2010 Vol. 27, No. 4

Articles
Gall disease of Cryptomeria fortunei at different altitudes on Mount Tianmu,Zhejiang Province
LI Guo-hui, WEN Guo-sheng, TIAN Hai-tao, ZHANG Li-yang, LI Jia, HUANG Hao
2010, 27(4): 483-488. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.001
[Abstract](4915) [PDF](441)
Abstract:
In the recent years,the gall disease has become a kind of very serious plant diseases causing the decline of Cryptomeria fortunei population on Mount Tianmu of Zhejiang Province. This article separately investigated the situation of gall disease and determined degree of relative chlorophyll content (SPAD value),photosynthetic and water characteristic parameters of both C. fortunei with galls and the ones without galls at 640,960 and 1 050 meterss altitudes of Mount Tianmu. The results showed that with elevation of altitudes,the tree ages of C. fortunei on Mount Tianmu increase gradually,the effect degrees of SPAD value and relative water content in leaves of C. fortunei increased gradually as well,but the effect degrees of photosynthesis parameter and transpiration rate reduced,and that each physiological parameter of C. fortunei without galls reduced gradually,which indicated own aging of C. fortunei on Mount Tianmu is also a substantial cause of affecting its health and leading its population decline to a certain extent.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 18 ref.]
Diversity of endophytic fungi in Rhizophora stylosa and Kandelia candel
WU Shang-ying, ZHANG Yang, LIU Ai-rong, XU Tong
2010, 27(4): 489-493. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.002
[Abstract](4283) [PDF](235)
Abstract:
Endophytic fungal diversity on the mangrove plants Rhizophora stylosa and Kandelia candel was studied using the Shannon-Wiener and Pielou indexes. Results produced isolation and identification of 30 strains of R. stylosa with a colonization frequency of 100% and 27 strains of K. candel with a colonization frequency of 95.9%. The dominate species in R. stylosa was Phoma spp. and in K. candel was Pestalotiopsis spp. There were also significant differences(P<0.05) in the colonization frequency of stems and leaves in R. stylosa and K. candel. For R. stylosa the Shannon-Wiener index (H) was 1.789 0 and the Pielou index (J) was 0.526 0,whereas for K. candel H = 1.747 3 and J = 0.530 2. Thus,for both R. stylosa and K. candel endophytic fungi were plentiful.[Ch,4 tab. 22 ref.]
Autotoxicity of Cryptomeria fortunei litter
YU Fei, HOU Ping, SONG Qi, GUO Ming, WU Jun
2010, 27(4): 494-500. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.003
[Abstract](4185) [PDF](213)
Abstract:
To determine the influence of autotoxicity on natural regeneration of Cryptomeria fortunei,seed germination in water extract of C. fortunei litter was researched with treatments of 1 ∶ 10,1 ∶ 100,1 ∶ 200,and 1 ∶ 250 (litter water extract volume: distilled water volume). Results showed that the high extract concentration(1 ∶ 10) restrained C. fortunei seed germination. Restraint intensity declined as the concentration decreased with a restraint intensity order of:undecomposed litter > semi-decomposed litter > soil. High performance liquid chromatograph(HPLC) was used to analyze autotoxins components of ferulic acid (FA),cinnamic acid (CA),and -hydroxybenzoic acid (-HA). Also,autotoxin content identified in undecomposed litter was greater than semi-decomposed litter and soil combined. Thus,undecomposed litter was the primary source of released autotoxins.[Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 22 ref.]
Composition and structure of canopy arthropods in Pinus thunbergii
WU Hai-wei, LUO You-qing, SHI Juan, CHEN Wei-ping, YAN Xiao-su, JIANG Ping
2010, 27(4): 501-506. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.004
[Abstract](4285) [PDF](229)
Abstract:
From May to September 2006,the composition and structure of canopy arthropods in Pinus thunbergii were studied in Zhoushan City,Zhejiang Province using the branch bagging technique. Results in the pooled samples showed a total of 3 077 individuals from 95 species belonging to 45 families and 12 orders composed of predaceous insects:89 individuals from 17 species in 10 families,leaf-eating insects:1 477 individuals from 16 species in 11 families,branch and top-eating insects:1 186 individuals from 18 species in 8 families,spiders:287 individuals from 33 species in 11 families,and tourists:38 individuals from 13 species in 5 families. The main species included Nesodiprion zhejiangensis,Drosicha corpulenta,Aphrophora flavipes,and Monochamus alternatus. All functional groups were mostly distributed in the mid and lower layers of the canopy. Except for predaceous insects that preferred staying in the sunny parts of the canopy (the east,south,and west sides),all other groups were not selective as to orientation. The predominance of pests,including the leaf-eating group and the branch and top-eating groups,was highest in May with species richness highest in July. The greatest damage occurred between June and August with the predaceous group,including insects and spiders,dominant in every month.[Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 23 ref.]
Separation,purification,and identification of endogenous inhibitory substances in Pinus massoniana cuttings
LI Yong-jin, DING Gui-jie
2010, 27(4): 507-512. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.005
[Abstract](3855) [PDF](295)
Abstract:
To improve the rooting rate of Pinus massoniana,endogenous inhibitors from cuttings of five P. massoniana lines were purified and separated using extraction and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Biological assays along with analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 4 treatments of aether extracts and 3 replications with comparisons to Brassica chinensis seeds were employed. Results revealed seven components of endogenous inhibitors in each P. massoniana cutting belonging to flavones,phenols,and abscisic acid(ABA). This indicated that their expression was controlled by genes with significant differences among lines(P = 0.032 9). By comparison,an ANOVA for the influence of endogenous inhibitors on growth of B. chinensis roots was highly significant (P = 0.000 1);whereas compared to the same component of endogenous inhibitors in the root growth of B. chinensis,inhibition with the five P. massoniana lines were not significantly different. Also,except for MI6(No. 6 of HLPC educts),correlation analyses between the relative content of endogenous inhibitors and the rooting rate of B. chinensis were negative. Biological assays for extractions and their residuals extracted with ether showed two kinds of endogenous inhibitors:one that dissolved easily in water and the other that was easily soluble in a non-polar solvent.[Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 11 ref.]
Physiological characteristics of Chimonobambusa marmorea f. variegata with natural drought stress and rewetting
YING Ye-qing, GUO Jing, WEI Jian-fen, YAN Jin-feng, LU Ying, FANG Wei
2010, 27(4): 513-517. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.006
[Abstract](3964) [PDF](245)
Abstract:
To understand drought resistance capacity of Chimonobambusa marmorea f. variegata and how it occurs,the dynamics of C. marmorea f. variegata and its levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD),catalase (CAT),malondialdehyde (MDA),and chlorophyll were determined with leaves experiencing conditions of natural drought and rewetting. Results indicated that as drought stress continued(0 - 30 d),chlorophyll content significantly(P<0.01) decreased from 4.470 to 1.676 mgg-1 and after 30 d treatment remained stable. CAT and SOD increased significantly(P<0.01) as drought stress increased(0 - 30 d),and after 30 d treatment maintained high levels. MDA levels were highest when 40 d treatment. After rewetting for 5 d,chlorophyll and CAT remained unchanged,whereas SOD and MDA decreased significantly(P<0.01) when 5 d rewetting. This indicated that a self-repair mechanism in the leaf cell membrane of bamboo was strong,and therefore,Chimonobambusa marmorea f. variegata was a drought-tolerant plant.[Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 14 ref.]
Cooling and physiology with Parthenocissus quinquefolia on walls oriented in cardinal directions
WEI Yong-sheng, LU Xin-jian, ZHAO Ting-ning, ZHOU Xin-cheng, WANG Kun
2010, 27(4): 518-523. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.007
[Abstract](4381) [PDF](239)
Abstract:
To determine differences in cooling as well as physiological characteristics from Parthenocissus quinquefolia covering four walls facing north,east,south,and west,a non-contact infrared temperature thermometer (Optris Minisight ms+),an Li-1600 steady state porometer,and a hand-held OS-30p chlorophyll fluorometer were employed to examine temperatures of a bare wall,a plant-covered wall,a canopy,and a leaf as well as determine ambient air temperature,transpiration and stomatal resistance,leaf albedo and transmission,and basic parameters of P. quinquefolia chlorophyll fluorescence:Fo,Fm,and Fv /Fm, and a correlation analysis were also utilized. Results of day temperature deviations showed plant-covered walls had significantly greater mean cooling values for east(P<0.05),south(P<0.05),and west(P<0.05) orientations compared to bare walls. There were also significant positive correlations between cooler wall temperatures and bare wall temperatures (r = 0.879 4,P<0.000 1),transpiration (r = 0.770 3,P <0.01),canopy temperature (r = 0.645 8,P<0.01),leaf transmission (r = 0.504 4,P<0.05),and Fm (r = 0.475 8,P<0.05). Thus,plants covering east-,south-,and west-facing walls would be beneficial. Additionally,transpiration,leaf albedo,leaf transmission,Fm,and Fv /Fm could be used as selection indexes.[Ch,1 fig. 5 tab. 20 ref.]
Physiological seed changes in three Ilex species during
ZHANG Rui, WANG Xiu-hua, ZHANG Jian-hong, ZHOU Zhi-chun
2010, 27(4): 524-528. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.008
[Abstract](4387) [PDF](223)
Abstract:
Three Ilex species:Ilex rotunda,I. chinensis,and I. integra,were compared with I. micrococca (a control which did not have deep dormancy),for physiological responses to seed dormancy-breaking. The medicinal components,hormones,and enzyme activities were measured during stratification. Results showed that compared to the control there was an active metabolism in seeds of the three Ilex plants with lipid content decreasing,while starches and reduced sugars increased. Catalase(CAT) activity decreased;peroxidase(POD) activity increased;and abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased. Ratios of gibberellic acid (GA3)/ABA,indole-acetic acid (IAA)/ABA,and zeatin-riboside (ZR)/ABA increased. Before stratification ABA in I. rotunda,I. chinensis,and I. integra was higher than I. micrococca,but after stratification it was lower. Also,before stratification GA3 /ABA in I. rotunda,I. chinensis,and I. integra was lower than the control but higher after stratification. Additionally,compared to I. micrococca,I. rotunda and I. chinensis had similar characteristics. [Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 13 ref.]
Fluorescence parameters for drought stress diagnosis in detached leaves of ten tree species
DUAN Ai-guo, YANG Wen-zhong, ZHANG Jian-guo, ZHANG Jun-pei1, HE Cai-yun
2010, 27(4): 529-537. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.009
[Abstract](3828) [PDF](238)
Abstract:
The response to drought stress for fluorescence parameters from detached leaves of 10 tree species used for vegetative restoration in hot,dry valleys was undertaken. Results showed that:1) Jatropha curcas and Azadirachta indica leaves had the highest water holding capacity followed by Acacia auriculiformis and three Eucalyptus species(E. camaldolensia,E. citriodora and E. globulue),then followed by Cajanus cajan,Albizia kalkor and Leucaena glauca with Acacia glauca having the lowest. 2) Differences in water-loss rate(WLR) for the fluorescence parameter Fo were divided into two types:initiative and passive resistance types. The initiative resistance type had a higher leaf water holding capacity than the other type,meaning the tree species with high leaf water holding capacity had a greater capacity to avoid harm from drought-stress by starting a heat dissipation mechanism to protect photosynthetic organs and by delaying the reversible vitality loss which occurred with water stress. 3) Fluorescence parameters Fm and Fv either decreased as WLR increased;Fv /Fm and Fmv /Fms had a predominantly linear decrease. For each species the decrease in Fv /Fm and Fmv /Fms had a sharp downward dip,which could be the key point where the PSⅡ reaction centre lost its vitality. 4) Fmv /Fms could be more sensitive to damage of the PSⅡ reaction centre than Fv /Fm;however,both parameters showed a significantly quantitative relationship to the leaf WLR. Thus,Fv /Fm and Fmv /Fms offered a possible diagnostic index for a plants leaf water status.[Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 17 ref.]
Growth and photosynthesis of Castanopsis sclerophylla seedlings with three light intensity treatments
FANG Jiang-bao, YIN Xiu-min, YU Shu-quan, JIANG Hong, LI Xiu-peng
2010, 27(4): 538-544. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.010
[Abstract](3966) [PDF](246)
Abstract:
Castanopsis sclerophylla is one of the first growing species in secondary succession after destruction of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests. The objective is to study the effects of low light level on growth and photosynthesis of the seedlings. Photosynthesis and chlorophyll II fluorescence traits of C. sclerophylla seedlings were determined under shading (treatments of 100%,40%,and 15% of daylight) in May and September,2008. Results showed that in May and September,with decreasing light intensity,the maximum net photosynthetic rate,light compensation point,and light saturation point of C. sclerophylla leaves decreased. In September the 15% of daylight treatment was significantly lower (P<0.05) than the control (100% of daylight). Also,the SPADR value and the chlorophyll II fluorescence parameters (Fv /Fm,Fv /Fo) of leaves of significantly increased (P<0.05) with a decrease of light. Thus,in a high light environment,photosynthesis of C. sclerophylla seedlings decreased,whereas the seedlings beneath the forest crown benefited.[Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 23 ref.]
Variation in fiber and vessel elements of Guadua amplexifolia bamboo
XU Jin-mei, ZHAO Rong-jun, LV Jian-xiong, FEI Ben-hua
2010, 27(4): 545-549. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.011
[Abstract](4114) [PDF](223)
Abstract:
To determine variation in fiber and vessel elements with respect to positions along the longitudinal direction (bottom,middle,and top of the culm) and the radial direction (from the inner part to the outer part of the culm wall) of Guadua amplexifolia,the length and width of fiber and vessel elements were measured. Results showed that fiber and vessel elements were varying in length from 1 738 to 2 764 m and from 383 to 526 m,in width from 13 to 20 m and from 99 to 288 m,and in ratios of length to width from 91 to 211 and from 1.3 to 4.4. For the culm,fiber length and ratio of length to width were in the order:bottom < middle < top,but fiber width was reversed (bottom > middle > top). In the radial direction,fiber length and ratio of length to width increased first and then decreased gradually. Fiber width in the bottom and middle of the culm did not vary,whereas in the top of the culm it was higher for the inner and outer parts. In the longitudinal direction,there was no variation in vessel element length;for vessel element width,the bottom,compared to the middle and top,was higher even if there was no variation between the middle and top,but for the length to width ratio,the reverse was true. In the radial direction,there was no variation for vessel element length,the width of the vessel elements decreased,and there was no variation for the length to width ratio of vessel elements from the inner to the middle part;however,there was an increase from the middle to the outer part of the culm wall.[Ch,6 fig. 2 tab. 14 ref.]
Inherited offspring characteristics from Phalaenopsis ‘Taipei Gold’ × Phalaenopsis ‘Sara Gold’
YU Ji-ying, ZHANG Yang, ZHENG Jin-kai, WANG Chun, XU Hong-lei
2010, 27(4): 550-553. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.012
[Abstract](5113) [PDF](292)
Abstract:
Since the cross of the female parent of Phalaenopsis Taipei Gold(2n = 3x = 57) always aborts,we tried to select different cultivars as the male to cross with P. Taipei Gold. P. Taipei Gold crossed with P. Sara Gold producing a capsule to breed 180 young plants of which 99 flowered. Offspring height;leaf length;flower diameter;the number of flowers,pedicels,and branches;flower and labellum color;and petal spots were compared. As a result,compared to the parents,offspring were taller (67.68%),had longer leaves (86.87%),had more flowers (61.62%),had larger flowers (24.24%),had more branches (21.21%),had more pedicels (26.26%),had petal color more like the female parent or male parent (91%),had labellum color more like the female parent or male parent (74%),and inherited their spot on the petals from P. Sara Gold(90%). Thus,P. Taipei Gold as the female parent was first crossed successfully;this research showed that it was practical to cross Phalaenopsis with yellow flower. [Ch,1 fig. 1 tab. 6 ref.]
Chrysanthemum plantlet growth with photosynthetic photon flux and electrical conductivity treatments in a microponic system culture
ZHOU Lu-ping, CUI Yong-yi
2010, 27(4): 554-558. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.013
[Abstract](5382) [PDF](242)
Abstract:
The effects of photosynthetic photon flux(PPF) and electrical conductivity(EC) in a nutrient solution on growth of Chrysanthemum morifolium plantlets using a microponic system were studied. Results showed that with high PPF (250 molm-2s-1),the pH and EC value of the nutrient solution changed significantly. Compared to the other two treatments(0.8 and 1.6 mScm-1 of EC,50 and 100 molm-2s-1 of PPF),a high PPF(250 molm-2s-1) and EC (3.0 mScm-1) increased fresh weight,dry weight,shoot length,root length,and number of new leaves. Also,compared to the two lower PPF treatments(50 and 100 molm-2s-1),with the high PPF,CO2-uptake,stomatal conductance,and transpiration in leaves were higher. Thus,a high PPF and EC value for the nutrient solution was favorable for the growth of Chrysanthemum morifolium plantlets in a microponic system culture.[Ch,5 fig. 1 tab. 11 ref.]
Components and extraction methods for petal pigments of Osmanthus fragrans ‘Siji Gui’
CAI Xuan, SU Fan, JIN He-xian, YAO Chong-huai, WANG Cai-yun
2010, 27(4): 559-564. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.014
[Abstract](4087) [PDF](243)
Abstract:
Characteristic color reactions and UV-visible spectra analysis for petal pigments of Osmanthus fragransSiji Gui and extraction methods for flavonoids and carotenoids from its flower were studied using single factor and orthogonal tests. Results for flavonoids showed a characteristic absorption peak of 320 nm with optimum extraction conditions being an immersion in 50% (V/V) ethanol aqueous solution at 45 ℃ for 3 h with a solid-liquid ratio of 1(g) ∶ 20 (mL). For three common carotenoid compounds the characteristic absorption peaks were:lutein (443 nm),lycopene (472 nm),and carotene (502 nm) with the best extraction conditions being immersion in acetone:ethanol(1 ∶ 1) solution at 50 ℃ for 3 h with a solid-liquid ratio of 1(g) ∶ 10(mL).[Ch,3 fig. 5 tab. 17 ref.]
Community structure and plant diversity of a Platycladus orientalis recreational plantation in West Mountain area of Beijing
WANG Ping, JIA Li-ming, LI Xiao-wen, LI Jiang-jing
2010, 27(4): 565-571. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.015
[Abstract](4048) [PDF](305)
Abstract:
To scientifically manage Platycladus orientalis recreational plantations using principles of community ecology in West Mountainou area of Beijing,characteristics of plant composition,vertical structure,spatial distribution patterns,and plant diversity were systematically studied using componential analysis,hierarchical clustering,the variance to mean method,richness indices(R,Dgl,Dma),diversity indices (Dsi,Dsh,Dmc),evenness indices (Jsi,Jsh,Ea),and total community diversity indices. Higher vascular plants in this community revealed 32 families,59 genera,and 63 species reflecting the floral features of a temperate zone. Community stratification was distinct and quantitatively divided into three major theoretical layers:tree,shrub,and herb,with dominant populations in each layer. P. orientalis tended to a random distribution(C<1,t<t0.05),whereas undergrowth,such as Vitex negundo var. heterophylla,Grewia biloba,and Oplismenus undulatifolius,clumped (C>1,t>t0.01) with unification of various degrees. Species richness and diversity by layer were:shrub>tree>herb (P<0.05) with species evenness of:tree and shrub > herb (P<0.05). Contribution rates to general community diversity were:tree:0.696,shrub:0.204,and herb:0.100. For the development of plant species diversity,shady slope was a priority. Also,to create recreational space in plantations with biodiversity,a low density (756-933 plantshm-2),which helped maintain a higher plant species diversity,was recommended.[Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 22 ref.]
Nutrient elements in soil and Carya cathayensis leaves from four parent rock materials
CHEN Shi-quan, HUANG Jian-qin, HUANG Xing-zhao, LOU Zhong3, LV Jian-quan, XIA Guo-hua, WU Jia-sen
2010, 27(4): 572-578. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.016
[Abstract](4575) [PDF](260)
Abstract:
To reveal changes in soil properties and leaf nutrition from different parent rock material in a Carya cathayensis forest in Linan City,soil and leaf samples developed from four types of parent rock material:i.e. slate,granite,phyllite,and sandy shale,were collected in July of 2008 and analyzed with a correlation analysis. Results showed soil sampled from the granite parent material had the highest organic matter (43.11 gkg-1) and available sulfur (38.73 mgkg-1);however,it had the lowest pH (4.72),available calcium (Ca,5.22 mgkg-1),and available zinc (Zn,1.65 mgkg-1). Soil sampled from the phyllite parent material had the highest available phosphorus (P,7.29 mgkg-1),iron (Fe,31.24 mgkg-1),and manganese (Mn,67.49 mgkg-1). Available nutrient elements in C. cathayensis leaves for all soils were in the order:nitrogen (N)>Ca>potassium(K)>Mg>P>Mn>Fe>Zn. Additionally,leaves growing on soil developed from phyllite parent material had the highest available N,Ca,Mg,and Zn,but the lowest available P and Fe. The correlation analysis was also significant for soil pH,soil organic matter,and available nutrients. Correlations for N,K,Ca,Mg,and Fe content in leaves as well as content of soil nutrient element were also significant.[Ch,5 tab. 22 ref.]
Soil-water dynamics with different agroforestry planting combinations on sandy lands in northwestern Liaoning Province
HUI Shu-rong, WANG Jiao, ZHANG Qian, WEI Zhong-ping, LIU Yang
2010, 27(4): 579-584. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.017
[Abstract](3764) [PDF](191)
Abstract:
In order to study soil-water dynamics laws with different tree and crop planting combinations on sandy lands in northwestern Liaoning Province,we surveyed four typical sandy lands from 0 - 100 cm depth at different usage modes. Results showed that:at these different modes,soil moisture is stable in 0 - 20 cm and 60 - 100 cm soil layer,soil moisture content changes violent in 20 - 60 cm soil layer;combinations of Prunus armeniaca sibirica-Arachis hypogaea-Zea mays>Prunus armeniaca sibirica-Ephedra sinica> Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica forest>the control(uncultivated land),Prunus armeniaca sibirica-Arachis hypogaea-Zea mays and Prunus armeniaca sibirica-Ephedra sinica could improve soil amelioration and soil-water conservation. Optimized land usage modes,which is of great significance to improving the economic development and soil amelioration of Liaoning Province in drought northwestern areas.[Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 12 ref.]
Ecological benefit from nutrient cycling in the Tiantong regional forests of Zhejiang Province
YAN En-rong, WANG Liang-yan, YANG Wen-zhong, ZHOU Wu
2010, 27(4): 585-590. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.018
[Abstract](3949) [PDF](259)
Abstract:
To assess the ecological benefits as well as to help include green GDP(annual gross domestic product)into the national economic system,nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) storage along with their associated ecological benefits from different forests in the Tiantong Region of Zhejiang Province were studied. Results at the regional scale showed that size of forest occupying area was the major factor influencing total ecological benefit. The value was highest in Schima superba dominated forests (6.734 6 106 Yuana-1) and mixed forests of S. superba and Castanopsis carlesii (5.760 5 106 Yuana-1);intermediate in Castanopsis fargesii dominated forests (2.195 2 106 Yuana-1),S. superba and Lithocarpus glaber mixed forests (1.406 5 106 Yuana-1),and bamboo forests (1.118 4 106 Yuana-1);and lowest in Pinus massoniana dominated forests (3.016 0 105 Yuana-1),P. massoniana and S. superba mixed forests (3.163 0 105 Yuana-1),and Cunninghamia lanceolata forests (4.430 0 105 Yuana-1). In per unit area,forest production and structure were main factors for ecological benefit from nutrient cycling,and the ecological benefit was highest in bamboo plantations(1.301 0 105 Yuana-1) followed by C. fargesii dominated forests(7.620 0 104 Yuana-1).[Ch,3 tab. 14 ref.]
Hygro-effect on stiffness properties for a wood-bamboo composite laminate
WANG Quan-zhong, ZHANG Xiao-dong, ZHOU Xue-hua
2010, 27(4): 591-594. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.019
[Abstract](4436) [PDF](290)
Abstract:
To determine the potential energy function derived from a wood-bamboo composite laminate employing the hygro-effect,a displacement model was established based on assumptions of the classical laminated plate theory (CLPT) and the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). Then,the equivalent elastic modulus of wood-bamboo composite laminate with the hygro-effect was derived according to the equal beam theory. Using several theories,a comparison of the equivalent elastic modulus and bending deformation was made before and after the hygro-effect was used. Results showed when moisture concentration increased up to 30%,the equivalent elastic modulus of bamboo and wood composite materials decreased more than half,and under the same load,bending deformation was twice that of the original. [Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 8 ref.]
Preparation and characterization of acetyl acetylation of hydroxypropyl cellulose
GUO Ming, ZHANG Lu-ying, WANG Peng, YU Jing
2010, 27(4): 595-600. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.020
[Abstract](3846) [PDF](189)
Abstract:
Hydroxypropyl cellulose grafting acetoacetyl group (AG) was successfully synthesized. The structure of the product was characterized with FT-infrared spectroscopy,X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electronic microscope. The thermal properties of the product were tested with thermogravimetry analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC). The result shows that the thermal properities of HPC have been reinforced after the hydroxypropyl cellulose acetyl acetoacetylation reaction.[Ch,8 fig. 3 tab. 14 ref.]
Cytological and molecular biological evidence for taxonomic revision of Paeonia delavayi
KONG Hong, CHENG Fang-yun
2010, 27(4): 601-605. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.021
[Abstract](4808) [PDF](461)
Abstract:
The taxonomy of Paeonia delavayi,an endemic species to Southwestern China,is controversial. The taxonomic history and revision of P. delavayi were reviewed and recent advances on cytology and molecular biology were reviewed. Then,a gene sequence analysis was carried out on two populations of P. delavayi,and karyotypes,Giemsa C-bandings,isozyme biochemical markers,and DNA molecular markers analysis supported the composite group of P. delavayi merging into one species. Results showed that the karyotypes,Giemsa C-bandings,isozyme biochemical markers,and DNA molecular markers could become taxonomic evidence of P. delavayi. Further research was suggested.[Ch,1 tab. 42 ref.]
Influence of water and soil nutrients on biomass and productivity of fine tree roots:a review
ZHANG Xiao-peng, YIN You, YU Li-zhong, YAO Li-hai, YING Hui, ZHANG Na
2010, 27(4): 606-613. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.022
[Abstract](4508) [PDF](229)
Abstract:
Fine tree roots are important organs that absorb water and nutrients from the soil;their growth,death,and decomposition processes play a major role in forest ecosystem recycling. Root absorption of one factor (water or nutrients) can influence the other,and soil moisture and nutrient availability can affect fine root growth and development. Seasonal dynamics of fine root growth coincide with seasonal dynamics of soil moisture distribution. When soil moisture increases,fine root biomass also increases. Nevertheless,the effect of soil nutrients on fine root growth is complicated;for example,an increase in nutrients can produce:a) an increase or decrease in fine root biomass,b) generally an increase in root length and diameter of the lower root,and c) a decrease in specific root length. Repeated applications of water and fertilizer greatly improved fine root biomass with notable seasonal changes,such as an increase in length density of fine roots and fine root longevity more short or long temporarily. After considering growth laws and reasons for changes in fine roots for different species and different site conditions,we suggest that future research with fine roots should focus on the combined effects of water and nutrients.[Ch,56 ref.]
Regeneration of Taxus chinensis var. mairei from adventitious bud formation using an in vitro embryo culture
ZENG Yu-li, LIN Xin-chun, GUI Ren-yi, ZHANG Cui-ping, HUANG Li-chun
2010, 27(4): 614-619. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.023
[Abstract](4389) [PDF](297)
Abstract:
The effect of seed sterilization conditions,various basal media,and growth regulators on explants of mature Taxus chinensis var. mairei embryos were studied. Results showed optimal germination occurred with seeds soaked in a 25.0 gL-1 sodium hypochlorite solution for 10 min in a vacuum. The contamination rate was reduced to 6% and the germination rate reached 86%. A woody plant medium (WPM) was selected as the best basal medium with 0.1 mgL-1 kinetin (KT) and 1.0 mgL-1 zeatin (ZT). This medium effectively induced more clusters of adventitious bud formation;whereas 6-benzylaminopurine(6-BA) and isopenlenyladenine(2iP) induced fewer adventitious buds while N-phenyl-N-1,2,3-thidiazol-5-ylurea(TDZ) produced no adventitious bud differentiation. With WPM,germinated embryos effectively induced adventitious buds.[Ch,3 fig. 7 tab. 11 ref.]
Somatic embryogenesis induced from leaf explants of Oncidium flexuosum ‘Million Dollar’
PAN Luan-yin, SONG Hong-gai, JIANG Jing, QIAO Gui-rong, LI Hai-ying, WANG Yang, LIN Yong-sheng, ZHUO Ren-ying
2010, 27(4): 620-625. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.024
[Abstract](3882) [PDF](227)
Abstract:
Young leaves of Oncidium flexuosum Million Dollar were used as explants and cultured in a 1/2 Murashige and Skoog(MS) basic medium with three plant growth regulators for somatic embryogenesis induction. A 60 d in vitro culture in darkness of direct somatic embryogenesis for different leaf positions,seedling characteristics,and leaf size(leaf age) was studied along with the influence of different combinations and concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ),6-benzyladenine (6-BA),and kinetin (KT) on direct somatic embryogenesis. Results after 60 d showed that leaf tips,adaxial sides,margins,cut ends,and cut central parts formed many somatic embryos and repetitive somatic embryos. From these somatic embryos,a number of protocorm-like-bodies eventually formed. The best leaf explant for somatic embryogenesis induction was a 15 mm leaf from seeding with roots. The best embryogenic responses were with 1/2 strength macro-and micro-elements of MS supplemented with 100.00 mgL-1 myo-inositol,0.50 mgL-1 niacin,0.50 mgL-1 pyridoxine HCl,0.10 mgL-1 thiamine HCl,2.00 mgL-1 glycine,170.00 mgL-1 NaH2PO4,13.90 mgL-1 FeSO47H2O,1 000.00 mgL-1 peptone,0.50 mgL-1 TDZ,250.00 mgL-1 polyvinyl-polypyrrolidone (PVPP),20 000.00 mgL-1 sucrose,and 2 800.0 mgL-1 GelriteTM at a pH of 5.2. Additionally,90% of the leaf explants induced somatic embryos,and 74.6% of the cut ends of leaves as well as 66.9% of the cut central parts of leaf explants induced somatic embryos.[Ch,4 fig. 17 ref.]
Leaf structure of Cymbidium goeringii with CO2 concentration doubling
TANG Fang-ping, ZHAO Hong-bo
2010, 27(4): 626-629. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.025
[Abstract](3766) [PDF](285)
Abstract:
An increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration since the industrial revolution has influenced not only global climate change but also leaf morphology and structure of plants. The effects of CO2 doubling on leaf morphology and structure of the Cymbidium goeringii leaf were investigated with CO2 concentrations of 370 and 700( 50) LL-1 in an artificial climate chamber for two months. Results indicated no differences(P>0.05) for leaf length and leaf thickness. However,by doubling CO2 concentration,leaf area and chloroplast content increased significantly(P<0.01),whereas epidermal cell density(P<0.05),stomatal density(P<0.01),stomatal index(P<0.01),and stomatal aperture decreased.[Ch,1 fig. 1 tab. 17 ref.]
In vitro distant grafting with an ISSR analysis
SHAO Guo-yuan, LU Fang-fang
2010, 27(4): 630-634. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.026
[Abstract](4174) [PDF](258)
Abstract:
To determine a model for in vitro distant grafting and to analyze genetic characteristics of descendants,seven plant species:Sinningia speciosa,Celosia cristata,Kalanchoe blossfeldiana,Zantedeschia elliottiana,Lilium longiflorum,Malus domestica,and Averrhoa carambola,were analyzed using inter simple sequence repeats(ISSR). In vitro distant grafting was carried out between herbaceous plants and woody plants,monocotyledons and dicotyledons,and herbaceous plants and herbaceous plants. Results showed that grafting 1) herbaceous plants with herbaceous plants and 2) monocotyledons with dicotyledons had higher survival rates than 3) herbaceous plants grafted with woody plants. The ISSR markers indicated distant grafted plants from S. speciosa + C. cristata,C. cristata + S. speciosa,K. blossfeldiana + S. speciosa,and K. blossfeldiana + C. cristata that survived not only had scion and rootstock bands but also had their own unique bands.[Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 12 ref.]
Pathogen identification of bacterial soft rot in moth orchid in Zhejiang Province
WU Zhi-yi, FANG Yuan, CHEN Xi, ZHANG Hui-li, ZHANG Ming-zhe, LI Bin
2010, 27(4): 635-639. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.04.027
[Abstract](4170) [PDF](242)
Abstract:
A causal agent of bacterial soft rot in moth orchid was isolated and identified which occured in Hangzhou,Zhejiang Province in recent years. The pathogenicity test,Biolog test and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) test were undertaken to elucidate the precise position of the causal bacterium. The results indicated that the causal agents characteristics were same to Erwinia chrysanthemi. And,16S rRNA gene sequence analysis also showed that the pathogenic bacterium was closely related to E. chrysanthemi and well separated from all other Erwinia species. Therefore,it could be concluded that the pathogenic bacterium causing bacterial soft rot of moth orchid was identified as E. chrysanthemi.[Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 10 ref.]