spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrients in an evergreen broadleaved forest of Mount Tianmu,Zhejiang
DU Hua-qiang, TANG Meng-ping, CUI Rui-rui
2011, 28(4): 562-568. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.007
[Abstract](4472) [PDF](1352)
Spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrients is an important factor which affects the spatial distribution of vegetation. In this paper,geostatistical theory was used to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrients including soil organic matter (SOM),total nitrogen (TN),available nitrogen (AN,hydrolytic nitrogen),available phosphorus (AP),and available potassium(AK) in an evergreen broadleaf forest of National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmu,Zhejiang Province,China. Results showed that(1) an exponential model revealed the spatial structures of SOM and AN,whereas spherical models were used for TN and AP. In general, structure was the primary cause of the spatial variability,but SOM had a strong spatial autocorrelation with a spatial proportion of 0.787;TN,AN,and AP had moderate spatial autocorrelation. Due to its differences in active lag distance and its interval with different models explaining its spatial structure,AK had no clear spatial variability.(2) The maximum spatial autocorrelation for AN had a range from 4.21 to 169.50 m,whereas AP had a minimum.(3) Fractal dimensions from log-log semi-variograms quantitatively described spatial pattern differences and scale dependence of the five kinds of soil nutrients. Fractal dimensions were higher for AK,so AK spatial structure had a strong scale dependence with a complex spatial pattern. The fractal dimension of SOM was minimal, so its spatial pattern was relatively simple. Similar fractal dimensions for TN,AN,and AP explained their similar spatial patterns,but the small distinctions in their fractal dimensions did reveal local spatial structural variability.[Ch,3 fig. 3 tab. 16 ref.]
Phreatic evaporation in Phragmites communis wetlands of the Liao-he Estuary
ZHANG Ying, ZHENG Xi-lai, WU Cheng-cheng, ZHANG Yu-rong
2011, 28(4): 569-575. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.008
[Abstract](4372) [PDF](1444)
To enhance groundwater use efficiency and to discover variation in phreatic evaporation from Phragmites communis plots,field experiments were carried out in incubators with a water supply in the test field of Liao-he estuary from 9 August to 1 October,2009. 11 incubators were installed with different water depth. That is 10 cm above soil surface and 5,20,40 and 60 cm underground water respectly. The design that incubators No.6 to No.11 were set with no Phragmites communis while No.1 to No.5 with Phragmites communis was to get the transpiration,evaporation and evapotranspiration law of Phragmites communis compared with water surface and bare land. Results showed that:phreatic evaporation from Phragmites Communis plots in incubators with different groundwater depths was changed greatly with the weather. Daily phreatic evaporation could vary as much as 9.0 mm. Accumulative phreatic evaporation from Phragmites communis plots with different groundwater depths was larger than bare land. Accumulative phreatic evaporation from P. communis plots was 3.0 - 3.5 times bare land. Phreatic evaporation from Phragmites communis plots was similar to the water surface treatments. However,when atmospheric evaporation capacity increased to a certain extent,the increasing rate of phreatic evaporation intensity on land with and without Phragmites communis growing showed a decreasing trend. Finnaly,through parameter fitting,a good fit for the power function formula and exponential formula of phreatic evaporation were obtained. Therefore,these formulas were suitable for application in research on phreatic evaporation in the study area.[Ch,6 fig. 3 tab. 14 ref.]
Two-dimensional yield-rate tables for merchantable volumes of Pinus massoniana in Guizhou Province
JIN Ming, DING Gui-jie
2011, 28(4): 576-582. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.009
[Abstract](4348) [PDF](1389)
To construct a model system of two-dimensional,rate-of-yield tables for a merchantable volume of Pinus massoniana wood,three models:(1) a model using Kozaks taper function;(2) a log under-bark volume function,obtained by multiplying the integration of Kozaks taper function with a constant;and (3)a bark volume function using the same form as Yamamotos volume function were selected. Then bucking was carried out using a cutting program composed by myself in R code. Comparisons of yield-rate tables for two-dimensional merchantable volumes of wood were constructed,and fitting and predicting precision of the tables was tested. Results showed that the average system error for large diameter timber with minimal diameter 26 cm was -2.87%,for medium diameter with minimal diameter 20 cm it was -3.35%,and for small diameter with minimal diameter 6 cm it was -1.35%;meanwhile the error for economic timber consisted of the above three tibmers was 0.58%. This excellent prediction precision of the model system met national standards:GB/T 20381- 2006,so these two-dimensional tables of yield rates for merchantable volumes of P. massoniana can be applied and promoted.[Ch,9 tab. 12 ref.]
Evaluation and optimization methods of forest fire monitoring resources allocation
HUANG Xiao-yin, XU Ai-jun, ZHANG Chen-hui
2011, 28(4): 583-589. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.010
[Abstract](4254) [PDF](1195)
Based on the precise rating of forest fire dangers,the paper had a research on the evaluation and optimization of the allocation of the forest fire monitoring resources with three-dimensional spatial analysis technology to evaluate the rationality of the allocation of the forest fire monitoring resources through the indicators including monitor rate,blind spot rate,repetition rate and etc. The monitoring resources were optimized based on these indicators. Taking Banqiao Town of Linan City as an example,the research had a quick extraction of mountain peaks through DEM. On the basis of the regional forest fire danger rating,visual domain and overlay analysis of each mountain peak was conducted. Under the situation of the given monitoring resources,it calculated this towns monitor rate,blind spot rate,repetition rate,monitor rate of high fire risk areas and other indicators. According to the pre-set parameters,it optimized the allocation of the monitoring resources,making resources allocation more scientific,reasonable and effective.[Ch,2 fig. 5 tab. 9 ref.]
Atmospheric correction of an advance land imager (ALI) image based on the FLAASH module
CHEN Jian-zhen, HE Chao, YUE Cai-rong
2011, 28(4): 590-596. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.011
[Abstract](4163) [PDF](2038)
The fast line-of-sight atmospheric analysis of spectral hypercubes (FLAASH) atmospheric correction module has often been used to correct the atmospheric influence of remote sensing images,however,in the Environment for Visualizing Images(ENVI),there is no pre-defined parameter for a new sensor in ENVI,which limits the range of application for a FLAASH module. To discuss atmospheric correction for an unknown multispectral sensor using the FLAASH module,an atmospheric correction process of images from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) sensor was introduced. According to contrast and analysis uncorrected and corrected reflectance spectrum for water,vegetation and wasteland,the corrected reflectance spectrum was restored;according to qualitative and quantitative analysis of the whole image of corrected and uncorrected normalized differential vegetation index(NDVI),vegetation region was more brightness;non-vegetation region was darker;the peak value of histogram was improved from 0.454 to 0.754;the mean value was improved from 0.417 to 0.694;the standard deviation was improved from 0.139 7 to 0.141 0. Results showed that by using the FLAASH module,the atmospheric influence of ALI image was effectively weakened. The FLAASH module can be used to correct the atmospheric influence of new sensor,which is no pre-defined in the ENVI.[Ch,5 fig. 2 tab. 20 ref.]
A method of avoiding crack for compressing polygon data by topological data conversion
HU Yun, FANG Lu-ming
2011, 28(4): 597-600. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.012
[Abstract](3982) [PDF](1220)
On the basis of cadastral survey data for forestry tenure,and with the methods of topological data conversion,common boundary compression by Douglas-Peucher algorithm,negative buffer analysis and spatial join,the paper proposes how to eliminate the crack issue of polygon plots compression. The research results have the following implications:(1) the joint method is effective to eliminate the crack of polygon data compression,so as to achieve the high-fidelity compression of polygon data;(2) the topology relation and the attribute data of polygon data are completely maintained. This joint method is of value to process cartographic generalization for forestry tenure and to compress a variety of formats for vector files. [Ch,7 fig. 12 ref.]
Dominance in a mixed conifer and broadleaved forest of Qingshan Lake, Zhejiang
XIN Ying-ying, WEI Xin-liang
2011, 28(4): 601-606. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.013
[Abstract](4589) [PDF](1337)
To improve forest structure and forest landscape quality,tree intraspecific and interspecific competition characteristics of a conifer and broadleaf mixed forest,one of the main forest types of the Qingshan Lake Area,were studied. Methods included use of typical sampling laws to establish research plots with a survey of each measurement factor for species within the plots. The Hegyi competition index was used to analyze and to suggest improvements in defining dominant trees. Dominant trees were determined by judging the relationship of the crown to distance between dominant trees and objects. Regression analysis was also used. Results demonstrated that intraspecific competition of superior trees was greater than interspecific competition. Superior trees included Cunninghamia lanceolata,Castanopsis eyrei,Schoepfia jasminodora,and Schima superba. Strong competition was found between the Quercus fabri and Liquidambar formosana,Q. fabri and Castanopsis eyrei,and Platycarya strobilacea and Cunninghamia lanceolata. Regression analysis showed that competition intensity and tree diameter at breast height(DBH)had a significant(P < 0.01)exponential relationship. Also,intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity of a dominant tree population decreased when tree DBH increased,remaining at low levels. Thus,strong competition between species showed that they had similar niche requirements with competition for resources on the environment being more intense.[Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 9 ref.]
Landscape renovation of forest vegetation in Jiangbei District, Ningbo City
ZHU Quan, XU Bo-feng, LI Yang-song, HONG Xiao-ping
2011, 28(4): 607-613. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.014
[Abstract](4055) [PDF](1250)
Years of intense human production activities,natural disasters as well as the interference caused by plant diseases and insect pests,result in the low overall quality of existing forests in Jiangbei District,Ningbo City,Zhejiang Province. Transforming the forest form according to the scientific technology and improving the comprehensive benefit of the forest are inevitable. We investigated and researched the characteristics and the succession law of the forest vegetation. On this basis,we made out the referential model and the overall goal of forest vegetation landscape renovation in Jiangbei District,and put forward rehabilitation measures. The results can provide the reference for multi-benefit management of the sub-tropical forest and the regional large-scale forest vegetation transformation and also provide the foundation and thoughts for the forest vegetation landscape renovation in the similar areas.[Ch,2 tab. 2 ref. 9 ref.]
Rock vegetation types of Danxia landform in Zhejiang Province
SHEN Nian-hua, LI Chuan-lei, WANG Xiao-de
2011, 28(4): 614-618. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.015
[Abstract](4903) [PDF](1275)
Rock vegetation of Danxia landform in Zhejiang Province consists of 5 categories,namely,shrub,shrub-grassland,meadow,vine and moss. Shrubs include Spiraea blumei,Exochorda racemosa,Vitex negundo var. cannabifolia and Lagerstroemia indica. Shrub-grasslands include Celtis biondii-Conandron ramondioides,Lespedeza bicolor-Neyraudia montana and Lespedeza bicolor-Sedum alfredii. Meadows include Neyraudia montana,Orostachys erubescens-Sedum polytrichoides,Conandron ramondioides,Selaginella moellendorffii,Pyrrosia lingua and Drynaria fortunei. Vines include Trachelospermum jasminoides,Ficus pumila and Parthenocissus tricuspidata. Mosses include Pogonatum inflexum,Campylopus umbellatus,Philonotis turneriana -Campylopus umbellatus and Bryum argenteum-Sematophyllum subhumile.[Ch,1 fig. 11 ref.]
Phenotypic diversity for natural populations of Juniperus rigida in the Helan Mountains of Ningxia
LIU Yu, LI Deng-wu, QIN Ting-song, LIU Wei
2011, 28(4): 619-627. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.016
[Abstract](6863) [PDF](1520)
To determine the phenotypic variation for natural populations of Juniperus rigida and the relationship between phenotypic variation and different population distribution areas,six populations and 120 families were sampled in the Helan Mountain Nature Reserve of Ningxia. Twenty phenotypic traits were analyzed,including needles,cones,seeds,height,diameter at breast height(DBH),crown diameter,height-diameter ratio,crown-diameter ratio,density of primary branches,height of stem under branch,stem straightness,total number of primary branches and length,and diameter of primary branches using variance analysis,correlation analysis,and the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean(UPGMA)hierarchical cluster analysis. Results showed that significant differences (P < 0.01) among populations for 11 characteristic indices,such as needle length/needle width,cone length,cone width,cone length/cone width,seed length,seed width,seed length/seed width,DBH,stem straightness,height-diameter ratio,crown-diameter ratio,total number of primary branches,diameter of primary branches,and height of stem under branch. Also within populations,seven characteristic indices were significantly different(P < 0.01),such as needle length,needle width,needle length/needle width,cone length,cone width,seed width,and seed length/seed width. Variation among populations mainly contributed to phenotypic variation with a mean phenotypic differentiation coefficient(Vst) of 66.63%; whereas within populations,VST was 33.37%. For correlations between needle length and total number of primary branches,canopy density was positively and significantly(P < 0.05)correlated; for needle width, altitude was significant(P < 0.01)positive correlated;for height of stem under branch, gradient was significant(P < 0.05) positive correlated;for needle width, slope direction was significant(P < 0.05)negative correlated;In addition, six populations gathered into four groups by cluster analysis, which inconsistent with the geographic distribution and altitude gradient of Juniperus rigida in the Helan Mountains. There were significant differences in phenotypic variation among and within populations. Utilizing of variation within and among populations is important significance for genetic improvement of Juniperus rigida.[Ch, 1 fig. 7 tab. 19 ref.]
Species diversity and stability of a natural Quercus forest in Baotianman,Henan Province
YAN Dong-feng, ZHU Ying, YANG Xi-tian
2011, 28(4): 628-633. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.017
[Abstract](4525) [PDF](1278)
To measure and study the values and relationships between community diversity and stability of four communities(A,B,C,and D) in a natural Quercus(oak) forest,data from thirty-two sample plots of the Baotianman Nature Reserve in Henan Province were obtained and analyzed according to three diversity indexes: the Simpson index(D),the Shannon-Wiener index(H),and the Pielou index(R) as well as a community stability index:the improved M-Godron method. A correlation analysis of the three diversity indexes to the community stability values(SV) was also conducted. Results showed that communities A( SV = 0.084 6),B(SV = 0.239 4),and C(SV = 0.291 7) were stable,but community D(SV = 6.456 6) was unstable. Correlation coefficients for community stability versus species diversity [D(r = 0.998 3),H(r = 0.968 0),and R(r = 0.999 7)] were significant(P < 0.05). Thus,with more species diversity forest structure is more complex and stability is better. [Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 15 ref.]
Community structure and species diversity of Camellia trichoclada
WEI Qi, LOU Lu-huan, LENG Jian-hong, BAO Qi-min, ZHONG Chao-liang, SHENG Nian-hua
2011, 28(4): 634-639. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.018
[Abstract](4358) [PDF](1230)
A survey of community structure and species diversity of Camellia trichoclada in Huanglian village,Taishun County of Zhejiang Province was conducted through quadral sampling. Results showed that there were 58 families,104 genera,and 153 species of vascular plants. According to Raunkiaers classification,phanerophytes accounted for 85.0 per cent,chamaephytes 2.6 per cent,hemicryptophyta 13.1 per cent,cryptophytes 8.5 per cent and therophytes 0.7 per cent. The community could be divided into three layers including trees,shrubs and herbs with the highest species richness (S),Simpsons (D),and Shannon-Wieners(H) indices in the shrub layer followed by the tree and herb layers. Shrub indices were S = 95,D = 5.585 9,H = 0.966 9;tree indices were S = 14,D = 2.285 5,H = 0.770 5;and herb indices were S = 38,D = 3.845 9,H = 0.870 5.The evenness(J)indices of the tree layer were largest(1.275 5),followed by the shrub(1.226 6)and herb layers(1.057 3). [Ch, 4 tab. 18 ref.]
God-father & Earth-mother metaphor in Taoism and its ecological insights
FANG Li-qing, WU Wei-gen
2011, 28(4): 640-643. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.019
[Abstract](5266) [PDF](1284)
God-father Earth-mother metaphor in Taoist classics is analyzed from the perspective of cognitive linguistics. The mapping between source domain(father mother) and target domain(heaven earth)is discussed in details. The paper further studies the ecological insights reflected in this metaphor. The ecosystem is an organic whole,the damage to which will be returned in the form of natural disasters. Man should pay tribute to nature and be harmonious with nature.[Ch,1 tab. 13 ref.]
Application of nanometer silicon dioxide in coating and idea of strengthening wood surface properties with nanometer silicon dioxide
FU Yun-lin, MO Yin-you, LIU Yi-xing, QIAO Meng-ji, CHEN Wen-jun
2011, 28(4): 644-652. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.020
[Abstract](4186) [PDF](1737)
This paper reviews surface modification of nanometer silicon dioxide and mechanism of combining nanometer silicon dioxide with the coating. It mainly introduces the application of nanometer silicon dioxide in coatings. Based on the fact that nanometer silicon dioxide can effectively improve the performance of coatings,it proposes the idea of using nanometer silicon dioxide to enhance wood surface coatings properties. Finally,it discusses the prospect of applying nanometer silicon dioxide coating in the modification of wood surface properties. [Ch,58 ref.]
Scientific notes
A two-dimensional electrophoresis system of Salix matsudana root proteomics
ZHANG Xiao-guo, QIAO Gui-rong, LI Cui-yun, LIU Ming-ying, JIANG Jing, LI Hai-ying, QIU Wen-min, ZHUO Ren-ying
2011, 28(4): 653-661. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.021
[Abstract](4666) [PDF](1302)
To establish a suitable two-dimensional electrophoresis technology, for bettering the use of proteomic technology in discovering new proteins of Salix matsudana roots induced by salt-stress and in revealing differences of protein expression of the roots with fresh water and salt-stress,this study adopted an improved phenol extraction method to extract total proteins from S. matsudana roots. Results were compared for different treatment conditions,and then two-dimensional electrophoresis maps of roots with treatments of 1/4 stregth Hoagland hydroponic medium and 1/4 stregth Hoagland hydroponic medium containing 100 mmolL-1 NaCl,were compared after 24 h of salt-stress. Results showed that the improved phenol extraction method could not only extract root proteins enough for 2-D,but it could also effectively remove salt from samples. Results showed that 900 g per immobilized pH gradient (IPG) gel,10 min equilibrium time,and 100 000 Vh isoelectric focusing(IEF) time were the best conditions combination for the protein isolation. With the twodimensional electrophoresis maps,39 proteins were differentially expressed, of which 15 were downregulated,and 24 were up-regulated with 11 newly induced.[Ch,9 fig. 23 ref.]
Hemsleya zhejiangensis seedling culture with two hormones and four types of medium
LEI Zu-pei, YU Hong-ao, ZHANG Shu-run, LIN Rui-feng, KANG Hua-jing
2011, 28(4): 662-666. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.022
[Abstract](4993) [PDF](1344)
Hemsleya zhejiangensis is an endemic species in China, its population of H. zhejiangensis is declining due to the lack of seedlings and the resource volume should expanded to sustain the population exist. The tissue culture was of H. zhejiangensis maily disccused in this paper. The effects of two hormones:6-benzyladenine(6-BA) and Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA),and four types of culture media: Murashige and Skoog (MS),Gamborg (B5),N6-benzylaminopurine(N6) and woody plant medium (WPM) on the propagation of H. zhejiangensis were studied. The results were all meansSD of fourty independent experiments. Results showed the optimum concentration (for 6-BA) was 0.50 mgL-1 and (for NAA) was 0.20 mgL-1 with propagation coefficients of 10.80 (6-BA) and 5.60 (NAA). When both hormones were used together,treatment (1) of MS + 6-BA 1.00 mgL-1 + NAA 0.02 mgL-1 and treatment(2) of MS + 6-BA 1.00 mgL-1 + NAA 0.05 mgL-1 were much better,which propagation coefficients of 19.30 (for treatment 1) and 18.10 (for treatment 2). [Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 7 ref.]
Daily variation of air anions in Mount Xijing Forest Park
GAO Ming-cong, JIANG Wen-wei, JIN Zhu-xiu, GUO Hui-hui, MEI Yan-xia
2011, 28(4): 667-673. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.023
[Abstract](4636) [PDF](1353)
The air anions concentration, temperature, relative humidity and light intensity of 6 plant communities in Mount Xijing Forest Park were measured and compared with the data of park entrance square and Linan Peoples Square to study the impacts of different community types and environmental factors on the concentrations of the air anions. The results showed that the air anions concentrations of the 6 communities were much higher than that of the two squares. The average environmental quality of the Mount Xijing Forest Park was much better than the downtown. The air anion concentrations were sorted as Toona sinensis-Phoebe sheareri>Cinnamomun amphora-Osmanthus fragrance>Cunninghamia lanceolata>Schima superba-Cyclobala- nopsis glauca>C. glauca- Castanopsis sclerophylla>Phyllostachys pubescens. The air quality of 5 communities reached the cleanest standard. According to the diurnal variation curve between 8:00 a.m. and 5 p.m.,the air anion concentration had double peaks between 9:00 a.m. - 10:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. - 2:00 p.m. A correlation analysis showed an extremely significant(P<0.01)positive correlation between air anion concentration and relative humidity, a significant(P<0.05)negative correlation between air anion concentration and temperature and no significant correlation between air anion concentration and light intensity. [Ch, 2 fig. 5 tab. 21 ref.]
Volatile components from plant parts of Jatropha curcas in Jianshui, Yunnan Province
MA Hui-fen, LANG Nan-jun, HE Li-ping, YU Zhen, ZHENG Ke, PENG Ming-jun, XIANG Zhen-yong, KONG Ji-jun, YUAN Rui-ling
2011, 28(4): 674-679. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.024
[Abstract](4922) [PDF](1174)
To study the volatile components of Jatropha curcas in development and use value,we extracted the volatile components of leaves,bark,and seeds of Jatropha curcas from Jianshui,Yunnan Province with anhydrous ethanol using continuous thermal reflux,and then analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry(GC-MS). Results of the GC-MS analysis showed 32 compounds for leaves consisting of 84.26% of the total peak area,33 peaks for bark comprising 81.14%,and 23 peaks for seeds making up 68.61% were identified. Volatiles consisted of compounds including ketones,aldehydes,esters,terpenoids,sterols,fatty acids,alkanes,alkenes,and aromatics. Differences in reflux extracts of chemical composition and relative content of different parts of J. curcas were noted with leaves and bark rich in phytosterols and triterpenes. In addition,all leaves,bark,and seeds were rich in a new type of green platform chemical 2-Furancarboxaldehyde,5-(hydroxymethyl). Analytical results of the J. curcas compounds could provide a theoretical basis for development and use with the new chemical also being of great value in utilization.[Ch,1 fig. 1 tab. 16 ref.]
Chemical components of Plectranthus tomentosa volatile matters
XIONG Wei, JIN He-xian, CAI Bao-zhen
2011, 28(4): 680-684. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.025
[Abstract](6257) [PDF](1500)
This study was conducted to determine the composition of volatile matter from leaves of Plectranthus tomentosa and the relative contribution to its aromatherapy. The dynamic headspace collection method for total dissolved solids(TDS),was used to extract volatile matter of adult P. tomentosa in good condition,and a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer(GC-MS)was utilized to detect the composition of the extract. Results showed 44 kinds of volatile matter including eight types of compounds,such as alkanes and olefins. Also,22 types of terpenoids(relative content of 83.32%)were found with Limonene having the highest level of simple carbohydrates(relative content of 47.61%). Thus,this work demonstrated that a retention index of P. tomentosa volatile matter from leaves could provide a complementary and convenient method for accurate analysis,which may be helpful for the further exploitation. [Ch,2 fig. 1 tab. 10 ref.]
Two new records of seed plants in Zhejiang, China
XIA Guo-hua, YU Lu, XIE Wen-yuan, LIU Chuan-he
2011, 28(4): 685-686. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.04.026
[Abstract](3994) [PDF](1197)
As a supplement of the seed plants in Zhejiang Province,the present paper reported the new records,viz. Chiritopsis xiuningensis X. L. Liu X. H. Guo of Gesneriaceae and Epimedium leptorrhizum Stearn of Berberidaceae,Chiritopsis W. T. Wang is a newly recorded genera in Zhejiang.[Ch,1 fig. 2 ref.]