2010 Vol. 27, No. 2

Leaf litter decomposition of four tree species in subtropical China
DOU Rong-peng, JIANG Hong, YU Shu-quan, MA Yuan-dan, SONG Xin-zhang, GUO Pei-pei, ZHANG Xiao-chuan
2010, 27(2): 163-169. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.001
[Abstract](4218) [PDF](226)
In order to know its material cycling in the forest ecosystem for better sustainable management, leaf litter of four tree species(Pinus massoniana,Cyclobalanopsis glauca,Torreya grandis,and Carya cathayensis) from subtropical China was studied in a decomposition experiment with nylon bag using a correlation analysis. Leaf litter were collected in Chunan County of Zhejiang Province,in March of 2006, drying at 80 ℃ to constant weight,packed with 144 nylon bags,then replaced to evergreen broad-leaf forests ground surface. Twelve bags were withdrawn once a month. Then determine weight loss rate,and N,P,K,C and lignin contents variation. Results showed that the decomposition rate of T. grandis was fastest,annual decomposition coefficient(k) is 1.70,whereas the slowest was P. massoniana,k = 0.49. The correlation analysis was significant for litter decomposition rate and both initial N concentration(r = 0.99,P<0.01) and initial P concentration(r = 0.97,P<0.05). During litter decomposition,N and P concentrations in leaf litter of Carya cathayensis,P. massoniana,and Cyclobalanopsis glauca increased. Also,rapid decreases were found in the first two months with K concentrations of Cyclobalanopsis glauca (6.22 - 1.96 gkg-1) and T. grandis(11.16 - 2.05 gkg-1);then they decrease slowly. However,P. massoniana decreased (0.88 - 0.54 gkg-1) in the beginning then increased (0.54 - 1.90 gkg-1). Thus,initial N and P leaf litter concentrations were sensitive indicators for decomposition rates in subtropical China.[Ch,1 fig. 6 tab. 23 ref.]
Species diversity with natural restoration in slash after control of pine wilt disease
WANG Guo-ming, ZHAO Ying, CHEN Bin, LU Zhuan, CHEN Ye-ping, QIU Hai-sheng
2010, 27(2): 170-177. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.002
[Abstract](4210) [PDF](195)
After a 17-year natural restoration period on Zhoushan Island,a resurvey of seven typical pine plots of masson pine(Pinus massoniana),Japanese black pine(Pinus thunbergii),and combinations of broadleaf and conifer forests,set up before occurrence of the pine wilt disease,was undertaken. Results showed that sample sites evolved to conifer-broadleaf mixed forest or broadleaf forest types with diversity of the tree layer increasing. Ranking of tree layer diversity was as follows:succession of pure masson pine forest to deciduous broadleaf forest and mixed,evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forest>succession of Japanese black pine forest to deciduous broadleaf forest>succession of pure masson pine forest to conifer and broadleaf mixed forest>succession of a mixed forest of Japanese black pine and broadleaf trees to deciduous broadleaf forest>succession of a mixed forest of masson pine and broadleaf trees to evergreen and deciduous broadleaf mixed forest. Also,in the mixed forest of masson pine and broadleaf trees,diversity of regeneration layer and shrub layer decreased,in the Japanese black pine forest diversity of the regeneration layer increased,other forest stands changed little,and diversity of the herb layer decreased. After natural restoration,diversity of vegetation types exhibited little similarity. Based on the dynamic variation rule of species diversity during natural restoration as well as conditions on Zhoushan Island,species diversity should be enriched and the landscape improved with island native zonal vegetation. [Ch,2 tab. 21 ref.]
Effects of human disturbance on species diversity of Pinus massoniana-Cunninghamia lanceolata mixed forest in Suobuya Stone Forest
AI Xun-ru, YI Yong-mei, YAO Lan, WANG Bo-quan, XIONG Biao
2010, 27(2): 178-184. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.003
[Abstract](3740) [PDF](219)
The effects of human disturbance on species diversity of natural mixed stand of conifer and broad-leaved trees in Suobuya Stone Forest were discussed in this paper. The results showed that the human disturbance didnt change the dominant positions and roles of Pinus massoniana and Cunninghamia lanceolata in arbor. But it decreased the average diameter at breast height(or basal diameter) and average tree height and changed the species composition. The medium and light disturbance lowered the roles and positions of the broadleaved tree in arbor layer and the dominant species in shrub layer and hence lowered their important values,but it increased the diversity of community species. Of the communities under disturbance,the Shannon-Weiner diversity index was larger when the vertical height was below 1.0 m and the largest between 1.1 m to 3.0 m. Then the diversity index decreased with the height. There was no diversity when the height was over 9.1 m.[Ch,3 fig. 3 tab. 13 ref.]
Aero-anion ecological efficacy in six types of plant communities
SHI Yan-jun, YU Shu-quan, ZHENG Qing-lin
2010, 27(2): 185-189. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.004
[Abstract](3982) [PDF](306)
A comparison of 1.5 m above ground aero-anion and positive air ion concentration for six plant communities,Pinus massoniana,Sapindus mukorossi,Magnolia grandiflora,Phyllostachys praecox,Cunninghamia lanceolata,Lagerstroemia indica,and turf grass,was conducted using a correlation analysis with relative humidity,temperature,solar radiation intensity,and ultraviolet radiation intensity. Results showed that compared to a corresponding open space,the aero-anion effect was better in each plant community,and their individual aero-anion concentration was in the order of P. massoniana>S. mukorossi and M. grandiflora>P. praecox>C. lanceolata>L. indica>turf grass. According to the diurnal variation curve between 7 : 00 and 19 : 00,the aero-anion concentration tended to double peak from 9 : 00 - 10 : 00 and 15 : 00 - 16 : 00. A correlation analysis showed a significant(P<0.01) positive correlation (r = 0.702) between aero-anion concentration and relative humidity,a significant(P<0.05) negative correlation(r = - 0.637) between aero-anion concentration and temperature,a negative correlation(r = - 0.191) between aero-anion concentration and solar radiation intensity,and a significant(P<0.05) positive correlation(r = 0.580) between aero-anion concentration and ultraviolet radiation intensity(UVB).[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 15 ref.]
Patch characteristics of forest landscape element for Xiaokeng Small Watershed,Laoshan Nature Reserve,Anhui Province
LIU Xi-jun, WU Ze-min, HUANG Qing-feng
2010, 27(2): 190-197. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.005
[Abstract](4238) [PDF](227)
In order to provide a theoretical basis for conservation and management of the forest landscape in Xiaokeng Small Watershed in Laoshan Nature Reserve,Anhui Province,the patch characteristics of forest landscape element were analyzed. The results showed that a mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forest with an area of 66.5% and perimeter of 50.7% of the total research area was dominant. Phyllostachys pubescens forest,Cunninghamia lanceolata forest and Camellia sinensis plantation comprised 25.7% of the total area and 37.9% of the perimeter. In Xiaokeng,many small patches with a relatively fine grain structure dominated the forest landscape element. The area,perimeter,and number of patches of different forest landscape element were very uneven;the distribution trend of perimeter of different forest landscape element is similar to that of area,while the distribution of the number of patches has no obvious regularity,and the order of the numbers of patches,area,perimeter is very different; the patch shape of forest landscape elements is relatively simple. Patch characteristics indicated that the degree of fragmentation for the natural broadleaf forest was lower than for artificial landscapes of Phyllostachys pubescens,Cunninghamia lanceolata,and Camellia sinensis. Therefore,to maintain sustainable development in the region,and especially to enhance protection for the broadleaf forest matrix,intense human activity and tourism should be reduced. [Ch,6 tab. 20 ref.]
Rice yield of five farmland shelter-belt models on Chongming Island,Shanghai
SHEN Qing-ye, LI Qing, ZOU Chun-jing, ZHANG Chao
2010, 27(2): 198-204. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.006
[Abstract](4180) [PDF](252)
Farmland shelter-belts are the main component of Chongming Islands shelter forest network. The objective of this study was to select the optimum farmland shelterbelt type by determining the optimal shelter forest porosity. After choosing the main shelter forest models(Taxodium ascendens forest,mixed Metasequoia glyptostroboides(water fir)-Cryptomeria fortunei forest,M. glyptostroboides forest,Populus spp. (poplar) forest,and C. fortunei forest) and surveying the community structure,rice yield and 1 000-grain weight were determined for each shelter forest. Results showed that at different distances within the same sample plot,forest protection significantly improved rice yield and 1 000-grain weight;leaf area index also improved. Among the different models,yield increase was in the order T. ascendens>the mixed forest of M. glyptostroboides and C. fortunei>M. glyptostroboides>Populus spp.>C. fortunei. The range of shelter forest porosity was 0.31 - 0.39,and the most effective protective distance was 5H(fivefold height of the tree)-10H. In addition,the mixed forest was better than the monotypic forest with the mixed forest of M. glyptostroboides and C. fortunei being the optimal shelterbelt model. [Ch,3 fig. 3 tab. 21 ref.]
Kinetic behavior of adsorption and photo-catalytic degradation of phenol in TiO2 /bamboo charcoal composite
CHENG Da-li, JIANG Shen-xue, ZHANG Qi-sheng
2010, 27(2): 205-209. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.007
[Abstract](4304) [PDF](283)
TiO2/bamboo charcoal composite was prepared by loading TiO2 into bamboo charcoal. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/bamboo charcoal composite was evaluated using phenol as a model substrate. The experimental results demonstrated that TiO2/bamboo charcoal composite had good adsorption capacity. The adsorption equilibrium constant(Ka) was 0.007 7 Lmg-1,Ka e (e referred to equilibrium adsorption concentration of phenol) was from 0.25 to 1.35. It was found that the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model in its integral form in describing the fraction order kinetics of phenol photocatalytic degradation in the TiO2/bamboo charcoal composite were better than its simplified form as a first-order reaction model,since the significant substrate adsorption on the catalysts was not negligible,the corresponding photocatalytic degradation reaction equation was:ln - 0.007 7 = 6.58 - 0.002 39t( referred to phenol concentration,and t referred to adsorption time).[Ch,6 fig. 14 ref.]
Value environment characters of crop stalks based board with life cycle assessment(LCA)
LI Xiao-ping, ZHOU Ding-guo, YU Yan-chun
2010, 27(2): 210-216. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.008
[Abstract](4380) [PDF](226)
The objective of the study was to know and value the environmental characters of the crop stalks based board and valuing them qualitatively with the life cycle assessment(LCA),and compared the environmental characters of the crop stalks with the characters with the wood based board. The results show that it is benefits to protect soil resources,forestry resource,keep carbon and reduce the CO2 discharge. It also gives some suggestions about the building and managing of crop stalks based board production line in order to adapt better the development of wood-based board industry.[Ch,1 fig. 1 tab. 16 ref.]
Variation of microfibril angle in developmental Phyllostachys pubescens culms by two forestation methods
YANG Shu-min, JIANG Ze-hui, REN Hai-qing, FEI Ben-hua
2010, 27(2): 217-222. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.009
[Abstract](3803) [PDF](215)
To provide a scientific basis for reasonable exploitation of bamboo resources,temporal and spatial variation patterns of the microfibril angle(MFA) in Phyllostachys pubescens(moso bamboo) were studied. Buried rhizomes (R) and seedlings (S) aged 30,54,and 78 months were measured and analyzed by X-ray diffraction estimation. Results showed that when the distance ranged from bark to pith for all bamboo,MFA radial variation of secondary cell walls for the three ages decreased or had no pattern. The maximum MFA(R) was 12.05 and MFA(S) was 10.97 with the minimum of 7.67 [MFA (R)] and 8.24 [MFA (S)] for a difference of less than 5. There was a significant difference between age and MFA(P<0.05) but no regular pattern. No pattern for longitudinal variations of MFA with bamboo height were found with bamboo rhizomes having a base of 9.64,a middle of 9.25,and a top of 9.34,significantly(P<0.05) more than bamboo seedlings of 9.73 for the base,9.82 for the middle,and 9.58 for the top. [Ch,4 fig. 3 tab. 22 ref.]
Phosphorus fertilization with Cleyera japonica seedlings
LI Mei, WU Jiang, WU Jia-sheng, WU Jia-sen
2010, 27(2): 223-227. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.010
[Abstract](4006) [PDF](244)
Based on a pot experiment,the effects of phosphorus fertilization on growth and physiological indexes and phosphorus content in leaves of one-year-old Cleyera japonica seedlings were studied. Seven P(P2O5) levels were set,0(ck),0.125,0.250,0.375,0.500,0.625 and 0.750 gpot-1. Results showed that (1) with increasing levels of P from 0 to 0.500 gpot-1,growth and physiological indexes in C. japonica seedlings increased,whereas with P increases over 0.500 gpot-1,all indexes decreased. Also,(2) P in leaves increased with increasing levels of P from 0 to 0.500 gpot-1 but decreased gradually with further P. Finally,(3) quadric relationships between growth indexes and P were noted. Based on growth and physiological indexes for one-year-old C. japonica seedlings,proper application of P was from 0.441 to 0.603 gpot-1.[Ch,2 fig. 5 tab. 11 ref.]
Distribution of soil microorganism in Larix gmelinii forests of the Great Xing’an Mountains,Inner Mongolia
JIANG Hai-yan, YAN Wei
2010, 27(2): 228-232. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.011
[Abstract](4527) [PDF](241)
The soil microbial distribution of bacteria,fungi,and actinomycetes in five different Larix gmelinii forests[(A) Ledum palustre-Larix gmelinii virgin forest,(B) herbage-Larix gmelinii virgin forest,(C) Betula fruticosa-Larix gmelinii virgin forest,(D) Larix gmelinii forest burned-over areas,and (E) clearcut Larix gmelinii forest] in 0 - 10,10 - 20,20 - 30 cm soil layers was studied in the National Forestry Ecosystems Station of Inner Mongolias Great Xingan Mountains using the dilution-plate method. Results showed that in the different forest types,soil microbes varied in quantity,category,and vertical distribution(P<0.05). Also,bacteria were dominant accounting for 80.2% - 96.8% of the microorganisms. Numbers of all microorganisms in the Larix gmelinii forests were in the order:A>B>C>D>E;whereas bacteria were A>B>C>D>E,fungi were E>C>A>B>D,and actinomycetes were A>B>D>E> C. In virgin forests actinomycetes in the 10 - 20 cm layer were greater than the 0 - 10 cm layer;but vertical distribution of bacteria and fungi decreased(P<0.05) with the increasing vertical depth.[Ch,4 fig. 1 tab. 15 ref.]
Steady infiltration rates in soils of three forest types for an agroforestry system in the hilly region of Sichuan Basin
LUO Zong-shi, ZHANG Lu, XIANG Cheng-hua, XIE Da-jun, CHEN Jun-hua, LUO Xiao-hua
2010, 27(2): 233-238. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.012
[Abstract](5458) [PDF](239)
Using a Hood infiltrometer IL-2700 (Germany,2006),the steady infiltration rate in three soil layers(0-10,10-20,and 20-30 cm) of three forest types (a Cupressus funebris plantation,a mixed Quercus acutissima-C. funebris forest,and a mixed Alnus cremastogyne-C. funebris forest) from an agroforestry system in the hilly region of the Sichuan Basin was measured. The relationship between soil features,forest structure,and steady soil infiltration rate was also discussed. Results showed that for a given forest type the steady infiltration rate of the soil decreased with soil layer depth. For different soil layers,the steady infiltration rates of the two mixed forests were significantly greater (P<0.05) than the C. funebris plantation. The order of steady infiltration rates by soil depth was as follows:1) for the 0-10 cm depth,mixed Q. acutissima-C. funebris forest (13.269 mmmin-1)>mixed A. cremastogyne-C. funebris forest (10.438 mmmin-1)>C. funebris plantation(4.513 mmmin-1);2) for 10 - 20 cm,mixed Q. acutissima-C. funebris forest (4.338 mmmin-1)>mixed A. cremastogyne-C. funebris forest (3.791 mmmin-1)>C. funebris plantation (1.329 mmmin-1);and 3) for 20 - 30 cm,mixed A. cremastogyne-C. funebris forest (3.095 mmmin-1)>mixed Q. acutissima-C. funebris forest (2.653 mmmin-1)>C. funebris plantation (1.965 mmmin-1). Thus,to enhance the water and soil conservation capacity of forested land in agroforestry systems of the hilly regions of Sichuan Basin,a mixed forest should be planted.[Ch,5 tab. 15 ref.]
Root morphology and physiological characteristics in Carya cathayensis seedlings with low phosphorus stress
LI Yong-fu, JIN Song-heng, YE Zheng-qian, HUANG Jian-qin, JIANG Pei-kun
2010, 27(2): 239-245. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.013
[Abstract](5120) [PDF](264)
Phosphorus(P) deficiency is one of the limiting factors to plant growth. However,scarce information is available about the effect of P deficiency on the growth of Carya cathayensis. To study root morphology,leaf photosynthesis characteristics,leaf acid phosphatase,and root secreted acid phosphatase of Carya cathayensis seedlings,a hydroponic culture experiment with treatments of sufficient P(0.1 mmolL-1) or deficient P(0.02 mmolL-1) was conducted. Results showed that compared to sufficient P,the low P treatment significantly decreased(P<0.05) plant dry weight,plant P concentration,plant P accumulation,root length,root surface area,root volume leaf photosynthetic rate,and stomatal conductance; however,there were no significant differences for intercellular CO2 concentration. Additionally,the low P treatment significantly increased (P<0.05) leaf acid phosphatase (by 135%) and root secreted acid phosphatase (by 159%). Thus,the low P treatments with decreases in leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance,but no differences for intercellular CO2 concentration,showed that leaf photosynthetic rate was not due to stomatal limitation. Also,for C. cathayensis an increase in acid phosphatase activity induced by a P deficiency could be an adaptive mechanism to low P stress.[Ch,4 fig. 1 tab. 28 ref.]
Isozyme analysis for different organs and growth stages of water lily
ZHANG Hai-ping, FANG Wei-min, CHEN Fa-di, DING Yue-sheng, YANG Xue-meng
2010, 27(2): 246-250. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.014
[Abstract](4230) [PDF](317)
Peroxidase isozyme(POD) and esterase isozyme(EST) of three water lily cultivars,Nymphaea Peter Slocum,N. Masaniello,and N. Texas Dawn,were studied using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(PAGE) in different organs (closed young leaf,open young leaf,old leaf,petal,flower bud and petiole) and growth stages of a closed young leaf. Results showed (1) 12 POD bands and 6 EST bands. Also,(2) POD and EST were tissue specific for the closed young leaf,open young leaf,old leaf,petal,bud,and petiole. The most isozyme bands were observed in the closed young leaf and the open young leaf with the least in the old leaf and petal. (3) In addition,compared to the reproductive growth stage,the closed leaf in the vegetative growth stage had more EST and EST bands. Meanwhile,there was more POD during the reproductive stage. However,during the reproductive growth stage more POD bands of N.Peter Slocum and N. Masaniello were found with more POD bands of N.Texas Dawn noted during the vegetative growth stage. [Ch,4 fig. 3 tab. 15 ref.]
Caloric values and ash content of six dominant tree species in an evergreen broadleaf forest of Ailaoshan,Yunnan Province
YANG Guo-ping, GONG He-de, ZHENG Zheng, ZHANG Yi-ping, LIU Yu-hong, LU Zhi-yun
2010, 27(2): 251-258. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.015
[Abstract](4518) [PDF](221)
To study the characteristic of the caloric value and ash content of dominant tree species in an evergreen broadleaf forest in Ailaoshan National Nature Reserve,Yunnan Province,the caloric value and ash content of six dominant tree species:Lithocarpus xylocarpus,Schima noronhae,Machilus bombycina,Ilex gintungensis,Camellia forrestii,and Castanopsis rufescens,were analyzed respectively on leaves,branches,trunks,trunk barks,and roots by sampling in the field and analyzing in the laboratory. Results showed ranges of gross caloric value of six dominant species were(in kJg-1) 19.0 - 23.41 for leaves,19.22 - 21.47 for branches,18.22 - 21.24 for trunk bark,19.32 - 21.27 for trunks,and 18.89 - 20.90 for roots. Tree gross caloric value ranked:L. xylocarpus > S. noronhae > M. bombycina > I. gintungensis > C. forrestii > C. rufescens,whereas the rank of ash-free caloric values was:L. xylocarpus > M. bombycina > S. noronhae > I. gintungensis > C. rufescens > C. forrestii. Both gross caloric values and ash-free caloric values were not consistent with the sequence of the importance value of these tree species. The caloric value were correlated remarkably with ash content (P<0.01).[Ch,4 tab. 22 ref.]
Spatial distribution and simulation for fine roots of triploid Populus tomentosa with wide and narrow row spacing
XI Ben-ye, JIA Li-ming, LIU Yin, WANG Ye
2010, 27(2): 259-265. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.016
[Abstract](3878) [PDF](171)
To form a basis for constructing a root-water-uptake model of triploid Populus tomentosa,spatial distribution characteristics of fine roots were studied through wide (6 m) and narrow (2 m) row spacing planting schemes,and soil coring method using correlation,regression and variance analyses. Results showed that vertically,in both wide and narrow spaced rows,the fine roots were mainly concentrated within the 0 - 20 cm soil layer where their amount were 0.080 cmcm-3 and 0.074 cmcm-3 accounting for 44.1% and 48.7% of the total,respectively. For a radial distance of 100 cm from the stem,the fine root length density of 0 - 20,20 - 40,40 - 60 and 60 - 80 cm soil layer in a wide row increased by 35.45%,36.76%,71.67% and 72.27% as compared with that of the corresponding soil layer in a narrow row. Horizontally,in the wide row fine root length density from 20 - 200 cm showed an exponentially declining distribution. The fine roots were mainly concentrated within the 20 - 80 cm soil zone,and within the 0 - 200 cm range these roots were 0.250 cmcm-3 occupying 49.20% of the area. The fine roots in the narrow-spaced row were distributed irregularly with no significant differences among the fine root length densities for different radial distances. In addition,a one-dimensional (R2 = 0.228) root length density function was fitted to narrow spaced rows,while the two-dimensional (R = 0.538) was fitted to the wide row.[Ch,5 fig. 2 tab. 12 ref.]
Genetic diversity of endangered Artocarpus hypargyreus
FAN Fan-rong
2010, 27(2): 266-271. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.017
[Abstract](4362) [PDF](290)
Genetic diversity of 5 populations of endangered Artocarpus hypargyreus was studied by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The results showed that there was great genetic diversity within A. hypargyreus,the total percentage of polymorphic loci was 81.08%,and the average Shannons index of diversity was 0.231 9,Neis index of genetic diversity was 0.166 0,the coefficient gene differentiation index(GST) was 0.737 8,gene flow (Nm) was 0.125 1. The gene flow between populations was very low,variation among population occupied for 73.78%,while that within population occupied only for 26.22%.[Ch,4 fig. 4 tab. 21 ref.]
Dormancy and germination of Osmanthus fragrans seeds
YANG Xiu-lian, HAO QI-mei
2010, 27(2): 272-276. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.018
[Abstract](6112) [PDF](272)
To detect reasons for dormancy and methods of breaking dormancy,a bioassay of a methanol extract from Osmanthus fragransZigeng Ziyinseed coats and endosperm as well as germination of seeds treated with Gibberellic acid (GA3) were studied. The cabbage seeds were germinated with methanol extract solution (0.10,0.06,and 0.03 gL-1),by three replications each treatment. And the osmanthus seeds were soaked in different concentrations(500,1 000,and 1 500 mgL-1) GA3 for 48 hours,then stratified with low temperature,and every 15 days,taken out 30 seeds each treatment with four replications for germination. Results showed that the restraining substances were contained in the seed coat and endosperm,and the inhibitory effects became stronger as the extraction solution concentration increased. Integrating results from the prophase,we think that seed dormancy belongs to physiological dormancy. Soaking with 1 000 mgL-1 GA3 followed by cold stratification with sand for 75 d could raise the germination percentage and could be an effective method to overcome dormancy.[Ch,4 fig. 15 ref.]
Cercis chingii f. albiflora:a new forma of Cercis chingii
MA Dan-dan, JIN Shui-hu
2010, 27(2): 277-277. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.019
[Abstract](4006) [PDF](248)
A new forma of Cercis chingii Chun:C. chingii Chun f. albiflora S. H. Jin et D. D. Ma was described. The new forma differs from previous forma Cercis chingii Chun f. chingii mainly in its white corolla.[En,2 ref.]
Seasonal variety of birds at Qingshan Lake,Zhejiang Province
JIA Yue, LU Qiu-yan, LU Qing-bin
2010, 27(2): 278-286. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.020
[Abstract](4653) [PDF](243)
An avian study was carried out at Qingshan Lake in Zhejiang Province from September 2006 to August 2007 and analyzed with richness,diversity,and evenness indexes(Ludwig and Reynolds). Altogether,5 469 individuals and 79 species were observed belonging to 12 orders and 30 families (33 oriental,32 palaearctic,and 14 widespread species),in which 5 species were second-class,protected wild animals in China. Of all the birds,migrants (41 species,51.9%) outnumbered residents (38 species,48.1%). Owing to excellent natural conditions,the avian community had high richness,diversity,and evenness indexes with 36 species of water birds (45.6%) and 43 species of forest birds (54.4%). March had the lowest richness and diversity indexes(2.417 and 1.350) with the highest dominant index(0.463) whereas May was the opposite. March also exhibited the lowest evenness index(0.477) with July having the highest(0.845). The average density of all birds at Qingshan Lake was 19.23 individualskm-2 with the greatest density (26.20 individualskm-2,47 species) in winter and the lowest density(11.94 individualskm-2,33 species) in summer. Results showed six dominant species (7.6%);15 frequent species (19.0%);35 seldom found species (44.3%),and 23 rare species (29.1%). Thus,avian diversity was lowest in March and highest in May. Also,due to the high percentage of species in danger of survival,avian conservation and management should be strengthened at Qingshan Lake.[Ch,4 fig. 3 tab. 22 ref.]
Image design of forest certification in China
HUANG Hui-jun, LI Ming-qi, FANG Shan-yong
2010, 27(2): 287-291. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.021
[Abstract](4362) [PDF](175)
This paper recorded some practices and reflections of our experience in the process of image design of forest certification in China. The process of design consisted of image conception,drafting,determining the final productions. Logos,supporting graphics,business cards,desk calendars and gift boxes were all designed based on the ideas of forest,China and sustainable development. Among the attempts to design,much more attention had been paid to the overall design style in pursuit of Chinese spirit and the artistic conception. Based on the principle of formality serving the contents,the designers applied ink strokes to creating a linking image among tree rings,trees,and forests,to deepen the theme of forest certification and to express graphic information. It was intended that the design should convey the common features of forest certification and the characteristics of China.[Ch,2 fig. 14 ref.]
Maintenance of urban organic wastes on ecological function of urban green-belt soils
LIANG Jing, FANG Hai-lan
2010, 27(2): 292-298. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.022
[Abstract](4634) [PDF](246)
On the basis of generalizing the ecological functions of urban green-belt soils,which consist of providing the medium of plant growth,maintaining the cycle of the matter and energy,and retaining water,the status in urban green-belt soils of domestic and abroad is summarized in this paper: severe soil compaction,low porosity,poor nutrition and heavy contamination. According to the theory of maintaining ecological functions of urban green-belt soils by utilizing organic wastes to local condition,the significant effects of organic wastes,such as increasing nutrition,abating contamination and retaining water,were introduced. Finally,in accordance with the conditions in China,some suggestions about the policy,technique,and management of organic matter utilization were put forward.[Ch,49 ref.]
Sub-compartment division based on SPOT-5 remote sensing images
ZHANG Gen-long, FENG Yi-ming, JIA Jian-hua, WU Hong-gan, LI Zeng-yuan
2010, 27(2): 299-303. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.023
[Abstract](4856) [PDF](189)
The main method of current forest resources sub-compartment division is adopted to draw division boundary according to the condition of opposite hillside in the field,which is subjective and lacks of scientific objectivity. In this paper,firstly,we analyzed the characteristics of SPOT-5 remote sensing data and the shortcomings of the sub-compartment division arising from small field of vision due to miscalculation in current forest. Secondly,we put forward the method of data processing and screen visual interpretation,such as establishing identity of SPOT-5 image interpretation,field verification and additional measurement which were suitable for the SPOT-5 remote sensing data when it was used in the division of forest resources survey. Finally,the advantages and feasibility of computer automatic interpretations of the SPOT-5 image were discussed when it was used in the sub-compartment division. This study will provide guidance and reference for forest division.[Ch,3 fig. 16 ref.]
Scientific notes
An AFLP molecular labeling technique for Magnolia officinalis
JIANG Yan-feng, SI Jin-ping, HUANG Hua-hong, CHENG Long-jun
2010, 27(2): 304-309. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.024
[Abstract](4448) [PDF](209)
To establish an efficient and stable amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis system for Magnolia officinalis,selection and optimization of DNA template treatments and selective amplification conditions were undertaken using the cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-SiO2 method for mapping. Results indicated that: High quality DNA samples were obtained with the CTAB-SiO2 method and the DNA template used was 400 ng. The best treatments for the analysis were Mg2+ of 2.00 mmolL-1,deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates(dNTPs) of 0.90 mmolL-1,and Taq DNA polymerase of 16.67 nkat. This research showed that the CTAB-SiO2 method was fit for AFLP analysis on Magnolia,that a 30 times dilution for the pre-amplification products could be used for selective amplification,and that the silver-staining AFLP system could provide a method for further study with molecular markers in the field of genetic diversity,for breeding new cultivars,and for genetic relationships with Magnolia officinalis.[Ch,7 fig. 1 tab. 12 ref.]
Application of single point positioning with Trimble 5800 in forest measurement
XU Wen-bing, GAO Fei
2010, 27(2): 310-315. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.025
[Abstract](4702) [PDF](233)
The positioning precision of the high-performance GPS(global positioning system) receiver-Trimble 5800 and its feasibility measuring in the complex forest terrain was tested. The results show that when Trimble 5800 GPS receiver dose single point positioning in difference terrain,the 65% inner precision of WGS-84 coordinates is 0 - 2 m and 30% of it is 2 - 5 m,its maximum deviation is less than 8 m. The outer precision of the average observations is less than 5 m,and evenly distributes in 0 - 5 m after coordinate transformation. As a result,if it takes the deviation between known coordinate and observations on a known point as the correct parameter of other points observations measured in the same timerange,this will effectively improve the positioning precision. In the distance and area measurement,the relative error of single point positioning with Trimble 5800 is less than 1/300 and 1% when the datum measured by Total Staions were taken as reference value. so Trimble 5800 receiver precision is better than the precision of handy GPS.[Ch,1 fig. 8 tab. 8 ref.]
Marigold (Tagetes erecta) extracts to kill Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
JU Yun-wei, FAN Pei-feng, XI Yue-ming, XUE Zhong-guan
2010, 27(2): 316-319. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.026
[Abstract](4440) [PDF](365)
To determine the biological activity of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus with the live immersion method,three ethanol extraction of the roots,stems,and flowers of the marigold plant(Tagetes erecta) was used. A gradient test design with seven treatments of 1.000,0.500,0.100,0.050,0.010,0.001 and 0 gL-1 with four replications were established to immerse B. xylophilus (100 number in one culture dish,28 ℃). After 72 h,death rate of B. xylophilus was determined. Results showed that ethanol extracts immersed for 72 h had a corrected death rate for B. xylophilus of >60%. From among the three plant parts,ethanol extracts coming from the marigold roots had the greatest success with a corrected death rate for B. xylophilus>90%. Also,the ratio of the three extracts to the raw materials was>5%. Thus,we believe marigold plant extracts could be used to control B. xylophilus.[Ch,1 fig. 1 tab. 13 ref.]
Trunk injection of pesticides to combat Corythucha ciliata
YANG Xiao-feng, ZHANG Li-qin, ZHU Yun-feng, LI Qiao, ZHANG Shao-yong
2010, 27(2): 320-322. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2010.02.027
[Abstract](4664) [PDF](295)
To scientific control forest alien invasive species,the control of Corythucha ciliata in the forest with five different pesticides:1)imidacloprid,2)emamectin benzoate,3)imidacloprid + abamectin,4)dichlorvos-omethoate were studied using trunk injection. Results showed that both 1)40.0 gL-1 imidacloprid + 1.5 gL-1 abamectin,which 5 d after a trunk injection with 0.10 Lm-1 controlled 95.33% and at 20 d 96.00%,and 2)300.0 gL-1(dichlorvos-omethoate),which at 5 d controlled at 97.31% and at 20 d 94.70%,had better control than the other supplied insecticides. This indicated that 40.0 gL-1 imidacloprid + 1.5 gL-1 abamectin and 300.0 gL-1(dichlorvos-omethoate) could be used to control C. ciliata.[Ch,1 tab. 4 ref.]