2013 Vol. 30, No. 1

Identification and expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C homologous genes in Carya cathayensis
YANG Xihong, HUANG Youjun, CHEN Fangfang, HUANG Jianqin
2013, 30(1): 1-8. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.001
[Abstract](3498) [PDF](1370)
Based on two open reading frames (ORFs) of Carya cathayensis FLOWERING LOCUS C (CcFLC) genes which were acquired from 454 sequencings of Carya cathayensis buds,primers were designed and amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An amino acid hydrophobicity analysis was also conducted. Acquired the sequencing revealed 639 bp and 612 bp,coded 212 amino acids and 203 amino acids,and GenBank accession numbers of JQ829074 and JQ829075,respectively. These had typical MADS-box structures with a nucleotide homology of 78% and an amino acid homology of 67%. The 5 end homology was high,but there was a big difference in the 3 end. Compared to amino acids coded from the FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)-like genes of Taihangia rupestris and Pyrus pyrifolia,the two ORFs were 40%-57% similar. Amino acid hydrophobicity analysis showed that carboxyl terminals were hydrophobic amino acid and amino terminals were hydrophilic amino acid with most amino acid residues being hydrophobic. Results of the Real-time PCR showed that the two ORFs of the CcFLC gene were expressed in the stem,young leaf,terminal bud,female flower,and male flower of C. cathayensis,but their relative expression for the same tissue was higher for ORF1 than ORF2. ORF1 was maximum in the stem,but minimum in the leaf and male flower; whereas ORF2 was maximum in the female flower and minimum in the stem.[Ch,7 fig. 23 ref.]
Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Phyllostachys violascens with phosphorus treatments
GUO Anna, GUI Renyi, SONG Ruisheng, PAN Yue, RONG Jieqing
2013, 30(1): 9-14. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.002
[Abstract](2882) [PDF](1145)
To understand the effect of different phosphorus (P) on leaves photosynthesis in Phyllostachys violascens,P treatments of 0,0.5,5.0,50.0 and 500.0 mgL-1;chlorophyll fluorescence parameters;and photosynthetic active radiation-electron transport rate (PAR-ETR) response curves of one-year old Phyllostachys violascens were studied through a sand-pot experiment. Results showed that as P increased and potential photoreception activity (Fo /Fm) decreased,the maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv /Fm) dropped (P<0.05) in the range of 0 - 50.0 mgL-1 P. The chlorophyll fluorescence basal rate (Fo),maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fm),timely minimum fluorescence (Ft) and variable fluorescence (Fv) were highest (P<0.05) with 5.0 mgL-1 P. In addition,ETR and the actual photochemical rate of PSⅡ (Yield) were higher,but photochemical dissipation (qP),non-photochemical dissipation (qN),and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) coefficients were lower (P<0.05) with 5.0 mgL-1 P. Higher or lower P concentration than 5.0 mgL-1 caused ETR to decrease,heat dissipation to increase,the photochemical effect to decrease,and quantum yield to decrease. Accordingly,the biological yield of Phyllostachys violascens decreased,and the Apase activity increased. Therefore,P concentration of 5.0 mgL-1 was appropriate for growth of Phyllostachys violascens in a sand-pot incubation.[Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 20 ref.]
Volatile organic compounds in leaves of Osmanthus fragrans and their effect on airborne microorganisms
LIN Fuping, ZHOU Shuai, MA Nan, ZHANG Rumin, GAO Yan
2013, 30(1): 15-21. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.003
[Abstract](3096) [PDF](1250)
To clarify the functions of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on bacteriostasis and air decontamination,composition and content of VOCs in leaves of four cultivars of Osmanthus fragrans: Thunbergii,Odoratus, Aurantiacus and Semperflorens were analyzed under near-natural conditions using the thermal-desorption cold trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometer technique. The airborne microorganism count (bacteria,fungi,and actinomycetes) for the four cultivars and a control of open ground were determined for March,May,July,September,and November in 2011 using natural sedimentation. Results showed that the major VOCs as follows:(Z)-acetate-3-hexen-1-ol,hexanal,octanal,nonanal,decanal,6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one,and 3-hexenol in Thunbergii;(Z)-acetate-3-hexen-1-ol,hexanal,benzaldehyde,nonanal,decanal,6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one,and nonane in Semperflorens;(Z)-acetate-3-hexen-1-ol,hexanal,octanal,nonanal,decanal,nonene,6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one,and 3-hexenol in Odoratus and Aurantiacus. Compared to a control of open ground,the Thunbergii stands for the five data collection months had significantly lower (P < 0.01) bacterial counts;the Thunbergii stands for March,July,and September had significantly lower(P < 0.01) fungal counts;and all four cultivars for the five data collection months had significantly reduced (P < 0.01) actinomycete counts. Thus,the four O. fragrans cultivars could reduce the quantity of airborne microorganisms thereby improving air quality.[Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 18 ref.]
Soil respiration for different plant communities in an urban green-belt of Shanghai
LIANG Jing, FANG Hailan, HAO Guanjun, SUN Qian
2013, 30(1): 22-31. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.004
[Abstract](3141) [PDF](1161)
The soil respiration rate of nine plant communities (Cinnamomum camphora,Torreya grandis-Ginkgo biloba,Cedrus deodara,Ginkgo biboba,Osmanthus fragrans,Cercis sp.,Lolium perenne-Cynodon dactylon,Zoysia japonica,and Cynodon dactylon) in Shanghai City were studied with a CFX-2 Soil Respiration Chamber,and the main influential factors were identified,and the aim was to evaluate correctly soil respiration of urban soil. The digital thermometer was used to test the air temperature,the soil temperature at 5 cm depth and the soil temperature at 10 cm depth. And all data were average of three replications,and a correlation analysis was also employed. Results showed that soil respiration rates varied by season with the maximum found from June to September and the minimum from December to the following March. Daily variation in the soil respiration rate under communities of trees and bushes was generally stable; whereas a lawn had a single-peaked curve. The maximum soil respiration rates (5.51 molm-2s-1) found under Cynodon dactylon and the minimum (2.76 times less) found under a Cercis sp. community. The soil respiration rate had a significant exponential correlation (P<0.01) with the air temperature,the soil temperature at 5 cm depth,and the soil temperature at 10 cm depth. Soil water content had an effect on soil respiration under lawns,but it had a relatively small influence on tree and bush communities. The soil labile organic carbon content was ranked in the following order: light fraction organic carbon (LFOC) > microbial biomass carbon (MBC) > dissolved organic carbon (DOC),but MBC and DOC had the greatest influence on the soil respiration rate. The maximum released quantity of CO2 reached to 33.18 thm-2a-1 under lawns, which was 1.95 times that of trees and 2.12 times that of bushes.[Ch,3 fig. 6 tab. 30 ref]
Biogas slurry application with greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural soils
CHEN Yonggen, PENG Yonghong, SONG Zheyue, SHAN Shengdao
2013, 30(1): 32-37. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.005
[Abstract](3483) [PDF](1153)
To determine the effects of biogas slurry application on greenhouse gas emissions (GGE),including CO2,CH4,and N2O,in agricultural soil,a closed-chamber,gas chromatography-based system were used in July 2010 (summer) and March 2011 (winter). Three treatments with 3 replications were carried out:no (ck),normal (9.45 gm-2 in summer,and 0.65 gm-2 in winter),and heavy (28.36 gm-2 in summer,and 1.94 gm-2 in winter) biogas slurry applications. Two-way ANOVA analysis was used to test the significance. Results showed (1) no significant differences in CO2 emissions among treatments. (2)For CH4 emissions in summer within the first 8 h of biogas slurry application, the heavy application treatment was significantly greater (P<0.001) than the other two treatments with a maximum emission flux of 3.98 mgm-2h-1 in the heavy, 1.25 mgm-2h-1 in the normal,and 0.28 mgm-2h-1 in ck;however,after 8 h there were no significant differences. (3) N2O emissions in summer within the first 20 h after biogas slurry application, revealed significant differences (P<0.001) with a maximum emission flux of 1 641 gm-2h-1 in the heavy application treatment;after 20 h,significant differences (P<0.05) between the treatments continued with the N2O emission fluxes of 224-349 gm-2h-1 for heavy,70-137 gm-2h-1 for normal,and 33.81-57.06 gm-2h-1 for ck. No significant differences in N2O emissions were found between the treatments in winter. These results could provide helpful information for environmental risk assessments with biogas slurry application, especially with effects on GGE. [Ch,3 fig. 19 ref.]
Species diversity in a Casuarina equisetifolia understory along a highway
YOU Longhui, YE Gongfu, CHEN Zenghong, BAI Yonghui, ZHU Meiqin
2013, 30(1): 38-47. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.006
[Abstract](2690) [PDF](1272)
To analyze changes in roadside ecological factors,in growth of Casuarina equisetifolia,and in understory species diversity with coastal highway construction,three parallel line transects perpendicular to the west side of Jinjiang Coastal Highway and 200 m apart were selected. Light intensity,air temperature,relative humidity,soil bulk density,and soil moisture content were monitored at sample points along the tran-sects. Results indicated that (1) the highways zone of influence for light intensity was up to 100 m and for other ecological factors (air temperature,relative humidity,soil bulk density,and soil moisture content) was up to about 50 m. Highway influence decreased as the distance from the highway increased. (2) Tree height,DBH,and crown area of C. equisetifolia were significantly greater (P < 0.01) in undisturbed areas than in roadbed dis-turbance areas. (3) As distance from the highway increased,shade-requiring plants gradually replaced photophilous plants with the herb and plant understory changing to shrubs with a uniform distribution. Dominant species changed most 50-100 m from the highway.(4) As distance from the highway increased,understory species diversity increased gradually and then stabilized with the species turnover rate being maximum at 50-100 m from the highway. (5) The strongest biodiversity influence on the C. equisetifolia trees due to the highway was concentrated in the 0-100 m range with a gradual decrease as the distance from the highway increased.[Ch,3 fig. 3 tab. 31 ref.]
Niche relationships among species in a Pyrola calliantha community of the Taibai Mountains
YU Beibei, KANG Yongxiang, ZHANG Shijiao, SU Yue, ZENG Cheng
2013, 30(1): 48-54. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.007
[Abstract](3188) [PDF](1067)
From June to October 2011,niche breadth,niche similar proportion,and niche overlap from 0.030 0-0.140 0 (L1k) and 0-0.140 0 (Lk1) were determined for Pyrola calliantha and 15 primary companion species in the Taibai Mountains between 2 253-2 928 m based on frequency,population,and coverage. Results showed that (1) niche breadth of Pyrola calliantha,Saussurea licentiana,Carex rigescens,Fragaria vesca,and Viola verecunda were high (values above 1.0);whereas niche breadth of Prunella vulgaris,Hypericum per-foratum,Acanthopanax senticosus,Anaphalis sinica,and Parasenecio forrestii were low (values of 0). (2) Only 16 species-pairs (15.2%) had a niche similar proportion above 0.50. Also,the similarity ratios for species with a high niche breadth and Pyrola calliantha were greater than that for species with a small niche breadth. (3) Niche overlap between 15 main species exhibited resource sharing in a relatively stable state. In addition,when paired with species having a small niche breadth,Pyrola calliantha,with (L1k) > (Lk1),had a lower niche overlap and had a lower (Lk1).[Ch,8 tab. 16 ref.]
Ecological assessment of Momoge National Nature Reserve
KONG Yangyang, HAN Hairong, KANG Fengfeng, WANG Qingchun
2013, 30(1): 55-62. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.008
[Abstract](3694) [PDF](1074)
As a special area to protect the representative ecosystem and the rare and endangered species,nature reserves are seriously affected by the socio-economic activities now. To measure the socio-economic activities impact on nature reserves,this research studied Jilin Momoge Nature Reserve. Based on the survey data and statistical yearbooks etc,this study combined the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) with the expert scoring method as the research method,comprehensively assessed 12 factors of the three important side of this nature reserve:socio-economic activities impacts,factors wetland environment and the object of protection status. The protection object of the reserve is in a good condition,the status of the wetland is great affected by the climate,the influence of mining is decrease,but the influence by the animal husbandry and planting is gradually revealed. Finally the result of this assessment is better.[Ch,2 fig. 5 tab. 15 ref.]
Carbon transfer of Phyllostachys edulis filar products
LI Cuiqin, ZHOU Yufeng, GU Lei, SHI Yongjun, SHEN Zhenming, XU Xiaojun, LI Ruijun
2013, 30(1): 63-68. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.009
[Abstract](3557) [PDF](1278)
Bamboo stems can be made into filar products,such as bamboo curtain,mat,and chopsticker. We open and wiredrawing 179 bamboo stems which in different DBH (dimeter at breadth height) into four size of bamboo fila,and analyze the effect of fila size and bamboo stem DBH on carbon transfer ratio. The model of carbon stocks is also studied. Results show:1) Carbon transfer ratios of 4 different size fila are significantly different (P<0.05),and the carbon transfer ratio of mat are the highest. Total carbon transfer ratio of different size of bamboo flia is 34.11%. The carbon transfer ratio decreases gradually because of the decrease in thickness of bamboo stem. 2) Carbon transfer ratios of filar processed from different DBH range from 24.20% to 41.83%,with an average of 32.51%. 3) Total carbon transfer ratios of filar products with different diameters range from 9.97% to 39.30%,with a avarage of 18.09%. 4) Using the above established relationship between DBH and carbon storage of filar products,a formula is given:y=0.006 5x2.236 2,R2=0.631 8.[Ch,5 fig. 3 tab. 12 ref.]
Carbon storage changes for major forest types in Beijing
SUN Chong, LIU Qijing
2013, 30(1): 69-75. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.010
[Abstract](3232) [PDF](1214)
In order to clarify carbon storage changes for major forest types in Beijing,this research used the national forest inventory data surveyed by the State Forestry Administration of China to estimate biomass and carbon storage of forest ecosystems during a 5 year period for Beijing. Regression equations for timber volume of dominant tree species and biomass were established,and based on which the changes in carbon storage were assessed. Results indicated that forest carbon storage in Beijing rose from 7.96 million to 8.52 million tons within a 5 year period from 1998 to 2003 with changes in carbon storage of forest types and forest area being positively correlated. Quercus,Populus had a great effect on carbon storage. Improper composition of stand age limited the carbon sink capacity of Beijing. Young and middle-aged forests had a large area but only take over less than 30% of the total carbon storage,whereas nearly 50% for mature forests. Different vegetation types and carbon density of age structure showed a slight declining trend,while carbon density increased with the growth of the age structures,and other stand factors also play a important role in the carbon sink.[Ch,4 tab. 20 ref.]
Optimal path algorithm for forest fire prevention with constraints
JIANG Guangyu, XU Aijun, HUANG Xiaoyin, SHAO Jianlong
2013, 30(1): 76-82. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.011
[Abstract](3207) [PDF](1444)
With path analysis algorithm in forest fire prevention as its research object and on the basis of the Dijkstra shortest path algorithm,this research improved and optimized the path analysis algorithm according to the special requirements of path analysis algorithm in forest fire prevention. Combining the characteristics of the traffic network in forest area,introducing constraint factors of forest fire path analysis such as road width,maximum speed limit,inevitable and ignored roads,and making the constraint factors as the foundation for road weight determination,the paper proposed the optimal path algorithm with constraints for forest fire prevention and released a detailed algorithm design and implementation. The algorithm fitted in the actual situation of forest fire prevention and could play an important role in forest fire emergency-commanding and decision-making.[Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 17 ref. ]
Biological and virulence study of highly pathogenic Beauveria bassiana on pine sawyer Monochamus alternatus
ZHAN Weijun, LUO Youbo, ZHANG Libin
2013, 30(1): 83-89. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.012
[Abstract](3290) [PDF](1122)
The colony growth and sporogenous conditions of the highly pathogenic strain Bxs of Beauveria bassiana on pine sawyer Monochamus alternatus,and the virulence of Bxs to pine sawyer Monochamus alternatus were studied. The results showed that the growth temperature for Bxs ranged from 20 to 30 ℃,and 25 ℃ was optimal for both colony growth and sporulation,but the colony growth stopped at 35 ℃. For growth and sporulation,DPSA was the desirable culture medium. Virulence tests indicated that great variations existed in disease susceptibility among different developmental stages of Monochamus alternatus,and higher disease sus-ceptibility occurred in the juvenile stages. The equation of dose-mortality and LC50 of the third instar were y=-1.388 4+0.996 7x and 3 936 sporesmL-1 respectively. Based on the Three-dimensional Relation of time-dosage-mortality,a complementary log-log model (CLL model) of Bxs virulence to third instar M. alternatus was constructed.[Ch,3 fig. 7 tab. 11 ref.]
Combustion performance of charcoal briquettes made from three kinds of epicarps
ZHU Hangrui, ZHUANG Xiaowei, PAN Xin, CHEN Shunwei, ZHANG Jiangli
2013, 30(1): 90-94. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.013
[Abstract](3128) [PDF](970)
TG(thermogravimetry)-DTG(differential thermogravimetry)-DSC(differential scanning calorimetry)thermal analysis technology was used to analyze the combustion performance of charcoal briquettes made from a control of pine and fir sawdust and epicarps of hickory (Carya cathayensis),chestnut (Castanea mollissima),and Camellia oleifera. Results showed that the combustion-alleviative phase temperature of the charcoal briquettes made from epicarps was 435.4 ℃ for hickory,448.1 ℃ for chestnut,and 412.3 ℃ for C. oleifera,compared to the control of 519.8 ℃. The peak value for the combustion rate curve and exothermic curve showed:control charcoal>C. oleifera-epicarp charcoal and chestnut-epicarp charcoal>hickory?-epicarp charcoal. Comparing five parameters:ignition temperature,maximal heat-release,maximal combustion rate,maximum weight loss rate,and temperature of the maximum weight loss rate,revealed that control charcoal>chestnut-epicarp charcoal>C. oleifera-epicarp charcoal>hickory-epicarp charcoal. The control charcoal had an ignition temperature of 504.4 ℃;whereas the hickory-epicarp charcoal was 408.6 ℃. The maximal heat-release for the three kinds of epicarps was 87.76(hickory),92.07(chestnut),and 84.82 Wg-1(C. oleifera)with the control charcoal briquettes having 95.12 Wg-1. Thus, the charcoal briquettes which have different ignition temperature and combustion character could be made by different addition amount of the three kinds of epicarps.[Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 12 ref.]
Anti-mold performance of strand woven sympodial bamboo
DU Haihui, SUN Fangli, JIANG Shenxue
2013, 30(1): 95-99. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.014
[Abstract](3411) [PDF](1067)
Different treatments on strand woven sympodial bamboo made by Neosinocalamus affinis were studied in order to compare their anti-mold effects and leaching resistance. Strand woven sympodial bamboo made by Neosinocalamus affinis was treated by brushing on the surface,non-pressure dipping,and vacuum dipping treated with ZJFC-I,an aqueous organic mold preventive. Five concentrations of 0.3%,0.6%,1.0%,2.0%,and 3.0% with three replications were used to compare and evaluate anti-mold effects. Leaching resistance was also measured. Results showed that when the wood preservative concentration was lower than 1.0%,the anti-mold effects of samples treated by the non-pressure and the vacuum dipping treatments were better than by surface brush treatment. However,when the mold preservative concentration was higher than 2.0% all three replications had good anti-mold effects. In addition,when the mold preservative concentration was in the range of 0.6% and 3.0%,preservative fixation was between 78.9% and 88.8%. Thus,the leaching resistance of the preservative was adequate.[Ch,3 fig. 4 tab. 10 ref.]
Applying grading methods of synthesizing multiple guidelines to optimizing alcohol-steam processing technology from Ploygonatum odordatum
WANG Dongmei, Lü Zhenjiang, WANG Yonghong, ZHANG Chunsun
2013, 30(1): 100-106. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.015
[Abstract](2832) [PDF](1296)
In order to improve the quality of processed products and application in the field of medicine or healthy food,we optimized the alcohol-steam processing technology of Ploygonatum odordatum. On the basis of the content and antioxidant activity of the saponins,polysaccharose,total flavonoids,ethanol extracts and water extracts,the best extracted technology was generated using orthogonal test coupled with grading methods of synthesizing multiple guidelines. The results showed that the optimal technology was 2 h alcohol-moistening,5 times the amount of solvent,60 ℃ for 1 h,and the material-liquid ratio was the most significant influence factor. This method had effectively raised the utility value of Ploygonatum odordatum.[Ch,1 fig. 6 tab. 31 ref.]
Cost-benefit analysis of farmer households’ Camellia oleifera planting
HONG Yanzhen, HONG Liuhao, DAI Yongwu
2013, 30(1): 107-113. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.016
[Abstract](3354) [PDF](1557)
On the basis of the actual input and output data of 239 plots of 152 Camellia oleifera growers during 2007-2009 and the afforestation years,the paper analyzed the structure of afforestation costs,input-output differences and the economic feasibility of Camellia oleifera fields with different scales and operating purposes. It also used the net present value method to analyze the comparative income of Cunninghamia lanceolata,Phyllostachys edulis and other competitive species. The results indicated that at the current operating level,the scale effect of Camellia oleifera operations was significant;Camellia oleifera plots for market had higher economic benefit than those for own consumption. The own consumption of Camellia oleifera to some extent made up for the low economic benefits; the comparative income of Camellia oleifera was relatively low,so the farmers decision-making was economically rational.[Ch,5 tab. 10 ref.]
Storage and determinants of coarse woody debris in China’s forests
Lü Kunlong, RAO Liangyi, LI Feifei, LI Huijie, ZHU Mengxun, ZHU Zhenya, ZHOU Jian
2013, 30(1): 114-122. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.017
[Abstract](6569) [PDF](1103)
As an essential structural component of forest ecosystems,coarse woody debris (CWD) plays an important role in a number of aspects of ecosystem functioning. Based on the data from the literature about China forest ecological systems coarse woody debris storage,a preliminary statistical analysis of several sites including Changbai Mountain,Xiaoxinganling Mountain,Qinling,Wuyi Mountain,Dinghu Mountain and Ailao Mountain was conducted. The results indicated a difference between the storages of CWD in Southern and Northern China. In Northern China,CWD storages were ranked as follows:coniferous forest > mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest. In Southern China,CWD storages were ranked as follows:broad-leaved forest > mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest > coniferous forest. The determinants of CWD storages included altitude,stand structure,the average annual rainfall,natural disasters,and human disturbance. Snags and fallen trees were the major contributors to the storage of CWD in the primitive forests in China. The findings can provide reference for the further research on forest ecological systems CWD,and better forest protection and utilization.[Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 47 ref.]
Applications and development of CT in the wood non-destructive testing
SHAN Haibin, LIU Xing′e, YANG Shumin, SUN Jianping, YANG Xi
2013, 30(1): 123-128. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.018
[Abstract](3908) [PDF](1147)
The paper reviewed the development and unique advantages of CT technology in the field of nondestructive testing of wood,elaborating on the status of timber CT inspection from method application,characteristics determination fest range. It highlighted the achievements of CT technology in the recognition of timber macro-structure,determining density of the early wood and late wood,predication of wood internal defects,ultra-high-speed scanning of crack propagation process and identification of microstructure. Finally,put stress on developing the corresponding CT technology wich combined with the characteristics of wood and bamboo,that provide technical support for wood and bamboo basic scientific research and utilization.[Ch,37 ref.]
Somatic embryogenesis of Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’
YAO Jin, HUANG Jianqin, HU Hengkang, QIU Linyan, ZHU Minhua, ZHANG Qixiang
2013, 30(1): 129-135. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.019
[Abstract](2716) [PDF](1029)
To establish somatic embryogenesis protocols for Torreya grandis Merrillii,immature embryos were used as explants. The effects of different basal mediums (SH,MS,B5),organic additives (glutamine (Glu),casein hydrolysate (CH),myo-inositol),carbon sources (sucrose,glucose,maltose),and plant growth regulators (PGRs) (N6-benzylaminopurine (BA),Kinetin (KT),2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or BA,KT,a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for the initiation of primary callus were tested. Optimal PGRs for induction and proliferation of embryogenic tissue were determined,and a study on somatic embryo induction (SH supplemented with 0.05 mgL-1 6-BA and 0.25 mgL-1 2,4-D,SH supplemented with 0.05 mgL-1 2,4-D and SH supplemented with 0.05 mgL-1 NAA respectively) and germination (SH supplemented with ABA or PEG) was carried out. Results showed that callus initiation frequency for SH supplemented with Glu was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than other treatments,with 50.8%. The optimal carbon source was sucrose and the optimal concentration was 3%. To improve primary callus induction,an initiation medium containing a low concentration of 2,4-D or NAA was most efficient. The highest callus induction frequency was with SH medium and 0.1 mgL-1 NAA. For formation and proliferation of embryogenic tissue,the optimal medium was SH supplemented with 0.05 mgL-1 NAA. When callus was inoculated onto 1/2 SH medium supplemented with ABA and PEG 6000,somatic embryos were produced. Germination quality of somatic embryos was better with exposure to 1 200 lx light compared to in the dark.[Ch,3 fig. 3 tab. 21 ref.]
Asymbiotic seed germination of Cymbidium goeringii
WANG Fen, XU Buqing, LIU Xingjia, XIA Guohua, CUI Yongyi
2013, 30(1): 136-140. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.020
[Abstract](3442) [PDF](1244)
The influence of different reagents and dark treatment time on initial seed germination time and germination rate of Cymbidium goeringii were studied,and the seed germination process was observed. Under aseptic conditions,the seeds treated with chemical NaOH and NaClO were placed in dark culture for 0,30,60,90,120,150,and 180 d cultivation followed by after dark culture then further culture for light. Results showed that seeds did not germinate with only dark or no dark treatments. For seed germination rate,the NaOH and NaClO treatments had a strong impact with the NaOH treatment being as high as 79.2%. For seed germination there was an interaction with reagent treatment and dark incubation time. Also,seeds with 30 d dark treatment began to germinate after about 35 d of light cultivation,and their initial germination time was shortest. The germination process of C. goeringii included the following states:original un-germinated seeds,swelling of the embryo,original bulb,green growth,and extension of the rhizome from the original bulb. Thus,this experiment showed that darkness and light were necessary for initial seed germination.[Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 16 ref.]
Cutting propagation with four cultivars of pot chrysanthemums
SHI Xuli, WANG Yunzhu, WANG Cuibo, FANG Weimin, CHEN Fadi, CHEN Sumei
2013, 30(1): 141-147. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.021
[Abstract](2846) [PDF](1153)
To determine optimal conditions for cutting propagation of four newly bred pot chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium) cultivars:Jinling Huangguan,Jinling Yangguang,Jinling Jiaohuang and Jinling Zishan. Six indexes including:maximum root length,average root length,root diameter,adventitious root number,root fresh weight,and rooting rate were used to evaluate rooting ability. Treatments were:matrices (vermiculite,perlite,and grass charcoal),plug size (50,72,128,and 288-cave) to test the rooting effect,1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) concentration (0,250,500,750,and 1 000 mgL-1),and cold storage period for cuttings (4 ℃ for 14,28,and 42 d). The plants were randomly plotted,each plot includes 30 cuttings,and the experiment contains three replicates,90 cuttings for each cultivar were included. 10 cuttings were sampled from each plot at 20 days after being planted. Results showed that vermiculite and grass charcoal (1 ∶ 1,V ∶ V) was the optimal matrix for rooting,followed by grass charcoal and perlite (1 ∶ 1,V ∶ V). Rooting ability of Jinling Huangguan, Jinling Yangguang and Jinling Jiaohuang planted in 288-cave plug decreased significantly at P=0.05 level compared to those planted in the other plugs of lesser caves. Root length and root fresh weight overall increased with 500-750 mgL-1 NAA. In addition,rooting ability decreased after 42 d cold storage,howevere,there is no significant difference between 42 d cold storage and control in Jinling Huangguan and Jinling Jiaohuangcultivars. The root number of Jinling Yangguang increased significantly at P=0.01 level after 42 d cold storage. However,maximum root length of Jinling Yangguang increased significantly at P=0.05 level after 14 d cold storage. The present study will do aid to the seedling production of these newly bred cultivars.[Ch,4 tab. 8 ref.]
Frequency of Carya cathayensis canker disease in Lin’an City,Zhejiang Province
ZHANG Lulu, JIA Guimin, YE Jianfeng, MA Liangjin
2013, 30(1): 148-152. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.022
[Abstract](3377) [PDF](1183)
Carya cathayensis canker is a crucial disease which affects the growth and yield of Carya cathayensis in Linan City,Zhejiang Province. To effectively control the disease and to reduce losses,extensive investigations and sample observations of the disease were conducted. Results showed that the disease began in late March and ended in late November when the Carya cathayensis pathogen overwintered. Occurrence of the canker was related to tree age with 10-30 year-old trees being severely sick. Also,severity was less with better site conditions,superior management,and a higher canopy density.[Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 10 ref.]
Risk analysis of Eulecanium gigantea in Xinjiang
YUE Zhaoyang, ZHAO Bianjian, WANG Yulan, ZHANG Jingwen, ZHANG Xinping, WANG Chengxiang
2013, 30(1): 153-156. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.023
[Abstract](3033) [PDF](1150)
Five aspects of Eulecanium gigantea,including its distribution in China,potential hazards,host plants,spreading possibility and difficulties in risk control were reviewed and summarized. An assessment of the risks in the spreading of Eulecanium gigantea was conducted through a multi-index analysis. The results indicated that with a risk value of 2.126,was a highly dangerous forest pest in Xinjiang. The paper suggested that Eulecanium gigantea would be under strict control in the affected areas and a sound monitoring network around the areas should be established to strictly monitor the occurrence and development of Eulecanium gigantea. Plants quarantine should also be rigidly carried out. [Ch,1 tab. 9 ref.]