2010 Vol. 27, No. 3

Effects of the climate during flowering period on post-flowering fruit setting in Camellia oleifera
ZENG Yan-ru, LI Zhang-ju
2010, 27(3): 323-328. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.001
[Abstract](5103) [PDF](431)
The climatic conditions during the flowering period are one of leading factors influencing flowering,pollination and the fruit yield of the following year in Camellia oleifera. Researches were conducted in Linan and Longyou of Zhejiang Province in 1978 - 1984. The results showed that artificial pollination conducted when the daily average atmospheric temperature was 5.0 ℃ and above,sunny and no frost could result in fruit setting,and natural pollination occurred when it was 8.0 ℃ and above and pollinators moved about normally. Rainfall and frost were the main impact climatic factors. Rainfall only influenced flowering and pollination on raining days and had few effects on flowers that were pollinated 6 hours before rain or opened after rain. Frost had a heavy damage for a long time. Individual trees which can be resistant to frost were observed in a natural population.[Ch,6 tab. 9 ref.]
Membrane lipid peroxidation and protective enzyme systems with drought stressed Artemisia frigida leaves
WU Jian-hua, ZHANG Ru-min, GAO Yan
2010, 27(3): 329-333. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.002
[Abstract](4267) [PDF](188)
In order to explore adaptive mechanisms of Artemisia frigida in an arid grassland,water content,cell membrane permeability,malondialdehyde(MDA) content,and protective enzyme activities for a pot culture were studied using natural arid processing with soil relative water content being determined. Results showed that the leaves of A. frigida had low water loss,superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity first increased and then decreased,catalase (CAT) activity first decreased and later increased,MDA content was steady,and in the early stage of drought stress(0 - 8 d after not wartering,with soil water content > 6.5%) membrane system damage was slight. With increasing time and drought stress,SOD,CAT,and peroxidase(POD) activity decreased,MDA increased,and membrane systems were seriously hurt. To the twelfth day with soil water content being 2.7%,all leaves permanently wilted. Thus,with drought stress,SOD and CAT played an important role in cleansing reactive oxygen.[Ch,5 fig. 13 ref.]
Physiology of leaf photosynthesis with fertilization in Phyllostachys pubescens
SONG Yan-dong, JIN Ai-wu, JIN Xiao-chun, HU Yuan-bin, DU Liang-liang, JIANG Zhi-you
2010, 27(3): 334-339. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.003
[Abstract](4426) [PDF](242)
The objective was to grasp the mechanism of increasing moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) production by fertilization. Three fertilization models were set:(1) fertilizer in the begin of May for five years;(2) fertilizer in the late of August for five years;(3) no fertilization for ten years. Photosynthetic rate,photosynthetic pigments,soluble protein,and catalase activity of leaves were measured from May to December in 2008,and a correlation analysis between photosynthetic rate and photosynthetic pigments,soluble protein,and catalase activity was conducted. Results showed that (1) From leaf spread out,to sophisticated,to dormant,year change of photosynthetic rate showed a bimodal curve,content of photosynthetic pigments reached maximum at the begin of October,and catalase activity and soluble protein reached maximum from the late of August to the begin of September. (2) Also,the photosynthetic rate was positively correlated to the content of chlorophyll a(r = 0.760),chlorophyll b(r = 0.782),carotenoids(r = 0.767),soluble protein(r = 0.544),and catalase activity(r = 0.529),but negatively correlated to the ratio of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b(r = -0.654). (3) Fertilization improved content of chlorophyll a,chlorophyll b,carotenoids,soluble protein content,photosynthetic rate,and catalase activity. Fertilizer in May was mostly accelerated,then fertilizer in August,the non?鄄fertilization was the lowest,though fertilizer reduced the ratio of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. (4) Fertilization in August extended leaf photosynthesis and delayed senescence.[Ch,8 fig. 1 tab. 14 ref.]
Photosynthetic characteristics of Salix matsudana × alba seedlings
CAI Wei-jian, GAO Han-dong, BAI Shi-jie
2010, 27(3): 340-346. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.004
[Abstract](5138) [PDF](216)
The LI-6400 portable photosynthesis measuring system was used to determine photosynthetic characteristics of leaves in one-year-old seedlings of Salix matsudana alba and then fitted to the Farquhar model. Results showed that (1) During the growing season,diurnal changes in leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) had a single-peak curve that appeared at 11 : 00 oclock with a maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pmax) of 20.8 molm-2s-1. (2) When CO2 concentration(350 molmol-1) and temperature(25 ℃) were controlled,the photosynthetic light saturation point (PLS) was 1 847.6 molm-2s-1,and the photosynthetic light compensation point (PLC) was 58.1 molm-2s-1 indicating a sun-tolerant plant. (3) The Farquhar model fitting the response of leaf Pn to intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci),with light intensity(1 500 molm-2s-1) and temperature(25 ℃) being controlled,showed that when Ci<400 molmol-1,the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) was 91.6 molm-2s-1,the CO2 compensation point (Г *) was 46.5 molmol-1,and the respiration rate (Rd) was 4.9 molm-2s-1. From 400 to 1 000 molmol-1 of Ci,increasing the CO2 concentration increased leaf Pn and light utilization efficiency with a leaf CO2 saturation point (PCS) of about 1 000 molmol-1 and a maximum electron transport rate (Jmax) of 256.0 molm-2s-1. When Ci was supersaturated (>1 000 molmol-1),the rate of leaf triose phosphate utilization (UTP) was 19.7 molm-2s-1. [Ch,3 fig. 2 tab. 18 ref.]
Genetic diversity of Jatropha curcas with SRAP molecular markers
SHEN Jun-ling, NI Hui-qun, CHEN Xiao-yang, HUANG Shao-wei
2010, 27(3): 347-353. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.005
[Abstract](5710) [PDF](320)
To investigate genetic relationships and genetic diversity of Jatropha curcas,seven populations from six provinces of China and one from Indonesia were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with sequence related amplified polymorphic (SRAP) DNA molecular markers. The L16(45) orthogonal experimental design was utilized to optimize the SRAP amplification system with Jaccards similarity coefficient as well as cluster and principle component analyses being employed. The optimum reaction concentrations in a 20 L reaction mixture were:2 L 10 PCR buffer,20 ng DNA template,16.67 nkat Taq enzyme, 2.50 mmolL-1 Mg2+,120.00 molL-1 deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate(dNTP) and 0.15 molL-1 primers. For the eight populations,using the 45 most informative primer pairs,141(28.20%) of which were polymorphic,SRAP screening produced 500 bands. Jaccards similarity coefficient showed a high similarity (0.791 - 0.940). Also,the cluster and principle component analyses showed three groupings:the Indonesian population,and seven Chinese populations were divided into two groups.[Ch,6 fig. 3 tab. 16 ref.]
Flora of seed plants on the flood plain of the Niyang River,Tibet Autonomous Region
DUAN Dai-xiang, ZHAO Nan-xian, WU Xing
2010, 27(3): 354-359. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.006
[Abstract](3933) [PDF](234)
To provide information for management and conservation of plant resources on the flood plain of the Niyang River in Tibet and to revise the Flora of Tibet,two surveys in October of 2003 and from May to July of 2004,and floristic analysis were conducted. Results revealed 333 species (including varieties and forms) belonging to 188 genera and 67 families of seed plants. These were also the dominant families of the Pan-tropic flora in China. Floral genera consisted of both temperate elements (83.77%) and tropical elements (16.23%) with temperature being the dominate component. Floral species were also primarily temperate elements (59.94%) and tropical elements (3.47%). The temperate elements were mainly Sino-Himalaya (32.81%) and endemic elements of mainland China (31.55%).[Ch,4 tab. 13 ref.]
Mechanical damage in relation to tree characteristics after a catastrophic freeze in Tiantong Region,Zhejiang Province
YAN En-rong, ZHONG Qiang, ZHOU Wu, GUO Ming, WANG Liang-yan, YUAN Shi-jie
2010, 27(3): 360-366. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.007
[Abstract](4083) [PDF](208)
In early 2008 forest ecosystems in subtropical China were subjected to catastrophic heavy snow and freezing rain. The damage index and mechanical damage tolerance of common evergreen species (Cryptomeria fortunei,Schima superba,Pseudolarix kaempferi,Machilus thunbergii,and Cyclobalanopsis myrsinaefolia) in eight plantations of the Tiantong Region,Zhejiang Province,were determined and then compared with and correlated to tree traits (leaf area,specific leaf area,leaf dry matter content,twig dry matter content,twig density,and trunk density). Results showed that:1) the damage index was highest in Cr. fortunei(0.54),intermediate in S. superba (0.45),and lowest in P. kaempferi with damage severity for S. superba and M. thunbergii seedlings higher in monoculture forests than in mixed forests. Also,2) for mechanical damage tolerance,leaf area and specific leaf area were:S. superba>M. thunbergii>Cy. myrsinaefolia,but twig dry matter content and twig density were:Cy. myrsinaefolia>M. thunbergii>S. superba. Finally,3) the damage index was positively and significantly correlated with leaf area (r = 0.95,P<0.001) and specific leaf area (r = 0.86,P<0.01) but negatively and significantly correlated with twig dry matter content (r = 0.73,P<0.05) and twig density(r = 0.97,P<0.001). Thus,for evergreen trees in this area,there should be a ecological linkage between tree characteristics and the mechanical damage index.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 12 ref.]
Heritability estimates for real resin capacity and growth traits in high-gum-yielding slash pine
ZHANG Jian-zhong, SHEN Feng-qiang, JIANG Jing-min, LUAN Qi-fu, YANG Quan-cong, XU Yong-qin, LIU Zhao-xi
2010, 27(3): 367-373. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.008
[Abstract](4797) [PDF](258)
Resin is important industrial material,while real resin capacity(resin yielded by individual tree) was depended on both basic resin yield capacity and individual growth. There were few researches on the two factors. Real resin yields and growth traits (height,DBH,and volume) of 16 high-gum-yielding slash pine half-sib families introduced from America and a control (general families of slash pine improved for timber volume) were measured twice in two years of 2007 and 2008. Variance components estimated by SAS (V8.01 release) VARCOMP Procedure with the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method for unbalanced individual data were used to estimate the heritability. Family mean heritability for resin production of 2007 and 2008 was 0.674 8 and 0.693 0,respectively;whereas single-tree heritability for resin yield was 0.367 8 and 0.416 2,respectively. Log volume had a family mean heritability of 0.881 0 and single-tree heritability of 0.682 6. There were highly significant(P<0.001) correlations between tree height and DBH(R2 = 0.763 8) and the correlation between resin yields in 2007 and 2008(R2 = 0.696 9) was highly significant(P<0.001),too. Correlations for resin yields and each growth trait (height,DBH,and volume) were significant (P<0.05). The analysis of variance revealed that family effects of growth traits and resin yields were all significant (P<0.05),which means the selection of high-gum-yielding and high-volume-harvesting family was effective,thus four families with high gum and volume were selected according to Duncans contrast. This study showed that basic resin yield capacity and amount of growth were both the important factors for selection of high-gum-yielding slash pines,and the two factors have significant correlation and high heritability.[Ch,8 tab. 14 ref.]
Microclimates of different microhabitats in Huajiang karst area
LI An-ding, JIA Shen, YU Li-fei
2010, 27(3): 374-378. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.009
[Abstract](4141) [PDF](218)
Diurnal variation of microclimates in different microhabitats had been studied,and variation characteristics of soil surface temperature,air temperature,intensity of illumination and air relative humidity of different microhabitats had been analyzed in Huajiang valley area. The results showed that soil surface temperature was higher than stone gully and stone pit,but its temperature changed mildly,and air temperature,intensity of illumination and air relative humidity were good,so soil surface was suitable for plant growth and improving photosynthesis rate. However,soil surface temperature,air temperature,intensity of illumination of stone gully were comparatively lower,its temperature and air relative humidity were very good,plant growth was worse than that on soil surface. For stone pit,microhabitats changed dramatically and plant growth was restricted.[Ch,8 fig. 1 tab. 12 ref.]
Spatial variability of farmland soil organic matter and soil nutrients in Ninghai County,Zhejiang Province
ZHENG Hong-bo, WU Jian-ping, ZHANG Shan
2010, 27(3): 379-384. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.010
[Abstract](5380) [PDF](209)
Employing GIS(geographic information system) techniques and geostatistical analysis on farmland soils from Ninghai County,Zhejiang Province,China,spatial variability of soil organic matter (SOM),total nitrogen (TN),available phosphorus (AP),and available potassium (AK) was determined with SOM,TN,AP,and AK contour maps obtained using ordinary Kriging interpolation. Results showed that an exponential model well fitted semivariograms for SOM,TN,and AK,whereas after a logarithmic conversion,a spherical model best fitted semivariograms of AP. The ratio of the nugget to the sill[C0 / (C0 + C1)] for SOM(50.5%),TN(59.7%),and AP(50.5%) showed moderate spatial autocorrelation,whereas AK (77.3%) showed a slight degree of spatial autocorrelation. From the Kriging interpolation,elevation and land use type both strongly affected distribution of SOM,TN,AK,and AP. Thus,structural factors of parent material and elevation along with random factors,such as fertilization,soil management,and land use,jointly controlled spatial variability of soil nutrients in the study area.[Ch,4 fig. 4 tab. 7 ref.]
A pot experiment for poplar growth and soil quality with sewage sludge application
WANG Gen-mei, ZHANG Huan-chao, YANG Li
2010, 27(3): 385-390. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.011
[Abstract](4292) [PDF](214)
To study the influence of sewage sludge on poplar (Populus deltoids Lus P. euramericana I-45/51) growth and on soil environmental quality,a greenhouse,pot experiment was conducted with anaerobically digested,dewatered sludge obtained from the Wuxi Lucun Wastewater Treatment Plant in Jiangsu Province. A two factor gradient test design with five treatments (rates of sludge application expressed as sludge to soil ratio) of 0(control),30,60,120,and 240 gkg-1 and two soil types(calcareous soil and yellow brown soil) with 3 replications was established to test height,diameter,biomass,and concentrations of heavy metals,Cu and Zn. Results showed that for calcareous soil,poplar growth was promoted with the 30 gkg-1 sludge treatment,whereas the other treatments all restrained growth;and for yellow brown soil,poplar growth of all treatments were promoted,but 30 gkg-1 sludge treatment was better than the others. In addition,soil total and available N and P as well as organic matter increased(P<0.05). After sewage sludge application,exchangeable Cu and Zn also increased,and there was a positive relationship(r0.05 = 0.811) between sludge ratio and exchangeable metal concentration. Thus,compared with no sewage sludge application,a 3% sludge treatment could promote growth and production of poplar[Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 15 ref.]
Sap flow and water consumption of Populus × euramericana ‘74/76’saplings from cuttings planted on the North China Plain
ZHOU Yuan, MA Lü-yi
2010, 27(3): 391-397. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.012
[Abstract](4051) [PDF](182)
Simultaneous measurement with a heat balance and sap flow measuring system(Dynamax Inc.) to monitor the sap flow of Populus euramericana 74/76 and with an automatic weather recording system to record meteorological factors,such as the photosynthetically active radiation(PAR),air temperature,and relative humidity,was undertaken. According to weather records,the three most representative weather conditions (sunny,cloudy,and rainy days) were used to analyze the relationship of water use and meteorological factors. Results showed that PAR was always the dominant factor influencing sap flow,but sap flow diurnal variation and the main factors affecting it differed with weather conditions. Differences in sap flow density were the result of multi-meteorological factors,and the overall water use for saplings was in the order:sunny days > cloudy days > rainy days.[Ch,3 fig. 3 tab. 27 ref.]
Mycorrhiza formation and acclimatization of tissue cultured Pinus elliottii
ZHU Li-hua, CHENG Fang, QIN Li, YE Jian-ren
2010, 27(3): 398-403. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.013
[Abstract](4144) [PDF](199)
The condition for axillary bud induction of Pinus elliottii has been optimized,and mycorrhizas on the rooted explants has been tested in vitro to improve the efficiency of micropropagation. Axillary bud induction was found to be influenced by the basal medium as well as the age of the seedling from which the explant was taken. Modified Gresshoff and Doys(GD) medium proved to be superior to others,and the right stage of seedling was 18 - 25 d. The addition of activated charcoal(0.5 mgL-1) stimulated shoot elongation. Rooting occured at about 80% on 1/2GD medium supplemented with 0.05 mgL-1 NAA and 1.0 mgL-1 IBA. Mycorrhizas were initiated for plantlets with Pisolithus tinctorius on an agar medium under fully controlled conditions. Mycorrhizas improved the transfer of the plantlets to ex vitro conditions. After 3 years in the field,the plantlets reached an average of 80.3 cm in height. Their shoot growth appearance was normal.[Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 28 ref.]
A quality prediction model for spray cut chrysanthemums in a solar greenhouse
LI Yu-fa, FANG Wei-min, CHEN Fa-di, SHI Chang-lei
2010, 27(3): 404-409. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.014
[Abstract](5378) [PDF](192)
Based on chrysanthemum quality due to temperature and light differences as well as experiments with different spray cut chrysanthemum cultivars(Mengbai,Qinglu,Cuilian,Hanfen and Lv Fengwo) and planting dates(April,May,and June),a preliminary quality prediction model for solar greenhouse spray cut chrysanthemums with a physiological product of thermal effectiveness and PAR(photosynthetically active radiation) as the measurement scales was developed. The indexes including plant height,leaf number,leaf area of individual plant,stem diameter,flower diameter were observed. The model was then validated with independent data. Simulated results showed that based on a 1 ∶ 1 line,the coefficient of determination (R2) and percent relative prediction error (ERP),respectively,for plant height(0.99,7.2%),leaf number(0.99,6.9%),leaf area (0.94,10.2%),stem diameter (0.87,5.6%),and flower diameter (0.92,18.2%),agreed well with the observed data. This high precision model could supply a theoretical basis for optimizing:1) temperature and light management and 2) a decision support system for production of spray cut chrysanthemums in a solar greenhouse.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 14 ref.]
Species composition and diversity for plant communities in conversion of farmland back to forest areas of Qinghai Province
QIN Jing, HE Kang-ning, LIU Shuo, ZHENG Jia-li, WANG Zhan-lin
2010, 27(3): 410-416. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.015
[Abstract](4047) [PDF](224)
Research on different plant communities of different plot types(conversion of farmland back to forests,natural secondary forest and farmland) was conducted in a project area that returned farmland to forests in Datong County,Qinghai Province from March to August in 2008. After analyzing species composition of the main plant communities(including 15 types,such as Picea crassifolia forests,Picea crassifolia-Betula platyphylla forests,Picea crassifolia-Hippohae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis forest,Larix principis-rupprechtii forests,Populus davidiana forests,and Sabina przewalskii forests),species richness index(R0),Gleason species richness index(I),Simpson ecological dominance index(D),Shannon-Weiner species diversity index(H),and Hill evenness index(E5) of the community were calculated. Results showed that (1) the level of the species diversity in the community was herb > shrub > tree. Also,(2) the level of the species diversity in mixed forests was higher than pure forests. (3) According to land use,species diversity was:natural secondary forest > artificial forest on converted farmland > cropland. However,after 27 years diversity of the converted farmland was close to that of the natural secondary forest. (4) As conversion time increased,the community became more and more steady-state. The H and I were small-big-small and the D and E5 were big-small-big. To promote stability and rejuvenation of plant communities when returning farmland to forests,logical distribution of species should be realized.[Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 15 ref.]
Technology of land use remote sensing information extraction in Duolun County
WU Jian, PENG Dao-li
2010, 27(3): 417-423. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.016
[Abstract](3845) [PDF](211)
The heterogeneity and fragmentation of land were serious and the spectrum was complicated in northern farming-pastoral regions,so the land use and cover classification research was highly dependent on visual interpretation. Duolun County was selected as a test area and the knowledge-based remote sensing information-extracting technology was applied to this area. The main cover types were decomposed by linear spectral mixture model. And a number of thematic information models were set up by the analysis of spectrum. The extraction rules of all cover types were set up based on empirical knowledge,and then the land use information of Duolun was extracted automatically on a computer. The results showed that the area precision by this method was 93.8% and the sampling point precision was 87.7%. The corresponding results of supervised classification were 71.1% and 59.5%t. It was proved that the method was more effective than supervised classification and could realize the fast extraction of remote sensing information with high precision and multiple tiers.[Ch,4 fig. 3 tab. 20 ref.]
Feasibility of castor stalks for particle boards
LI Xiao-ping, ZHOU Ding-gou, XU Kai-hong
2010, 27(3): 424-429. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.017
[Abstract](4679) [PDF](254)
In the castor (Ricinus communis) stalk there are major differences in the microstructure of the phloem,xylem,and marrow. This research studied raw material characteristics in different layers of the castor stalk and their influence on properties of castor stalk based particle board for industrial use. Results of the physical and chemical properties of the castor stalk layers showed that lipid material and SiO2 were enriched in the surface layer of the phloem and marrow. The marrow had a negative influence on the castor stalk based particle board due to its parenchyma cells. Except for the modulus of elasticity (MOE) that increased 19.7%,removing the marrow improved particle board properties with internal bond strength (IB) increasing 3.3% and swelling thickness decreasing 18.8%. Phloem,however,did not influence board properties. Thus,for industrial use as particle board,the marrow of the castor stalk would have to be removed,but the phloem would not.[Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 12 ref.]
An empirical study of farmer households’ willingness to participate into construction of non-commercial forests
ZHU Zhen, SHEN Yue-qin, WU Wei-guang, DONG Dun-yi
2010, 27(3): 430-436. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.018
[Abstract](4285) [PDF](171)
Its worth discussing whether the local farmers have improved their understanding of ecological value of forests or joined the construction of non-commercial forests actively through the related forest policies. This paper used the Logistic modeling to analyze farmer households willingness to join the construction of non-commercial forests based on a survey of farmer households in 10 villages of Changxing. According to the findings,the paper gave some suggestions on improving farmer households willingness to join the construction of non-commercial forests,such as expanding the source of non-agriculture income of farmers,improving the non-commercial forest compensation standard,providing trainings for farmers,improving their awareness of ecological environment.[Ch,3 tab. 17 ref.]
Biomimetic synthesis of mesoporous silica support with a three-dimensional large-pore ordered structure
CAO Lei, WANG Zhi-yin, LIU Xiang-nong, YANG Yu-xiang
2010, 27(3): 437-444. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.019
[Abstract](3459) [PDF](204)
Mesoporous silica was used as a support to immobilize enzyme (laccase) that were important in chlorphenol degeneration research. To biomimetically synthesize the mesoporous silica with an ordered three-dimensional (3D),hexagonal structure,cationic surfactants,alkyltrimethylammonium bromides (CnTAB,n = 12,14,16,and 18) with different chain lengths and an amphoteric biological surfactant,Sodium N-dodecyl glycine (YCS),were used as mixed templates in a mixture of H2SO4 as the acid source and tetraethyl orthosilicate(TEOS) as the silica source. The biomimetic synthesizing was successful. Compared with traditional mesoporous silica support,the 3D hexagonal mesoporous silica had a larger pore diameter (5 - 10 nm) and surface area. The adjacent pore channel occurred pore link. Using C16TAB or C18TAB along with YCS as mixed templates,mesoporous silica with a pore diameter of about 9 nm was obtained. Mesoporous silica with different morphologies and large pore diameter also provided excellent support for immobilizing laccase.[Ch,8 fig. 2 tab. 22 ref.]
Ecosystems attacked by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus:a review
XU Hua-chao, LUO You-qing
2010, 27(3): 445-450. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.020
[Abstract](4888) [PDF](262)
This paper summarized research in an arthropod community,an avian community,and a micro-ecological-environment after vegetative succession in response to an attack of pine wilt disease from Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Two aspects should be considered for prevention and control of this disease:1) pest infestation methods and 2) disease influence on structure and use of wood resources. Also,at the ecosystem level,increasing tree resistance to B. xylophilus invasion as well as strategies and methods of prevention and control of the disease,should be studied. In addition,future research on pine wilt disease is discussed.[Ch,36 ref.]
Research progress of biofilm carrier for wastewater treatment
JIANG Kai-feng, XIAO Ji-bo
2010, 27(3): 451-455. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.021
[Abstract](4489) [PDF](148)
As an important part of the biofilm process,the selection of biofilm carriers will directly influence the effect of wastewater treatment. The status and development of the biofilm carriers for wastewater treatment were reviewed in this paper,and the modification research of the organic synthetically polymeric biofilm carriers in the aspects of hydrophilicity,biocompatibility,magnetism,etc,was mainly introduced. The research progress of natural degradable biofilm carriers,such as chitosam,alginate,cellulose,etc,was also studied in the paper. Suggestions were provided to solve the problem of the secondary pollution of carrier. Since using degradable material could help avoid secondary pollution brought by carriers,it would be an important trend on biofilm carrier.[Ch,32 ref.]
Influence of the green barrier on the Chinese agricultural product export trade
ZHANG Jing, LIAN Wei-wei, WANG Nan, HE Hai-yan, ZHENG Qing-song
2010, 27(3): 456-463. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.022
[Abstract](4520) [PDF](174)
Green barrier is a combined result of trade protectionism and environment protectionism. Compared with other trade barriers,green barrier is characterized by concealment,correlation and effectiveness. Green barrier has significant impacts on Chinas sustainable development strategies,coordinated development of economy and environment,improvement of products quality and safety. However,most impacts of green barriers on Chinas agricultural product export trade are negative,involving almost every field of Chinas foreign trade. In this competitive age emphasizing environmental protection,China should take the issue serious,handle the difficulties,improve peoples awareness of environmental protection,improve product standards,develop export?鄄oriented agricultural economy,to narrow the gap between China and the developed countries. Meanwhile,China should cooperate with the developed countries to reach common understanding and decrease conflictions to find a feasible way for the coordinated development of Chinas trade and environment. Green barrier should be used to realize the sustainable development strategies of Chinas economy.[Ch,27 ref.]
Scientific notes
An SSR molecular labeling technique system for Betula luminifera
YOU Wei-yan, HUANG Hua-hong, CHENG Long-jun, TONG Zai-kang, ZHU Yu-qiu
2010, 27(3): 464-469. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.023
[Abstract](4666) [PDF](249)
To find the optimal simple sequence repeats(SSR) system for Betula luminifera,the cetyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) method was used to extract DNA from tender leaves,using the known primers from related species:B. platyphylla var. japonica and B. pendula. Then,one factor was changed at a time to optimize the polymerase chain reaction(PCR). Next,Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis(PAGE) was used to detect the amplified products with three primers segments randomly selected from thirty-six pairs of primers and sequenced to further check the universality of the primer. Results showed that in a volume of 20 L,the optimal reaction system was 60 ng template DNA,1.500 mmolL-1 Mg2+,0.175 mmolL-1 deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate(dNTP)s,2.500 mmolL-1 primer,and 1.0 16.67 nkat Taq polymerase. Compared with B. platyphylla var. japonica and B. pendula,the optimal annealing temperature of the primer was 1C higher. The blast results from primer AF310851,AB084479,and AB084480 showed that the values of max ident were all above 95.0%. This indicated that the SSR primers of birch could be used with B. luminifera.[Ch,7 fig. 2 tab. 17 ref.]
Activated carbon from Myrica rubra (Chinese bayberry) stones using steam preparation and its adsorption capabilities
CHENG Ji-yu, YE Xing-qian
2010, 27(3): 470-473. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.024
[Abstract](4381) [PDF](256)
Steam activation was used to prepare activated carbon from Myrica rubra(Chinese bayberry) stones. An orthogonal test with three factors and three levels was set:(1) activation temperature of 850,900 and 950 ℃;(2) activation time of 1.5,20 and 2.5 h;(3) steam comsumption of 4,5 and 6 mLg-1. And adsorption capabilities of M. rubra stone carbon for benzene,formaldehyde,ammonia and chloroform were measured. The data were analyzed by ANOVA. The results showed that optimal conditions for activation were:temperature of 950 C,time of 1.5 h,and steam consumption of 5 - 6 mLg-1 of M. rubra stone carbon. With these optimized conditions activated carbon from prepared bayberry stones had a 34.2% yield with iodine adsorption of 1 167.2 mgg-1 and methylene blue of 132.0 mgg-1. For activated carbon from M. rubra stones,activation temperature significantly(P<0.05) decrease yield and increase adsorption abilities,whereas activation time only significantly decreased (P<0.05) yield. M. rubra stone carbon also adsorbed toxic gases with formaldehyde>chloroform>benzene>ammonia.[Ch,2 fig. 5 tab. 7 ref.]
Pollen morphology of ancient Ginkgo biloba
WANG Guo-xia, CAO Fu-liang, FANG Yan-ming
2010, 27(3): 474-477. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.025
[Abstract](4380) [PDF](222)
The pollens of 33 ancient male ginkgo trees which came from main distribution areas of Ginkgo biloba was observed through scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the pollen had approximately similar outside morphology,and they were all olive shaped and had a bourgeon channels which was about the length of pollen. There were significant differences in smooth,ektexine texture,and pores condition of pollen. The morphology of ginkgo pollen was complex and diverse.[Ch,1 fig. 1 tab. 11 ref.]
Two new records of seed plant from Zhejiang,China
YE Xi-yang, WU Di-fei, LI Gen-you, MA Dan-dan, HU You-cai
2010, 27(3): 478-479. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.026
[Abstract](4672) [PDF](162)
Two new records of seed plant from Zhejiang were reported:Dendrobium fanjingshanense Z. H. Tsi ex X. H. Jin et Y. W. Zhang(Orchidaceae),which was found in Jiulongshan of Suichang County,and Chirita fimbrisepala Hand.-Mazz.(Gesneriaceae),which was found in Longwantan of Yongjia County. The voucher specimens were preserved in the herbarium of Zhejiang Forestry College. [Ch,5 ref.]
Two newly naturalized plant species in Zhejiang
CHEN Feng, XIE Wen-yuan, CHEN Zheng-hai, ZHANG Hong-wei, ZHANG Fen-yao, LI Gen-you
2010, 27(3): 480-482. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.03.027
[Abstract](4346) [PDF](247)
Malvastrum coromandelianum(Linn.) Grcke(Malvaceae),Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. (Euphorbiacea) and the genus Malvastrum A. Gray were recorded as geographic distribution new to Zhejiang Province,both of the two species were naturalized. M. coromandelianum was found in Dongtou of Wenzhou City,E. heterophylla was found in Zhoushan City. The voucher specimens were preserved in the herbarium of Zhejiang Forestry College.[Ch,16 ref.]