2012 Vol. 29, No. 6

Spatial variation of basic chemical properties and organic carbon storage for forest top-soil in Zhejiang Province
YE Ling-yan, FU Wei-jun, JIANG Pei-kun, LI Yong-fu, ZHANG Guo-jiang, DU Qun
2012, 29(6): 803-810. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.001
[Abstract](22423) [PDF](1483)
The paper is to study spatial distribution of forest soil pH, available phosphorus (AP),available potassium (AK),alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen (AN),and organic carbon (OC) across Zhejiang Province using geographical information system (GIS) technology, geostatistical analysis methods,and a correlation analysis. Results indicated that,AP fit a Gaussian model;AN fit a spherical model;and OC,AK,and pH fit an exponential model. Geography spatial analysis distribution,the result maps of soil organic carbon (SOC) and AN revealed strong spatial similarity with high concentrations mainly located in Chunan County and Lishui City. The correlation analysis further confirmed a highly significant correlation (P<0.01) between SOC and AN.[Ch,3 fig. 5 tab. 25 ref.]
Soil physical and chemical properties and growth of a young Camellia oleifera forest with straw mulching
WANG Yu-juan, CHEN Yong-zhong, WANG Rui, WANG Xiang-nan, PENG Shao-feng, YANG Xiao-hu, YANG Yang
2012, 29(6): 811-816. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.002
[Abstract](3372) [PDF](1350)
Based on field data and a soil analysis,the effects of a straw cover on soil physical and chemical properties as well as the growth of a young Camellia oleifera forest were studied. The test consisted of five application rates (0,3.0,4.5,6.0,7.5 thm-2) in a 5 3 randomized block design. Each treatment consisted of soil sampers collecting and growth investigation,which used multidraw and follow-up investigation method seperately. Results showed that soil physiochemical properties with straw covering were better than a control with best results using a treatment of 7.5 thm-2 straw cover (D). For soil water,in comparison with the control,straw cover can significantly improve the soil water content in the 0-20 cm soil layer,and the treaments of C and D can significantly improve the soil water content in the 20-40 cm soil layer (P<0.05). The general trend of soil water was the same between straw cover treatments and the control,which increased at first and then decreased,and whose separatrix all be in June. Soil nutrient content and for treatments C and D were all significantly higher than the control (P<0.05). Straw cover treatments of B,C and D can also significantly improve the growth of freshness of the treetops . This study could provide a theoretical basis for scientific and rational use of straw cover with young C. oleifera forests.[Ch,2 fig. 6 tab. 14 ref.]
Growth of salt stressed Kosteletzkya virginica with addition of nitrogen
YAN Dao-liang, LIAN Jun-fang, REN Yan-yan, SHENG Lin-jie, QIN Pei
2012, 29(6): 817-821. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.003
[Abstract](3098) [PDF](1530)
Kostelezkya virginica,an important economic plant with strong saline tolerance,was tested to better understand the effects of nitrogen additions on biomass characteristics and their relationship to K. virginica seedlings undergoing salt stress. Using completely random design,seedlings with 3-4 leaves were exposed for 35 d to treatments of 50,150,and 250 mmolL-1 NaCl and treatments of 50,150,and 250 mmolL-1 NaCl + 15 mmolL-1 NH4NO3 with 5 replications. Results showed that N addition significantly increased stem heights (P<0.05),but did not affect axial root length. For 50 mmolL-1 NaCl + 15 mmolL-1 NH4NO3,the average stem height was 26.1 cm,but without N it was 18.9 cm;and with N the average axial root diameter was 9.2 mm,but without N it was 6.8 mm. Additionally,leaf-weight ratios increased significantly (P<0.05) with N addition. Using 250 mmolL-1 NaCl + 15 mmolL-1 NH4NO3,leaf-weight ratios were 0.25 gg-1,but without N they were 0.14 gg-1. Root-weight ratios and root-to-shoot ratios significantly decreased (P<0.05) with N additions. Also,N inhibited fine root growth;whereas it promoted leaf growth. Finally,N significantly strengthened (P<0.05) the relationship between root mass and leaf mass. This could be helpful for utilization and allocation of N in K. virginica seedlings.[Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 10 ref.]
Growth and microelement absorption for Pinus massoniana seedlings with ectomycorrhizae and water stress
WANG Yi, DING Gui-jie
2012, 29(6): 822-828. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.004
[Abstract](3268) [PDF](1362)
According to the principle of adjust measures to local conditions to choice the fine strains for afforestation,at the same time make mycorrhizal biological technology applied to production practice preferably. The effect of ectomycorrhizae on growth and microelement absorption of potted Pinus massoniana seedlings was studied in a greenhouse,by inoculating Pisolithus tinctorius,Cenococcum geophilum,Cantharellus cibarius,Suillus luteus respectively and control group,under the conditions of four levels water stress that make the relative water content of soil,to moisture conditions,light water stress,moderate water stress and severe water stress. Results showed that ectomycorrhizae significantly improved growth (P=0.01),ground diameter (P=0.01),and biomass (P=0.01) of P. massoniana seedlings with drought stress. And the double factor analysis of variance showed that highly significant differences (P=0.01) were also noted between the various strains,moisture,and the interaction of strains and water. The seedling by inoculating Cenococcum geophilum had the best growth increases for height (27.8%) and diameter (52.9%) compared to control group under the conditions of moderate water stress. And the seedling by inoculating Suillus luteus Sp1 had the best increased for biomass (230%) compared to control group. Ectomycorrhizae fungi could effect the seedling to absorption of microelement under the conditions of water stress. The seedling by inoculating Suillus luteus Sp1 ,had the high content of Fe,Mn,Cu,and Zn,and compared to control group,seedling microelement absorption increased for Fe (135%),Mn (33%),Cu (155%),and Zn (96%) under the conditions of moderate water stress. In addition,the seedling by inoculating Suillus luteus Sp1 ,had the best increased for Fe (47.9%),Mn (46.1%),Cu (130.7%),and Zn (49.0%) compared to moisture conditions,under the moderate water stress. Thus,inoculation with Suillus luteus Sp1 undergoing moderate stress could increase biomass, improve seedling absorption of microelements, promote seedling growth, and enhance seedling drought resistance.[Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 15 ref.]
Caloric values and correlations of nutrient elements in three forestation species of a coastal sandy land
ZHU Mei-qin, YE Gong-fu, YOU Shui-sheng, YOU Long-hui, BAI Yong-hui, GAO Wei
2012, 29(6): 829-834. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.005
[Abstract](2831) [PDF](1249)
The objective is to examine and compare the allocation patterns of caloric and elemental contents for three forestation species on coastal sandy land,and to summarize correlations between caloric values and elememtal contents. In July of 2010,three forestation species (Pinus elliottii,Acacia crassicarpa and Casuarina equisetifolia) were sampled from a coastal sandy land in Dongshan County,Fujian Province. All organs of each tree species were harvested. The gross caloric values (GCV) were measured by oxygen bomb calorimeter. Ash,and the contents of C,N,P,K,Ca and Mg were analyzed. The results showed that the mean gross caloric values and the mean ash free caloric values decreased in the following order:P. elliottii (20.96 kJg-1,21.41 kJg-1)A. crassicarpa (20.97 kJg-1,21.35 kJg-1)>C. equisetifolia (20.18 kJg-1,20.69 kJg-1). The mean C content in P. elliottii (491.548 gkg-1) was higher than in A. crassicarpa (471.773 gkg-1) and C. equisetifolia (460.042 gkg-1). The N,P,K,Ca,and Mg content in different organs of these three species were as follows:leaves>branches>barks>roots>stems. The mean content of N,P,K,Ca,and Mg of A. crassicarpa were the highest,then was C. equisetifolia,P. elliottii was the lowest. Gross caloric value was significantly correlated with Mg content (r =0.600,P < 0.05) and with content of N (r = 0.641,P < 0.01),P (r = 0.879,P < 0.01),and K (r = 0.726,P < 0.01). Ash content was significantly correlated with P content (r = 0.673,P < 0.01) and was significantly correlated with content of K (r = 0.524,P < 0.05),Ca (r = 0.523,P < 0.05),and Mg (r = 0.639,P < 0.05). Compare to C. equisetifolia,P. elliottii had the highest carbon content and the lowest elemental content,meanwhile,A. crassicarpa could fixed nitrogen through rhizobium to produce fertilizers and improve soil. So P. elliottii and A. crassicarpa can be used as alternative tree species in coastai sandy land.[Ch,4 tab. 15 ref.]
Nutrient characteristics of uneven-aged leaves for dominant species with a Castanopsis carlesii forest in Lingshishan National Forest Park
WANG Ying-zi
2012, 29(6): 835-843. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.006
[Abstract](3032) [PDF](1359)
Reflecting its adaptability to the environment,leaf nutrient characteristics have been a key point in ecological research field. Very few data were available on nutrient characteristics of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest species. This research analyzed nutrient characteristics for uneven-aged leaves of a Castanopsis carlesii forest in Lingshishan National Forest Park of Fujian Province. Based on means and standard deviations of logarithmic concentrations for each nutrient,nutrient concentration of each dominant species were classified into four classes. The different classes are as follows:(1) the logarithmic nutrient concentration falls below the mean value minus 2 standard deviation (<X-2SD)。(2) the nutrient concentration falls between (X-2SD) and X;(3) the nutrient concentration lies between X and (X + 2SD);(4) the nutrient concentration is above (X + 2SD). Tree species whose logarithmic concentration of a nutrient falls below the (X-2SD) value is an excluder for that particular nutrient,while if above the (X + 2SD) value,it is an accumulator species for that nutrient. The results showed that leaf nutrient content had a log-normal distribution with most dominant populations located in the second classes. Strong exclusion was noted with P in Ilex elmerrilliana and with Zn in Cyclobalanopsis glauca. Accumulation of K in Schefflera octophylla,Na and K in Diplospora dubia,and N in Pithecellobium clypearia and Lithocarpus glaber were found. However,with uneven-aged leaves,accumulation of two-year-old leaves in the third group were more plentiful than one-year-old leaves. Low nutrient content of leaves for Castanopsis carlesii showed it could grow in a hardscrabble site,and low P in leaves of I. elmerrilliana and low Zn in leaves of Cyclobalanopsis glauca meant they could tolerate this habitat and could be suitable tree species for afforestation.[Ch,3 fig. 3 tab. 31 ref.]
Dynamic change of Phyllostachys edulis forest canopy parameters and their relationships with photosynthetic active radiation in the bamboo shooting growth phase
LU Guo-fu, DU Hua-qiang, ZHOU Guo-mo, Lü Yu-long, GU Cheng-yan, SHANG Zhen-zhen
2012, 29(6): 844-850. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.007
[Abstract](3525) [PDF](1213)
The dynamic change of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) canopy parameters,including total chlorophyll content (TCC),leaf area index (LAI),canopy closure (CC) during the bamboo shooting growth phase was examined,and the relationships between these canopy parameters and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) were analyzed. Results showed (1) increases in TCC,LAI,and CC during the bamboo shooting growth phase;(2) that the relationship between a mother bamboos TCC and PAR in the prior leaf development stage (R = 0.570,P = 0.180) was higher than in the posterior leaf development (R= 0.140,P = 0.860); and (3) after leaf development,PAR had a positive correlation with LAI (R2 = 0.796 0,P = 0.120) and a significantly positive correlation with CC (R2 = 0.991 6,P = 0.004). This result implied that the priority for delivering photosynthetic products from the mother bamboo was to shoot before leaf development. The correlation analysis showed that the Phyllostachys edulis canopy enhanced solar energy allocation and utility.[Ch,6 fig. 24 ref.]
A taxonomic revision of the genus Pleioblastus (Gramineae:Bambusoideae) from Anhui Province,China
LAI Guang-hui
2012, 29(6): 851-858. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.008
[Abstract](3566) [PDF](1201)
According to International Code of Botanical Nomenclature,combined with research of the literature,the present author regards that the lectotype species of the genus Pleioblastus Nakai should be P. communis (Makino) Nakai (=P. chino (Franch. et Savat.) Makino) proposed by McClure (1957) rather than P. simonii (Carr.) Nakai,P. hindsii (Munro) Nakai,and P. gramineus (Bean) Nakai designated by Tsvelev (1976),Murata (1979),and Chen et al. (1983) and Keng (1984) respectively. On the basis of an extensive exploration and examination of specimens,a taxonomic revision of Pleioblastus Nakai from Anhui Province,China is presented. As a result,five species,P. amarus (Keng) Keng f.,P. maculatus (McClure) C. D. Chu et C. S. Chao,P. juxianensis Wen et al,P. hsienchuensis Wen and P. glabrinodus G. H. Lai (new species),are recognized;and five species,P. altiligulatus S. L. Chen et S. Y. Chen,P. intermedius S. Y. Chen,P. longifimbriatus S. Y. Chen,P. solidus S. Y. Chen and P. yixingensis S. L. Chen et S. Y. Chen reported as new records in the former publications are excluded from Anhui Province.[Ch,1 fig. 31 ref.]
Temporal and spatial changes for sap flow velocity of Cryptomeria fortunei stems in National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmu
JIANG Wen-wei, GUO Yun-xue, YANG Shu-zhen, ZHAO Ming-shui
2012, 29(6): 859-866. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.009
[Abstract](3384) [PDF](1548)
To protect the Cryptomeria fortunei plant community in National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmu,the temporal and spatial changes of stem sap flow velocity and transpiration as well as their relationship to meteorological factors were studied using a thermal dissipation probe (TDP). Also,internal mechanisms of water physiology were explained. Results showed that the diurnal change of sap flow velocity was a single peak curve. In spring,sap flow started at 06:20,peaked at 12:30,and fell quickly at 18:50. However in summer,it started at 07:00,peaked at 13:20,and fell quickly at 19:40. The peak value,average daily velocity,and sap flow flux in spring were larger than in summer with a larger diameter stem having a greater sap flow velocity. For stem orientation,compared with the average sap flow,in spring flow velocity in the southern section was largest (187.3%) and in the western part lowest (15.4%);however,in summer sap flow velocity in the east was largest (226.2%) and lowest in the north (33.1%). Sap flow for vertical height of the stem by season,showed that in spring the order of average daily sap flow velocity for the middle (61.71 gmin-1) > the top (48.36 gmin-1) > the bottom (35.10 gmin-1),but in summer revealed the top (20.65 gmin-1) > the bottom (14.81 gmin-1) > the middle (10.43 gmin-1).[Ch,5 fig. 3 tab. 30 ref.]
Structural characteristics of Liquidambar formosana for a mixed coniferous-broadleaf forest in Mount Tianmu
ZHANG Zhi-hua, WEI Xin-liang, TANG Meng-ping, LUO Wen-jian, WANG Jing
2012, 29(6): 867-874. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.010
[Abstract](3447) [PDF](1223)
To provide a theoretical basis for Liquidambar formosana protection,management,and landscape construction in a mixed coniferous,broadleaf forest in National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmu,ten sample plots were established for a stand survey. Diameter at breast height (DBH),tree height,and crown breadth were studied and fit to a Weibull distribution function. All tree parts and diameter classes of L. formosana biomass were measured using a single tree biomass model,and then analyzed. Density and spatial distribution patterns were also determined. Results showed that DBH,tree height,and crown breadth structure were in accordance to the forest management objectives,and fit the Weibull distribution function well. Trunk and root biomass accounted for 91.4% of the total biomass with biomass for all diameter classes being uneven. Distribution curves for trunk and root biomass were similar,and all crown breadth biomass was symmetrical. In all sample plots,variation of the density coefficient for L. formosana was 0.625,and all sample plot means for neighborhood patterns were greater than 0.517. Thus,the density coefficient showed large regional differences in distribution,and neighborhood patterns showed that tree distribution was clumped. [Ch,8 fig. 7 tab. 20 ref.]
Stand spatial structure of a natural mixed forest in the Fengyang Mountains of Zhejiang
WANG Qun, ZHANG Jin-chi, TIAN Yue-liang, YE Li-xin, LIU Sheng-long
2012, 29(6): 875-882. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.011
[Abstract](3673) [PDF](1258)
To provide a theoretical basis and provide technical support for structural adjustments in a natural mixed forest,stand spatial structure of a mixed forest in the Fengyang Mountains National Nature Reserve of Zhejiang Province was determined using three structural parameters:uniform angle index,mingling,and neighborhood comparison. Four typical plots of 20 m 20 m were surveyed for tree diameter at breast height above 5 cm. Results showed that dominant tree populations of Schima superba,Berrya ammonilla,Fagus lucida,and Cyclobalanopsis multinervis exhibited diverse and dominant species characteristics. The largest number of dominant species S. superba in the comparison of the space is in the moderation status. 77% Sycopsis sinensis is completely oppressed and 8% is in the most dominant state,which shows that Sycopsis sinensis differentiates seriously. The average mingling of S. superba is 0.48 exhibiting aggregation of a single species. Because of less amount of Quercus glandulifera var. brevipetiolata,the average mingling is only 0.17 indicating Quercus glandulifera var. brevipetiolata distribution appeared as gobbets. Whereas the average mingling of other tree species is above 0.5. In addition to S. superba and Quercus glandulifera var. brevipetiolata,the other species seldom cluster together and have greater degree of isolation,which indicates the stand has the less moderate mixed degree. Distribution patterns for forests gradually move toward a random distribution in climax community succession,so natural mixed forest in the Fengyang Mountain develop into evergreen broad-leaved forest.[Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 18 ref.]
Seed falling and seed bank research on natural Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica individual plant in the Hulun Buir sandy land
WANG Yan, LU Qi, WANG Yu-hua, AO Wen-ming, QIAO Dian-xue
2012, 29(6): 883-888. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.012
[Abstract](3126) [PDF](1022)
Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica is adaptive to cold,drought and barren environment,with prominent regeneration ability to wind erosion control and shifting sand fixed. The natural regeneration process of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in the sandy land is important to vegetation rehabilitation,degraded ecosystems reconstruction,sustainable sandy ecosystem benefit development,as well as the establishment of green ecological barriers in north of China. In order to explore seed bank and seed falling of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica,inoculators (specification:1.0 m 1.0 m 0.1 m) were installed at 4,8,12 m in east/south/west/north direction from the mature tree and grids (specification:1 m 1 m) were arranged around the mature tree, and with the vectoring technology get the spatial distribution graph which X axle is north direction axle is east direction. The results showed that Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seeds disperse mainly in the litter layer with an average seed density of 614 seedsm-2 and in the 0-5 cm horizon with an average seed density of 469 seedsm-2. The amount of seeds in different direction respectively is 6.67 (east)>6.07(north)>5.53(west)>4.63(north). The primary dispersal concentration was up to about 3 m from the mature tree. Temperate and spatial characteristics of seed falling showed that most seeds were in a region near the mature tree,especially in the 0-8 m range. Conclusions were drawn that the seeds of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica dispersal density near the observed tree was fan-shaped and composed by winds from the south and west. The horizontal distribution characteristics of seed bank from a nature tree shaped a ring region where seed density was largest from the north to the east with seed density decreasing as the distance increased from the mature tree.[Ch,4 fig. 1 tab. 18 ref.]
An age-based growth model applied to no-age conditions
ZOU Yi-qiao, DU Qun, GE Hong-li
2012, 29(6): 889-896. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.013
[Abstract](2954) [PDF](1238)
Many growth models use age as an independent variable;however,many times ages are not only hard to measure but also not meaningful,especially in an uneven-aged stand. This study used the Continuous Forest Inventory (CFI) to test tree characteristics not based on age to determine if an age-based model could be used in no-age conditions. Tree data from nine Pinus massoniana of Longquan County,Lishui City,Zhe-jiang Province,China were used to build an age-based diameter at breast height (DBH) growth model. Then DBH data was updated in the CFI for all of Lishui City. Two methods were employed:a single point method (SP) that used a former DBH datum to estimate an age which then estimated its later DBH,and a two-point method (TP) that used two former DBH data to estimate an age and a growth index (GI) which were then used to estimate its later DBH. Results showed that both SP and TP had better accuracy than directly using the age-based model. Also,TP was more adaptive and behaved better than SP. Thus,age-based models could be used in CFI where DBH data are available but no ages.[Ch,2 fig. 5 tab. 14 ref.]
Impact of rapid transportation network on the potential habitat of Hydropotes inermis in suburban areas
LIU Mi-lan, LI Ming-yang, WANG Xiao-jun
2012, 29(6): 897-903. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.014
[Abstract](3167) [PDF](1301)
Knowledge of habitat dynamics could influence wildlife protection policy. The purpose of the paper is to quantify the impact of rapid transportation network on the potential habitat of wildlife in suburban areas so as to provide scientific basis for the plan making of rapid transportation network and biodiversity conservation. In this research,Hydropotes inermis,an endangered,wild mammal in the eastern suburbs of Nanjing City were studied with main information sources being remote sensing images from China Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) in 2006 and Disaster and Environment Monitoring and Forecast Small Satellite Constellation A (HJ-1A) in 2011 along with 47 trace point data with geographical coordinates. Dynamic changes in landscape patterns due to high speed traffic networks in the eastern suburbs of Nanjing were analyzed first. Then,Max-ent (maximum entropy) modeling for an ecological niche was applied to predict a potential habitat for Hydropotes inermis. Finally,impact of this high speed traffic network on the predicted potential habitat was determined. Results showed that (1) from 2006 to 2011,the high speed traffic network in the eastern suburbs of Nanjing became more complex with road density increasing from 1 116.27 to 1 371.95 mkm-2. (2) Compared with a corridor pattern in 2006,the potential habitat for Hydropotes inermis in 2011 decreased showing a bird cage effect which resulted in a fragmented forest island spatial pattern. (3) Also,distance to roads and distance to settlements were the two human disturbance factors which determined the suitable probability of potential habitat for Hydropotes inermis. It can be inferred from the paper that rapid developing transportation network is the enforcing factor leading to the habitat fragmentation of wildlife in suburban areas. Therefore,ecological corridors between green lands of Mount Zijin,Qinglong,Tangshan in study area should be established to mitigate the negative impact of transportation on the wildlife habitats.[Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 11 ref.]
Pathogenisis regularity of the gall diseases of Cryptomeria fortunei in Mount Tianmu
GONG Xiao-feng, ZHU Yun-feng, YANG Shu-zhen, JIANG Wen-wei, LUO Jia-qi
2012, 29(6): 904-909. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.015
[Abstract](3690) [PDF](1219)
On the basis of survey on the gall diseases in the Mount Tianmu,this research analyzed various determinants of the galls occurrence and the process of pathogenic fungus spore emergence,release,spread and invasion,and defined gall diseases as host dominant diseases. This disease could be affected by cryptomerias growing situation,age and stand conditions. When the altitude was more than 1 000 m and cryptomeria was more than 100-year-old,there would be maximum susceptibility index. Pathogen spores spreading speed could be affected by climate aspects such as air temperature,rainfall and so on. Spores releasing and scattering peak was between early June and middle July.[Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 15 ref.]
Mould and fire resistance of Phyllostachys edulis and Pinus massoniana treated with a nano antibiotic agent,TiO2 doped-Ag
YANG You-you, LU Feng-zhu, BAO Bin-fu, SHEN Zhe-hong
2012, 29(6): 910-916. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.016
[Abstract](2905) [PDF](1057)
This study focused on mould and fire resistance of Phyllostachys edulis and Pinus massoniana treated with a nano antibiotic agent,TiO2 doped-Ag,at different concentrations (10,50,100,200 gkg-1). Results showed that agent loading improved as the concentration of the nano antibiotic agent increased. Treatments were positive for mould resistance with initial mildew for treated bamboo appearing about 3 weeks later than the untreated and for treated Pinus massoniana about 4 weeks later than the untreated. In fire resistance,treated Phyllostachys edulis was about the same as untreated except for time to ignition (TTI) of treated Phyllostchys edulis which was 3-4 s longer. Also,treated Pinus massoniana was about the same as the untreated in effective heat of combustion (EHC),mass loss rate (MLR),and total smoke release (TSR),but heat release rate (HRR) and total heat release (THR) of the treated Pinus massoniana were lower than the untreated.[Ch,8 fig. 4 tab. 11 ref.]
Study on synchronization tracking algorithm in remote video monitoring of forest fires based on DEM
QIN Fei-fei, TANG Li-hua
2012, 29(6): 917-922. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.017
[Abstract](3732) [PDF](1230)
The research established the mathematical model of camera monitoring region on the basis of the camera parameters and formation process of the flashlight aperture. First,the coordinates of the visualization domain center point were solved by the Janus algorithm using the camera parameters. And the regular dodecagon generating a circle algorithm was used to calculate the boundary points of the plane containing the visualization domain center point and perpendiculars to the center sight line. Then the boundary points corresponding to the camera monitoring region was extracted by Janus algorithm again. Finally,the algorithm was implemented on the basis of DEM of Three Bridge Town in Linan and the synchronization tracking tests showed that this algorithm could display the camera monitoring region synchronously on the DEM and achieve the information linkage between the video surveillance and GIS technology.[Ch,6 fig. 14 ref.]
Map service forest rights monitoring platform research and implementation
LOU Xiong-wei, FANG Lu-ming, ZHANG Hang
2012, 29(6): 923-929. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.018
[Abstract](3052) [PDF](1249)
Construction of forest right regulatory platform is the basis for deepening collective forest right system reform,and construction of forest right cadastral system is key point of forest right regulatory platform construction. Core content of forest right cadastral system is map service. Due to special features of forest right cadastre management,using of conventional WebGIS technology cannot meet the need of map service. This paper,starting from particularity of forest right cadastral system construction,points out four issues that map service needs to solve,introduces system structure of forest right regulatory platform and certain key technologies needed by map service,and then discusses solution to problems facing forest right cadastral management map from four aspects such as data standardization,layer management,spatial analysis and map service release. Practice shows,current methods well solve plight of forest right cadastre management,having a very good effect in actual applications.[Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 10 ref.]
Desertification and sandification monitoring information management and application services system architecture
SUN Wei, HOU Rui-xia, TANG Xiao-ming
2012, 29(6): 930-938. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.019
[Abstract](7065) [PDF](1284)
Since the desertification and sandification monitoring system in China has accumulated a massive monitoring data,it is urgent to have scientific management and efficient applications of monitoring information. Based on the national forestry information architecture and service-oriented architecture (SOA),a desertification and sandification monitoring information management and application services system (DSMIMASS) architecture was designed,which adopted a two vertical and four horizontal architecture and a corresponding software system development multi-layer framework. And a comprehensive desertification and sandification monitoring database was designed,integrated and optimized according to the analysis of spatial and temporal characteristics and database construction strategy,meanwhile,a desertification and sandification monitoring information management and application services system was built up,which was a practical information platform serving national,provincial,county and other different levels of management to have comprehensive access to the space-time distribution status quo and dynamic change results of desertification and sandification,and then providing efficient multi-level and multi-scale spatial information services for decision-making on controlling desertification.[Ch,7 fig. 24 ref.]
A consultative model for carbon trade associated with a measurement method
XU Zhao, WEN Xiao-rong, SHE Guang-hui
2012, 29(6): 939-946. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.020
[Abstract](3141) [PDF](1167)
In this work the domestic and international carbon trade market status and prospects,which were initially put forward in the bilateral negotiations model for the application of carbon trade in support of government guidance,and which introduced the concept of price factor,discrete reduction rate,reduced cost,and marginal cost in accordance with the characteristics of the carbon trade market,were analyzed. This study,which built two transaction frameworks is respectively between forest carbon sink projects and carbon emissions entities,carbon emissions entities and carbon emissions entities,discussed in greater detail four concrete trade model associated with transaction volumes,prices,costs,benefits,and other factors in negotiation process. Its worth noting that author creatively structures one specific model between emissions entities and emissions entities which is based on reducing emissions by themselves and two partiesmarginal cost of discrete reduction rate point,and put forward calculation formula of related factors tentatively in order to effectively solve the problem of carbon credit deficiencies in late of market. This work is intended to give full play to the markets optimal allocation of carbon resources and regional environments supported by thorough supervision mechanism and robust policy foundation including forest carbon sink transaction.[Ch,6 fig. 11 ref.]
Management model for watershed forests in Qilian Mountains
LI Jin-liang, ZHENG Xiao-xian, LU Yuan-chang, LIU Bo
2012, 29(6): 947-953. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.021
[Abstract](3315) [PDF](1400)
The watershed forest management system is a complexity system,and is important for protecting our national water resources and ecological environment safety. In order to meet the needs of the watershed forest management practice in Qilian Mountains and the ecological environment construction in western China,based on field investigations and new theories and methods of complexity science,a scientific,quantitative and operational watershed forest management model is set up. The watershed forest management theories,management objectives,management principles,target forest structure and management technique system are integrated in this new model. Through improving the forest structure and practicing sustainable watershed forest management,the ecological,social and economic benefits from the watershed forest management will be gradually realized. And it will promote steady high quality water supply and the sustainable development for Hexi Corridor Area in China,and help to address global climate change. The management technical suggestions for the existing Picea crassifolia (Qinghai spruce) forests in Qilian Mountains are put forward.[Ch,1 tab. 30 ref.]
Nitrous oxide emission from an aquic soil after pig slurry application
PENG Yong-hong, CHEN Yong-gen, SONG Zhao-liang, SHAN Sheng-dao, SONG Zhe-yue
2012, 29(6): 954-959. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.022
[Abstract](3388) [PDF](1280)
To determine the characteristics of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions as well as the relationship between gas emission fluxes and related environmental factors,a pig slurry amendment experiment in an aquic soil was established,and observations of the N2O emissions based on a closed-chamber,gas chromatography-based system in July 2010 (summer) and March 2011 (winter) were made. A field experimental design was employed with three treatments:no(NOF),normal (NF),and excessive fertilization (EF)) and each treatment with three replications. Results showed a highly significant increase (P<0.001) in N2O emissions from this aquic soil with nitrogen fertilizer application. The N2O emissions ranged from 11.25 to 68.47 gm-2h-1 for NOF,from 20.13 to 244.35 gm-2h-1 for NF,and from 40.09 to 618.43 gm-2h-1 for EF with an exponential relationship between nitrogen application rates and N2O emissions. In addition,soil temperature increases raised N2O emissions. Highly significant exponential relationships (P<0.001) between N2O emissions and soil moisture,and significant exponential relationships (P<0.05) between N2O emissions and mass fraction of soil nitrate were also found. When applying the same quantity of N,N2O emissions from the slurry were more than twenty times as much asnitrogen fertilizers such as urea or thiamine. These results indicated that soil temperature,soil moisture and mass fraction of soil nitrate could be important controlling variables for soil N2O fluxes.[Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 22 ref.]
Optimization of EST-SSR PCR reaction system for Betula luminifera
CHEN Zheng, JIANG Xiao-feng, TONG Zai-kang
2012, 29(6): 960-965. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.023
[Abstract](9289) [PDF](1283)
To obtain stable PCR product,providing the basis for further study,orthogonal design was used to optimize an Expressed Sequence Tags (EST)-Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification system for Betula luminifera in terms of five factors containing rTaq DNA polymerase,Mg2+,DNA template,dNTPs and primers in five levels. Results showed an optimal EST-SSR PCR system for B. luminifera was 4 mgL-1 DNA template,0.500 molL-1 primers,1.250 mmolL-1 Mg2+,0.250 mmolL-1 dNTPs,and 0.072 516.67 mkatL-1 rTaq DNA polymerase. And the optimal annealing temperature to each primers for SSR PCR reaction system is determined by gradient PCR. Using the optimal reaction system,stable and clear polymorphic bands were acquired.[Ch,6 fig. 3 tab. 15 ref.]
Florescence and pollen germination in Lagerstroemia caudate
WANG Xiao-yu, XU Wan, HU Xing, CAI Ming, PAN Hui-tang, ZHANG Qi-xiang
2012, 29(6): 966-970. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.06.024
[Abstract](3452) [PDF](1245)
In order to study the flowering habit and the conditions for pollen germination and storage of Lagerstroemia caudate,the processes of flower opening and pollen viability of Lagerstroemia caudate were observed over a 30 d period. Pollen germination was also tested using orthogonal test of PEG 4000,boric acid,CaCl2,and sucrose. Results showed that at 3:30 sepals of L. caudate started to diverge,at 6:00 petals flattened up,at 6:30 the anther diverged,and at 06:30 the stigma secreted a large amount of mucus. The highest rate of in vitro pollen germination which could reach 96.28% was with sucrose (100 gL-1) + boric acid (30 mgL-1) + CaCl2 (30 mgL-1) + PEG 4000 (150 gL-1). Pollen germination in the indoor natural environment decreased sharply from 87% to 65% in 2 d with the pollen losing vigor in 6 d. The best preservation temperature for dry pollen was 4 ℃,in which temperature the dry pollen viability could keep 30%,with dry pollen losing its vigor in 30 d. Thus,as a basis for breeding,if L. caudate was used as a female parent in hybridization,the stamens must be removed before 6:30,and the best pollination time would be at 7:30.[Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 15 ref.]