2013 Vol. 30, No. 2

Articles
Distribution of organic carbon with pig manure amendments in a paddy soil
SONG Zheyue, SONG Zhaoliang, SHAN Shengdao
2013, 30(2): 157-164. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.001
[Abstract](3043) [PDF](1525)
Abstract:
To improve paddy soil fertility,the effects of fertilization on the distribution of total organic carbon along with fractionation and hot water-solubility in paddy field soil profiles were studied. This work included accumulation of soil organic carbon and its soil profile evolution from a 10-year fertilization experiment with pig manure amendments in Pinghu County,Zhejiang Province. Results showed that in the 0-45 cm horizon soil organic carbon content differed greatly between pig manure treatments and no pig manure amendments. With organic fertilizer amendments,soil organic carbon increased with the increase of soil profile. Total organic carbon differed greatly from sandy carbon and amylaceous carbon (P<0.05). Soil organic carbon in the 0-45 cm horizon consisted mainly of sandy carbon;whereas in the 45-85 cm horizon it was comprised mainly of amylaceous carbon and sticky carbon. Also,with the pig manure amendments,hot water-soluble organic carbon content of the soil increased.[Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 28 ref.]
Seasonal changes in soil heat flux for a Lei bamboo forest with straw mulching
CHEN Yunfei, JIANG Hong, ZHOU Guomo, YANG Shuang, CHEN Jian
2013, 30(2): 165-171. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.002
[Abstract](3204) [PDF](1305)
Abstract:
The soil heat flux and meteorological factors of a Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys violascens) forest with straw mulching in Taihuyuan,Linan City,Zhejiang Prvince from October 2010 to September 2011 were measured. A regression analysis between heat flux and average monthly soil temperature and between monthly soil heat flux and net radiation was conducted for depths of 5,50 and 100 cm,using soil heat flux plates (SHFP) and a meteorological monitoring system. Results indicated that for a depth of 5 cm,diurnal change in the soil heat flux on a monthly basis showed as an S curve. The soil acted as a heat resource with an annual net heat flux of -20.01 MJm-2. The average monthly soil heat flux was from -6.2% to 3.5% of the net monthly radiation with the annual average monthly soil heat flux accounting for -0.67% of the net monthly radiation. The regression showed that soil heat flux was significantly (P<0.05) related to temperature at the 5 cm depth. Also,there was a significant relationship between average monthly soil heat flux and net radiation (P<0.05). From December to the following March in the Lei bamboo forest,soil with straw mulching was a heat source,and the negative values of soil heat flux were reduced. Thus,the regression revealed that changes in soil temperature were based on changes of soil heat fluxes,and with straw mulching radiant/light energy of the soil was reduced.[Ch,5 fig. 16 ref.]
Morphological characteristics and physiological indexes of Clerodendrum trichotomum with waterlogging
ZENG Dejing, WANG Cheng, LIU Jun, YIN Lijuan
2013, 30(2): 172-178. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.003
[Abstract](2755) [PDF](1098)
Abstract:
To determine resistance ablity of Clerodendrum trichotomum to waterlogging stress,taking small bowl in large bowl as method,the experiment set five watelogging levels (water height treatments of 1/4,1/2,and 2/3 of the soil thickness;level to the surface; and 5 cm above the surface). Each processing had 10 plants and taking the day-to-day management plants as control group. One-year-old cuttings of Clerodendrum trichotomum were used with five watelogging levels to study their morphological characteristics and physiological indexes. Results showed that when the water level was 1/4 or 1/2 of the soil thickness,there were no significant changes in morphological characteristics and physiological indexes compared with the control,but at 2/3 of the soil thickness,after 6 d of waterlogging stress and with an increase of stress time,the leaves wrinkled,curled,wilted,and drooped compared with the control,and at 12 d of stress relative water content,proline content,SOD activities respectively were significantly decreased to 0.55 times,0.59 times,0.80 times that of the control;relative conductivities,MDA content,soluble sugar content,soluble protein content respectively were significantly increased to 2.71 times,1.76 times,21.93 times,2.03 times that of the control,and then the plants died. When the water level was at the surface of the soil or 5 cm above it,plants wilted because of rapid loss of water which could be proved by the significantly decreased of relative water content,and then died after 8 d of stress. With an increase in water level and stress time,compared with the control,the proline content,soluble sugar content,MDA content,and relative conductivity significantly increased;relative water content and SOD activity significantly decreased; and soluble protein content and chlorophyll content were decreasing first then increasing trend. We could conclude that plants exhibits strong osmotic adjustment capacity,mainly by significantly increasing the proline and soluble sugar content to adapt to the waterlogged environment. Plants have a strong ability to maintain the stability of morphological characteristics and physiological indexes to tolerate water-stress,but only when the water level is up to 1/2 of the soil thickness. Flood tolerance is poor,because when the water level was at the surface of the soil or 5 cm above it,plants died after 8 d of waterlogging stress. In the configuration of the plant,they can be planted in the lake,river,pool springs,streams and other relatively high moisture content of the soil,which enrich their usages as an ornamental plant.[Ch,8 fig. 21 ref.]
Photosynthesis and water use characteristics of Cinnamomum camphora seedlings with simulated acid rain
ZHAO Weiwei, JIANG Hong, MA Yuandan
2013, 30(2): 179-186. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.004
[Abstract](3555) [PDF](1254)
Abstract:
To study the physiological characteristics of water in Cinnamomum camphora seedlings with acid rain treatments, a three-year pot experiment was conducted on photosynthetic rate (Pn),stomata conductance (Gs),transpiration rate (Tr),and water use efficiency (WUE) for simulated acid rain treatments of pH 2.5 (severe) and pH 4.0 (moderate) with water (pH 5.6) as the control. Results showed that acid rain significantly affected Pn,Gs,Tr and WUE. In the initial stage of treatment,acid rain of pH 4.0 positively affected the photosynthetic rate Pn and Gs. In the autumn of year two,Pn and Tr were greatest with acid rain treatments in the order of pH 4.0 > pH 5.6 > pH 2.5. WUE in summer increased as pH increased,but not in autumn. Season,year,acid rain,interactions of season and year,and interactions of the three factors were significant for Pn,Gs,Tr and WUE. The interaction of acid rain and season on stomata conductance (Gs) was not significant (P > 0.05) but was significant (P < 0.01) for Tr,Pn and WUE.[Ch,4 fig. 1 tab. 27 ref.]
Effect of different cultivars pollinating on fruit setting and fruit quality of Armeniaca vulgaris ‘Luntaibaixing’
AN Xiaoqin, LIAO Kang, SUN Huiying, LIU Juan, LI Yongxian, LIAO Xiaolong, WANG Yun
2013, 30(2): 187-193. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.005
[Abstract](3320) [PDF](1058)
Abstract:
Armeniaca vulgaris Luntaibaixing and other twenty six Xinjiang apricot cultivars were selected for positive and negative cross to study the effect of different pollen sources on fruit setting and fruit quality. The results showed that different cultivars pollinating had improved the fruit setting rate of Luntaibaixing,especially by Kabakehuanna, Yiliakeyulvke, Teerwanyulvke,but in negative cross experiments,only eight cultivars fruit set percentage had been increased after pollinated by Luntaibaixing,such as Kuchebaixing,and the others were lower than natural pollination; compared with spontaneously pollinated fruit,the single fruit weight,stone weight,fruit shape index,soluble solids content,Vc content,titratable acid content and total sugar content of Luntaibaixing were all affected by pollination cultivars,among them,Vc content of crossbreeding fruit were decreased significantly which pollinated by Zaoshuhuanna, Akedalazi, Akeayi(P<0.01),titratable acid content significantly were enhanced which pollinated by Akeayi, Jiagedamayisang,and Milu,etc (P<0.01);while pollination varieties had less influence on fruit shape index,there were only Kuchebaixing and Kalahuanna had significantly effect on it(P<0.01),and fruit shape index of five varieties like as Daguohuanna were significantly decreased (P<0.05);comprehensively considered with fruit setting rate, Kabakehuanna, Zaoshuhuanna, Yiliakeyulvke were suitable for Luntaibaixing as pollination trees. There were obvious differences in fruit setting and fruit quality of Luntaibaixing which pollinated by different cultivars,so fruit setting rate and fruit quality could be improved according to requirement by selecting male parent in production.[Ch,5 tab. 10 ref.]
Different stump heights with Toona sinensis bud vegetable yield and commodity characteristics with field coppice management
HAO Mingzhuo, LI Qun, PENG Fangren, SHEN Lulu, LIANG Youwang, HAN Minghui, WANG Kunrong
2013, 30(2): 194-198. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.006
[Abstract](3605) [PDF](1191)
Abstract:
As a Chinese traditional food,Toona sinensis bud vegetable has rich nutrition and much benefit for human body health. Stump is a important method to improve Toona sinensis bud vegetable yield and actualize dwarf and close planting. Up to now,the problem of which is the best stump height for high vegetable yield and good commodity character is not resolved. This paper combined with Toona sinensis low production forest improvement project in Taixing City of Jiangsu Provence in China,objective to provide scientific evidence and reference for Toona sinensis high yeild cultivation. Using two-year-old Toona sinensis seedlings,the effects of different stump heights (0,20,40,60,and 80 cm) on bud vegetable yield and commodity characteristics with field coppice management were studied. Experimental design was one singel factor random repeated test(three times repeated,one repeat used fifty per plant). Results with stumped seedlings showed (1) significant differences (P<0.05) for both terminal bud and lateral bud vegetable yield when compared to content of soluble sugars,soluble proteins,vitamin C,and amino acids. Also,sensory quality of the lateral bud had significant differences (P = 0.004),but the terminal bud did not (P = 0.211). (2) For high bud vegetable yield and sensory quality,the 60 cm stump height treatment was best with a 22.3% greater yield than the 0 cm stump height. (3) Considering terminal bud vegetable nutritional components,the 0 and 20 cm stump height treatments had mostly higher soluble sugar content and vitamin C conten;whereas the 60 and 80 cm stump height treatments had higher soluble protein content and amino acid content.[Ch,3 fig. 18 ref.]
Population growth and biomass allocation of Polygonatum cyrtonema within a Phyllostachys edulis forest utilizing bamboo density treatments
FAN Yanrong, CHEN Shuanglin, YANG Qingping, LI Yingchun, GUO Ziwu, CHEN Shan
2013, 30(2): 199-205. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.007
[Abstract](3081) [PDF](1072)
Abstract:
To optimize bamboo density for compound management of Polygonatum cyrtonema within a Phyllostachys edulis bamboo forest,population growth conditions,biomass accumulation,and allocation rules of Polygonatum cyrtonema at three different bamboo densities (1 500-2 500,2 500-3 500,and 3 500-4 500 stemshm-2) in extensively managed Phyllostachys edulis stands with similar site conditions were studied. One-way ANOVA showed that for Polygonatum cyrtonema,population density,height,and biomass accumulation of each component as well as total biomass accumulation within bamboo density of 1 500-2 500 stemshm-2 were significantly greater (P<0.05) than them in the other two bamboo densities;whereas no effect on diameter,leaf chlorophyll values,or biomass allocation ratio of each component was realized. Distribution patterns of Polygonatum cyrtonema showed that biomass allocated to underground tubers was significantly greater (P<0.05) than biomass of the sum of roots,leaves,and above stem grounds. Thus,bamboo density was the important factor affecting population growth. And for compound management of Polygonatum cyrtonema in Phyllostachys edulis stands with these site conditions,1 500-2 500 stemshm-2 was best.[Ch,1 fig. 6 tab. 22 ref.]
Interspecific relationship of dominant populations in relict deciduous forests on Mount Tianmu, Eastern China
SHANG Kankan
2013, 30(2): 206-214. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.008
[Abstract](3224) [PDF](1195)
Abstract:
Relict plants are an important component for protection and restoration of biodiversity in a region. To explore the symbiotic relationship and coexistence mechanism of evergreen,deciduous and coniferous trees in a relict deciduous forest of the National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmu,Zhejiang,China,their floristic composition and community structure have been surveyed in 196 plots. The interspecific association,interspecific correlation,and niche breadth were determined using a correlation analysis and niche breadth analysis. Results indicated that species pairs with significant (P<0.05) and highly significant (P<0.01) differences accounted for 20.77%;whereas pairs that were negatively correlated comprised of 55.85%. The interspecific relationship among relict broadleaf tree species was significantly and negatively correlated with a mutually exclusive spatial distribution. The interspecific relationship between long-lived relict deciduous tree species,such as Nyssa sinensis,Liquidambar acalycina,Liquidambar formosana,or Emmenopterys henryi,and other deciduous tree species was significantly and negatively correlated,but was significantly and positively correlated with evergreen broadleaf tree species. Thus,relict deciduous tree species with tall stature were coexisted with other deciduous broadleaf tree species at succession serial and with evergreen broadleaf tree species at vertical spatial scale.[Ch,4 fig. 3 tab. 26 ref.]
Structure characteristics and species diversity of Zanthoxylum micranthum in Zhejiang Province
WANG Limin, MIAO Xindong, YAN Caixia, MA Kai, MA Dandan, LI Genyou
2013, 30(2): 215-219. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.009
[Abstract](3433) [PDF](1041)
Abstract:
Based on the quadrat investigation,community structure and species diversity of Zanthoxylum micranthum in Zhejiang Province were analyzed. The results showed that there was rich species diversity in this community; vascular species belonging to 70 families,121 genera,166 species were found. The characteristics of floristic interims were obvious. According to Raunkiaers classification,phanerophytes accounted for the greatest number which was 63.69 per cent,the number of other plants was comparatively small. The vertical community structure could be divided into tree layer,shrub layer,herb layer as well as inter stratum plants. Within the community,Shannon-Wieners indices,Pielous indices and Simpsons indices were biggest in the tree layer. While those of shrub layer and herb layer ranked the second and the third respectively.[Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 14 ref.]
Spatial distribution pattern with fractal theory for Carex kobomugi and Parapholis incurva populations
DING Xuejiao, HAN Hong, PANG Caiju, MA Yuxin, CUI Dalian, FAN Caicai
2013, 30(2): 220-225. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.010
[Abstract](3417) [PDF](1128)
Abstract:
It is very important to study the application of fractal theory to further explore the spatial structure of herb populations,which applied the significance of fractal theory in the spatial structure of herbaceous plant populations. Fractal characteristics of two herb populations,Carex kobomugi and Parapholis incurve,on Taohua Island of Zhoushan City were studied using the contiguous grid quadrate sampling method from pattern research and the box-counting and information dimensions from fractal theory. Adjacent grid method to take four random quadrats for quadrat area 1 m1 m in transects C. kobomugi and P. incurva populations. Results showed that fractal dimensions could describe the distribution pattern of the populations with the box-counting dimension ranging between 1.454 2 and 1.745 6 for P. incurva and between 1.318 1 and 1.614 1 for C. kobomugi. Both populations had means greater than 1.500 0,and both had strong ability to occupy the space with P. incurva being stronger than C. kobomugi. The information dimension for populations of C. kobomugi ranged from 1.027 0 to 1.263 4 and of P. incurva from 1.022 7 to 1.381 2 with the mean of P. incurva populations greater than C. kobomugi. Also,the cluster index was higher. Thus,P. incurva population space had a more complex pattern but the difference was not significant. It is great significant to study the application of fractal theory for further exploring the spatial structure of the herb populations.[Ch,3 fig. 2 tab. 14 ref.]
Point pattern analysis for relationships of Vitex negundo var. heterophylla in three typical stands
ZHANG Jinrui, GAO Jiarong, CUI Qiang, YANG Qilin
2013, 30(2): 226-233. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.011
[Abstract](2603) [PDF](1115)
Abstract:
To determine community characteristics of Vitex negundo var. heterophylla,plant material from three types of typical sites were selected and studied with a 99% confidence interval from a point pattern analysis and with a correlation analysis. Results showed that the V. negundo var. heterophylla population spread stochastically over different stands,except for the Pinus tabulaeformis stand. V. negundo var. heterophylla,was not significantly correlated with Berberis poiretii,Rhamnus parvifolia,Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa,Ailanthus altissima,and P. tabuliformis. Using a small-scale investigation,V. negundo var. heterophylla was significantly (P = 99%) and positively correlated with Lespedeza bicolor (r<2.8),Philadelphus pekinensis (1.1<r<2.6),Securinega suffruticosa (1.9<r<4.2),and Spiraea trilobata (0.8<r<1.9). With a large-scale analysis,V. negundo var. heterophylla had a negative influence on L. bicolor and S. trilobata. Thus,long-term coexistence with V. negundo var. heterophylla was possible for the plant communities above that showed no significant relationship,but V. negundo var. heterophylla would compete for living space with L. bicolor and S. trilobata.[Ch,5 fig. 2 tab. 26 ref.]
Design and stability of a forestry field information collection system
REN Junjun, FANG Luming, TANG Lihua
2013, 30(2): 234-239. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.012
[Abstract](3869) [PDF](1192)
Abstract:
The purpose was to construct an intelligent and integrated forestry field operations system based on actual needs of forestry field data collection. Considering the system structure,the development environment,the data transmission stability,and the hardware and software systems,system stability model was established based on irreparable system theory. We constructed forestry field operations front end and back end integration system. Results produced at a total system stability model of 0.817 and a data transmission success rate of 98 percent. Trial applications showed that this forestry fieldwork information collection system improved timeliness and accuracy. Thus,this system was conducive to timely processing of the management center and personal applications,and it could meet the needs of forestry field managers.[Ch,7 fig. 17 ref.]
Pilot test drying process for Castanopsis hystrix lumber
DIAO Hailin, BAI Linghai, TANG Xianming, MO Li, TANG Jixin, LUO Jianju
2013, 30(2): 240-244. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.013
[Abstract](2997) [PDF](1080)
Abstract:
To do Castanopsis hystrix wood drying pilot test,validation of pilot test drying schedule is correct,suitable for Castanopsis hystrix production and application of dry schedule. Forced air circulation for ordinary kiln drying,which is widely used in production,was utilized in a drying experiment of Castanopsis hystrix lumber with a given pilot drying schedule;Then,lumber dryness quality was evaluated according to the national standard (GB/T 6491-1999). Pilot test results showed that the average final moisture content of Castanopsis hystrix lumber was 7.24%;moisture content for deviation of thickness was 2.37%;the stress index was 4.12%;the average camber parallel to the grain of the wood was 0.17%;the camber perpendicular to the grain was 0.25%;twisting degree was 0.24%;the tile-shaped camber was 2.55%;the longitudinal crack degree was 3.31%;the section shrinkage rate was 5.793%;there was no internal cracking;the time of drying to a moisture content of 12% was 138 h (5.75 d);and drying speed was 0.31%h-1. Intermediate test drying benchmark was basic correct. Generally,the dryness quality of Castanopsis hystrix lumber was favorable and met the production requirements for wood products.[Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 11 ref.]
Characteristics of reed stem epidermis and effects of waterproofing agent on reed particleboard
WANG Xinzhou, DENG Yuhe, LIAO Chengbin, CHEN Chen, WANG Ningsheng, WU Jing, HOU Tianyu
2013, 30(2): 245-250. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.014
[Abstract](3592) [PDF](1216)
Abstract:
Reed is a natural biological material and has great potential as reinforced material in wood-based composites. To resolve the problem of low bond strength with reed particleboard,the reed (Phragmites australis) stem epidermis was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and infrared spectrometer. Microstructure and chemical composition were determined,and then the silicon mass fraction and the surface contact angle of the reed stem were tested. Finally,the effect of waterproofing agent on the physical and mechanical properties of reed particleboard was studied. Results showed that the reed stem epidermis contained a wax layer and silicon with the mass fraction of the silicon reaching 20.9 gkg-1. The physical and mechanical properties met the demands of National Standards (GB/T 4897.3-2003) without adding waterproofing agent. When waterproofing agent was added,the physical and mechanical properties,especially internal bond strength,decreased greatly. Thus,silicon from the reed stem epidermis produced by reed particles dispersed in plate slap after mechanical shattering could be used as water repellent meaning it was possible to manufacture qualified particleboard using urea-formaldehyde resin adhesive without adding waterproofing agent.[Ch,5 fig. 3 tab. 11 ref.]
Comparison of properties for corn straw with and without pith
LI Huiyuan, HUANG Siwei, ZHOU Dingguo
2013, 30(2): 251-256. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.015
[Abstract](2610) [PDF](1037)
Abstract:
To determine if corn (Zea mays) stalks without pith could be used to make pellet fuel,characteristics of corn straw with and without pith,including chemical composition and combustion kinetics parameters,were compared. Results showed that corn stalk burning could be divided into three stages: water evaporation,volatile combustion,and burning of fixed carbon. Corn stalk with pith had higher calorific value (16 536 Jg-1) and combustion kinetics parameter. However,the melting point of corn straw ash with pith was lower. It showed that the deformation temperature of corn straw ash was 1 173 ℃ and the melting point was 1 258 ℃;whereas without pith the deformation temperature was 1 285 ℃ and the melting point was 1 441 ℃. Overall,the results showed that corn straw with pith exhibited higher lignin content than without pith,but a lower cellulose content. Corn straw with pith had lower fixed carbon content,calorific value,activation energy,and frequency factor,but higher ash melting point and softening temperature. Thus,corn straw would be an environmental-friendly fuel,as its low calorific value was similar to bituminous coal with an S content only 1/2-1/3 that of coal,and corn straw with pith seemed more suitable for making pellet fuel,which could be used as a new energy source for a wood-based panel factory.[Ch,4 fig. 7 tab. 13 ref.]
A multi-depot emergency scheduling algorithm for forest fire prevention
FENG Xue, WU Dasheng, LUO Wenjian
2013, 30(2): 257-262. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.016
[Abstract](2934) [PDF](1271)
Abstract:
During current forest conflagration emergency scheduling,fire emergency dispatch models are mainly based on determinate target variables that employ the total demand for fire-fighting resources,but do not consider changes in time,climate,topography,or other factors. In this research,a forest fire spread model was used to obtain target variables;these variables were then combined with constraints of shortest fire-fighting time and least number of the rescue points so as to obtain an emergency scheduling algorithm based on one-time consumption and multiple depots. This research utilized Wang Zhengfeis forest fire spread model to consider the rate of forest fire spread,wind level and slope to calculate the dynamic need for fire-fighting resources at different fire-times. Then the fuzzy programming method for conditions of shortest fire-fighting time and least number of the rescue points was used to optimize a fire emergency rescue plan which was tested with a simulation case. Results showed that this model could provide a theoretical and practical guide for forest fire-fighting operations.[Ch,1 fig. 5 tab. 15 ref.]
Fire environment of spot fires in a Pinus yunnanensis forest
WANG Qiuhua, XU Shengji, LI Shiyou, QU Haibin, WAN Chun, WEN Canming, ZHANG Xiaoming
2013, 30(2): 263-268. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.017
[Abstract](9583) [PDF](1257)
Abstract:
By collecting 30 years of meteorological information from 1971 to 2000,by surveying fire sites of spot fires,and by gathering local topographic data,environmental characteristics of spot fires for a Pinus yunnanensis forest were gained. Results showed that meteorological factors during the dry season,especially in March,were favorable for spot fires. During March,air temperature increased with relative humidity (53%) and the minimal relative humidity (3%) being lowest for the year; however,average wind speed (29 mmin-1),maximal average wind speed (16.3 mmin-1),and gale days (16.3 d) reached the annual maximum. In addition,average precipitation in March was less than 20 mm;whereas,evaporation was 263 mm for the second highest monthly rate of the year. Topography and terrain were also beneficial to forming spot fires with the relative elevation between 200 to 1 000 m in the Anning City area being very steep (60.7%). Also,climate increased chances of spot fires. The distribution of Pinus yunnanensis was confined to southern branch of western circumfluence during spring and winter,which was the dormant period for Pinus yunnanensis trees,shrubs,and herbs. Thus,combustibility was too weak to easily ignite,spread,and form spot fires.[Ch,5 fig. 2 tab. 26 ref.]
Occurrence and development of larch caducous disease with climate differences in the Xiaolongshan forest area,Gansu
XU Yanping, YAO Xiaohong, YUAN Baishun, YAO Yanfeng, YAO Xiaoling
2013, 30(2): 269-273. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.018
[Abstract](2736) [PDF](1074)
Abstract:
This study analyzed the impact of the climate conditions to the larch early falls occurrence and development by used statistical method,weather forecasted the hazard area and guiding significance on forestry pest disaster prevention work. This article research showed that warm and humid climatic conditions suitable for larch early fall disease favored;whereas high temperatures and dry conditions is not conducive to the disease occurrence. Winter and spring warm and relatively humid climate favorable bacteria adaptation period of dormancy,safe over-wintering and ascospore produce;A warm and wet climate was more advantageous to ascospore maturity,distribute and infection rate. Through testing on the effect of the forecasting model,the forecasting larch early fall disease was 95.3% accurate,which included absolute error<5.0% prediction accuracy rate of 62.5%,absolute error<10.0% prediction accuracy rate of 87.5%. Absolute error of forecasting for 2008 was 2.6%,for 2009 was 7.8%,and for 2010 was 4.7%. The predict and test report met the needs of operational service,this model could provide guidance for forestry pest disaster prevention work. [Ch,1 fig. 15 ref.]
A path to integration and innovation of value saturation on forest resources property rights
WANG Zhimin, ZHOU Bohuang
2013, 30(2): 274-279. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.019
[Abstract](3031) [PDF](1516)
Abstract:
With their dual properties of the economic and ecological values,the forest resources play a prominent role in the national strategy of environmental development. For the first time,the paper introduced the concept of value saturation into the property rights theory of forest resources. The correct path to integration and innovation of value saturation on forest resources property rights was realized through clarifying the reasonable limitations and obstacles on saturation value of forest resource property rights and exploring the practical foundation for the path of value saturation on forest resources.[Ch,9 ref.]
Study on the immaterial production of bamboo products
WU Xinyan, GUO Ming, ZHANG Jinfeng
2013, 30(2): 280-285. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.020
[Abstract](2438) [PDF](1343)
Abstract:
In this paper,the production status,existing problems and developmental advantages of bamboo products in China have been analyzed. On the basis of relevant discussions of Marxs theory of all-around production in combination with the useful viewpoints about the immaterial labor in the western philosophy,the paper pointed out that the production process of bamboo products were characterized by immaterial production. The paper elaborated on the immaterial production factors involved in the bamboo products production,bamboo culture in the bamboo products development,innovative elements in immaterial design of bamboo products,brand effect,emotional production and management concepts of bamboo products were discussed and application suggestions were put forward.[Ch,16 ref.]
Eco-rendered of natural elements in special agricultural products packaging design
HOU Mingyong, HE Zheng
2013, 30(2): 286-291. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.021
[Abstract](2553) [PDF](1235)
Abstract:
This article integrates the concept of the ecological and aesthetics to discusses ecological beauty in the special agricultural products packaging design,explain their aesthetic present elements and ecological aesthetic connotation,at the same time,also discusses we must have ecological ideas and aesthetic ideas in the special agricultural products packaging design. Based on the mode and idea of natural ecological packaging,this paper discusses the ecological present form and ecological present philosophy of natural ecological elements in the special agricultural products packaging design. This paper holds that the traditional packaging technology and philosophy and modern ecological concept should be mutual combined. We not only transform the nature also need to comply with nature. In the special agricultural products packaging design should set up the correct packaging ecological ideas and aesthetic ideas,to improve the natural ecological elements of the use of level,make local agricultural product packaging get better ecological present.[Ch,16 ref.]
Research progress on treatment technology and resource utilization of potato starch wastewater
XIAO Jibo, ZHAO Weituo, CHU Shuyi, LU Guoquan
2013, 30(2): 292-298. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.022
[Abstract](2786) [PDF](1390)
Abstract:
Production process of potato starch produces large volume of wastewater containing high-concentration organic compounds,which not only pollutes the environment seriously,but also results in a huge waste of resources. This paper reviewed both the treatment technologies and resource utilization approaches of potato starch wastewater. Resource utilization approaches of the wastewater as well as the development and application of methods such as flocculation/sedimentation,biological treatment,and land treatment were discussed. The paper pointed out that recycling of the effective components from the wastewater would not only generate economic benefits but also significantly reduce the pollution load,hence reducing the subsequent treatment pressure.[Ch,48 ref.]
Economic benefits of Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’ plantings
WU Lianhai, WU Liming, NI Rongxin, YAN Fuhua
2013, 30(2): 299-303. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.023
[Abstract](3426) [PDF](1282)
Abstract:
Technical and economic analysis methods,including dynamic analysis,Break-Even analysis,and One-Way Sensitivity analysis,were adopted to study production costs and economic indexes of Torreya grandis Merrillii plantations that used 2+2 and 2+5 grafted seedlings over a 20-year period,in order to scientifically estimate feasibility and support scientific basis for Torreya grandis Merrillii planting development. And according to the 7% benchmark discount rate to calculate the main dynamic economic indicators (such as NPV,IRR,TP etc.),design production and price earnings ratio of break-even point,and sales income and cost of production of uncertain factors on the economic production cycle in net present value influence. Results showed high plantation costs with a long period (about 10 years) needed to recoup the investment;however,economic benefits were favorable with an IRR of about 15%. The full fruit-bearing stage started after 15 years and lasted about 100 years,so in the long run economic benefits were excellent. The break-even point for a T. grandis Merrillii plantation using 2+5 grafted seedlings was 31.6%,and its expected economic benefit was stable. If sales income fell 61.54% or production costs increased 160% during 20 a,development of Torreya grandis Merrillii production would not feasible,but from 2009-2011 Torreya grandis Merrillii market and production analysis of the actual situation,the possibility of this happening is minimal. Couclusion:T. grandis Merrillii plantation risks due to markets,nature,technique,and policy are low,fund policies should be promoted to encourage breeding of big seedlings for establishing orchards,to enlarge the scope of small-scale loans,and to increase the repayment time on loans so as to promote development of the T. grandis Merrillii industry.[Ch,4 fig. 3 tab. 9 ref.]
Nutritional components and content determination of the total flavonoids in Ficus pandurata var. hoiophylla
WANG Xizhou, YING Yueyue, CHEN Xuezhi, ZHANG Hao, YAO Xiaowei
2013, 30(2): 304-308. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.024
[Abstract](3089) [PDF](1281)
Abstract:
Nutritional components,amino acid and mineral elements composition in leaves,stem and roots of Ficus pandurata var. hoiophylla were thoroughly investigated. To further our study,we also measured the content of flavonoid in this plant. The results were as follows: in leafs,the contents of crude protein,crude fat,crude fiber,total sugar,free amino acid and aqueous extracts were 174.6,14.3,167.4,171.4,2.2 and 257.7 gkg-1 respectively,and vitamin C content was 241.3 mgkg-1;the contents of mineral elements including Cr,Mn,Fe,Cu,Zn,As,Se,Ag,Cd,Hg and Pb were 16.14,551.76,1 060.78,22.79,218.42,2.85,3.32,0.95,4.75,0.75,12.82 mgkg-1 respectively. In stems,the detectable contents of protein,crude fat,crude fiber,total sugar,free amino acid and aqueous extracts were 71.9,5.2,450.7,161.9,1.6,123.7 gkg-1 respectively,and vitamin C 135.6 mgkg-1. Measurable contents of Cr,Mn,Fe,Cu,Zn,As,Se,Ag,Cd,Hg and Pb were 17.18,56.64,550.14,12.53,82.64,1.86,0.00,19.03,1.86,2.32 and 6.96 mgkg-1 respectively. In roots,the contents of crude fiber,crude protein,total sugar,crude fat,free amino acid and aqueous extracts were 368.2,91.1,149.9,7.4,3.4 and 170.3 gkg-1 respectively and vitamin C 140.4 mgkg-1. Detectable contents of Cr,Mn,Fe,Cu,Zn,As,Se,Ag,Cd,Hg and Pb were 15.44,72.47,672.38,23.16,461.41,2.57,1.72,0.86,5.58,0.85 and 29.16 mgkg-1 respectively. Finally,we investigated the total flavonoid contents of Ficus pandurata var. hoiophylla in leaves,stem,and roots,which were 20.85,7.44 and 22.02 mgkg-1 respectively. The findings indicated that Ficus pandurata var. hoiophylla played a positive role in health protection for its nutritive value.[Ch,4 tab. 12 ref.]
Rapid differentiation between male and female adults of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis
CHEN Chong, YU Qianqian, LIU Zhenkai, SUN Yaowu, CAO Chuanjian, BAO Shan, WEN Junbao
2013, 30(2): 309-312. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.025
[Abstract](3032) [PDF](1168)
Abstract:
The male and female adults of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (a weevil pest) have a very similar external morphology. Thus,to determine external morphological characteristics that could distinguish between the sexes,observation of a large number of E. chinensis adults was conducted. A random sample of 2 389 adults in Linhe town,Lingwu,Ningxia,then observation with the naked eye and anatomical lens. Results showed that the sexes differed in the shape of their metathoracic sternite where the medioventral line stretched over the metathoracic sternite in the male,but opposite in the female adult and both sides of interrupted position were convex. Also,compared with the female,male adults of E. chinensis had the last section of their abdominal webs divided into two sections for a total of 7 in the male and 8 in the female. Since the sexual dimorphism of the metathoracic sternite was readily seen with the naked eye,male and female adults of E. chinensis could be effectively determined.[Ch,2 fig. 1 tab. 5 ref.]