2013 Vol. 30, No. 3

Articles
Water vapor flux variation and net radiation for a Phyllostachys violascens stand in Taihuyuan
LIN Enjie, JIANG Hong, CHEN Yunfei
2013, 30(3): 313-318. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.001
[Abstract](5251) [PDF](1705)
Abstract:
Using eddy covariance technology,water vapor flux variation in a high-efficiency managed Phyllostachys violascens (Lei bamboo) ecosystem in the Zhejiang Modern Demonstration Zone was observed from October 2010 to September 2011. The precipitation and net radiation responses to water vapor flux were studied using a correlation analysis. Results showed that the annual water vapor flux was positive. The maximum water vapor flux occurred in July and the minimum in January with similar variation in spring and autumn. Annual evapo-transpiration of the Lei bamboo stand was 669.84 mm,which was slightly lower than other types of woodlands. Annual precipitation was 1 201.72 mm,which was about 55.74% of the annual precipitation (669.84 mm). Except in February,October,and December,evapo-transpiration was less than precipitation. The greatest difference between evapo-transpiration and precipitation appeared in June. There was also a high correlation (r = 0.600-0.017) between water vapor flux in a Lei bamboo stand and net radiation.[Ch,4 fig. 1 tab. 13 ref.]
Relationship between above-ground biomass and DBH for Phyllostachys edulis stands based on fractal theory
SHANG Zhenzhen, ZHOU Guomo, DU Huaqiang
2013, 30(3): 319-324. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.002
[Abstract](3260) [PDF](1440)
Abstract:
Fractal theory was used to determine the relationship between above-ground biomass (AGB) and diameter at breast height (DBH) for moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis). Results indicated a fractal relationship between AGB and DBH. Spatial distribution and accumulation of moso bamboo were characterized as statistical self-similarity. For the power function,with an increase in fractal dimensions,biomass increased (R2 = 0.847 4) having an increment ratio of 1.047 9. However,for moso bamboo of different ages,fractal dimensions quantitatively describing the dynamic equilibrium relationships between AGB and DBH for three kinds of du (one year bamboo or new birth bamboo is referred as 1 du,2-3 years as 2 du,and 4-5 years as 3 du,and so on)in bamboo showed a similar fractal dimension(1.934 6 for 1 du,1.933 9 for 2 du,and 1.924 4 for 3 du). Also,there were no obviously differences between spatial distribution and accumulation of AGB for different du with the growth of moso bamboo generally following the changing pattern for a fractal dimension of 1.93[Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 19 ref.]
Forest biomass estimation in Shangri-La based on the remote sensing
WANG Jinliang, CHENG Pengfei, XU Shen, WANG Xiaohua, CHENG Feng
2013, 30(3): 325-329. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.003
[Abstract](3364) [PDF](1583)
Abstract:
To provide a basis for analyzing the forest carbon cycle,carbon storage,and carbon changes,forest biomass,the main parameter for determining carbon cycle processes in terrestrial ecosystems,was estimated. Variables measured in the study site of Shangri-La,Yunnan Province,included the vegetation index,precipitation,accumulated temperature,total radiation,and elevation. Established models of regional forest biomass estimations for spruce-fir forests (Abies georgei and Picea likiangensis),oak forests (Quercus aquifolioides),Yunnan pine forests (Pinus yunnanensis),and alpine pine forests (Pinus densata) were tested by combining layers of remote sensing integrated factors,of geographic comprehensive factors,and of the above listed variables. Then,forest biomass was estimated. Results revealed a total biomass of 1.14 hundred million tons with the following forest type biomass estimates in hundred million tons:spruce fir forests was 0.71,oak forests 0.14,Yunnan pine forests 0.09,and Alpine pine forests 0.20. Also,for these forest types,altitude and slope influenced distribution of total biomass,but aspect did not.[Ch,1 fig. 7 tab. 10 ref.]
Correlation between forest carbon distribution and terrain elements of altitude and slope
DU Qun, XU Jun, WANG Jianwu, ZHANG Feng, JI Biyong
2013, 30(3): 330-335. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.004
[Abstract](3249) [PDF](1433)
Abstract:
To better understand the forest carbon spatial distribution characteristics in Zhejiang Province,the relationship between forest carbon distribution and terrain (altitude and slope) was studied. This paper employed the Carbon Farming Initiative (CFI) dataset collected in 2009 and the forest carbon spatial distribution information for the whole province along with geostatistical techniques to quantitatively determine the correlation of forest carbon distribution and terrain. Multiple correlation coefficients of the binary quadratic multinomial were formed for the provinces forest carbon density versus terrain altitude and gradient. Results indicated that the multiple correlation coefficients of the binary quadratic multinomial were about r = 0.71. For altitudes of 0 - 400 m and a gradient of 0 - 5,forest carbon density increased fastest. This showed that forest carbon distribution was closely related to terrain and corresponded to the terrain distribution rule that forest carbon density increased with an increase in altitude and in gradient.[Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 20 ref.]
Cloning and sequence analysis of fruit ripening-specific gene CsPMEI/InvI from citrus
WANG Guoli, AN Huaming, QIN Qiaoping, LI Mengjiao, LIU Zhenzhen, CHEN Jiaying, ZHOU Qian, ZHANG Lanlan
2013, 30(3): 336-342. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.005
[Abstract](3769) [PDF](1531)
Abstract:
Fruit-ripening-specific expression genes play important roles on the regulation of fruit ripening and quality formation. A full-length cDNA of fruit ripening-specific gene,designated as CsPEMI/InvI (GenBank accession No. KC198084),was isolated from Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis Newhall) by RT-PCR and RACE. The full-length of CsPMEI/InvI was 945 bp,containing an open reading frame of 618 bp and encoding 205 amino acids. The molecular formula of encoded protein was C977H1568N296O282S10 with a calculated molecular of 22.29 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.84. The encoded protein belonged to InvI/PMEI family including highly-conserved Cys residue in the protein sequence,one cAMP and cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site,three protein kinase C phosphorylation sites,two casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation sites and three N-myristoylation sites. In its secondary structure,-helix was the main structural conformation. [Ch,7 fig. 1 tab. 28 ref.]
Cloning and expression analysis of BlFTL in Betula luminifera
HUANG Chengqian, SONG Liqing, TONG Zaikang, CHENG Longjun
2013, 30(3): 343-349. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.006
[Abstract](3588) [PDF](1817)
Abstract:
Flowering Locus T (FT) gene plays a crucial role in flower formation of plants. To clarify the function of FT-like genes in Betula luminifera will be helpful to learning about the mechanism of flowering formation in woody plant. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods were used to clone a Flowering Locus T (FT)-like homolog (named BlFTL) from Betula luminifera (FT)-like). Sequence analysis with show translations software showed that the full length of BlFTL cDNA was 924 bp and contained a single open reading frame (116-640 bp) encoding a protein of 174 amino acids (GenBank NO. JQ951966). The BlFTL protein had a typical phosphatidyl ethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) domain which was an important characterization of the FT family protein. Alignment FT protein sequence in different plants showed that the BlFTL protein shared a 94% similarity with the Ficus carica flowering locus T protein (FcFT). Also,during flowering in April,the expression of BlFTL in female flowers was almost 50 folds higher than in male flowers. In addition,in normal flowering plants after August,with the formation of the male inflorescence and mixed buds,BlFTL expressed highly in leaves in flowering plants,but no expression in non-flowering plants. In stems,the expression of BlFTL of flowering plants was 6 folds higher than in non-flowering plants. These results inferred that BlFTL was involved in flower formation of Betula luminifera.[Ch,8 fig. 13 ref.]
Rhododendron in the Hanzhong Area of the Qinling Mountains
SI Guochen, ZHANG Yanlong, LIANG Zhenxu, ZHAO Bing
2013, 30(3): 350-353. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.007
[Abstract](3655) [PDF](1662)
Abstract:
A sample survey of Rhododendron in Nanzheng Liping National Forest Park,Ningqiang Mao Bahe,Foping Liangfengya,and Lueyang Lianghekou all belonging to the Qinling Hanzhong area was made with the location,altitude,longitude,and associated plants of each kind of wild Rhododendron being recorded. Photos were taken and morphological characteristics were measured. The main results of the survey were as follows:(1) Rhododendron hypoglaucum,Rhododendron purdomii,Rhododendron concinnum,Rhododendron calophytum,Rhododendron detersile,and Rhododendron mariesii were found. (2) Variation in flower diameter,flower color,petal size,and leaves were noticeable among species with their variation trend being similar. The greatest variation was in range of filament length and leaves and least was in ovary length. R. calophytum had four different colors,whereas Rhododendron detersile had only one. Suggestions for conservation of these Rhododendron resources were put forward according to the survey results.[Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 10 ref.]
Allelopathic effects of Hydrocotyle vulgaris extract on seed germination and seedling growth
YANG Qinqin, MIAO Lihua, HONG Chunta, WANG Yuan, JI Mengcheng
2013, 30(3): 354-358. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.008
[Abstract](3283) [PDF](1425)
Abstract:
To understand the allelopathic potential of Hydrocotyle vulgaris and to determine the effect of the aquatic extract from its leaves and roots on seed germination and seedling growth,three plant types:radish (Raphanus sativus),cucumber (Cucumis sativus),and Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis) were studied using 50.0 gL-1 leaf extract and root extract. A correlation analysis was utilized. Results showed that the aquatic root and leaf extract for high density H. vulgaris had strong (P<0.01) allelopathic effects on seed germination with the seed germination rate positively correlated to the density of the extract,with a treatment of 50.0 gL-1 of the aquatic root extract seed germination was reduced 29.3% for radish,14.6% for Chinese cabbage,and 41.4% for cucumber,and reduced 51.1% for radish,39.0% for Chinese cabbage,and 100% for cucumber of the aquatic leaf extract. After germination,continue to treat with 50.0 gL-1 of the aquatic root extract and leaf extract to test the growth of radicals and buds. Result shows that with the treatment of root extract,the fresh weight of radicals was reduced 22.1% for radish,46.2% for Chinese cabbage,and 34.3% for cucumber,and the fresh weight of buds was reduced 58.1% for radish,50.2% for Chinese cabbage,and 58.9% for cucumber. The leaf extract had higher inhibition rate than root on fresh weight. Thus,the aquatic leaf extract had stronger allelopathic effects than roots.[Ch,3 tab. 15 ref.]
Photosynthetic characteristics of Dendrobium officinale from five provenances
ZHANG Lingju, GAO Tingting, ZHANG Xiaoling, SI Jinping
2013, 30(3): 359-363. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.009
[Abstract](4292) [PDF](1538)
Abstract:
To real photosynthetic characteristics variation of Dendrobium officinale from different provenances to provide reference for producing quality,low-carbon,and efficient D. officinale,photosynthetic rate and light intensity response curve of D. officinale provenances from Qingyuan,Tiantai,and Wuyi in Zhejiang Province,as well as Guangnan and Malipo in Yunnan Province were studied. Diurnal variation for the photosynthetic rate and light response curves for net photosynthesis to photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) were measured using an Li-6400 photosynthetic determination system. Results showed that the net photosynthetic rate,the light saturation point,and the light compensation point in leaves of D. officinale were low with some differences (P<0.05) among the five provenances. Thus,during cultivation,light intensity must be controlled to ensure quality,low-carbon,and efficient production of D. officinale.[Ch,6 fig. 1 tab. 8 ref.]
Maintaining freshness with 1-MCP treatment for storage of Actinidia delicious ‘Xuxiang’ kiwifruit
GUO Ye, WANG Yaping, FEI Xueqian, LIU Li
2013, 30(3): 364-371. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.010
[Abstract](3005) [PDF](1526)
Abstract:
To determine the effect of different 1-MCP concentrations (0 LL-1,0.3 LL-1,0.6 LL-1,0.9 LL-1 and 1.2 LL-1 ) on quality as well as physiological and bio-chemical characteristics during cold storage,a Zhejiang variety of Actinidia deliciosa of Xuxiang kiwifruit was studied. Results showed that 0.9 LL-1 1-MCP was favorable for keeping of Xuxiang kiwifruit quality. At the end of storage,in comparison with the control,the treatment of 0.9 LL-1 can significantly improved Vc content in 0.19 mgg-1 and total sugars content in 25.0 gkg-1;0.9 LL-1 1-MCP also helped improved titratable acidity content in 0.17%. Additionally,0.9 LL-1 1-MCP reduced rates of respiration content in 7.1 mgkg-1h-1 and ethylene production content in 1.0 nLg-1h-1 and delayed time to respiration and ethylene peaks. In addition,1-MCP significantly restrained increases of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA),increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity and maintained integrity of the cell membrane well (P<0.05).[Ch,6 fig. 21 ref.]
Seed oil production rate and fatty acid content of Styrax tonkinensis during seed maturation
SHI Congguang, LI Yingang, ZHU Guangquan, LIU Xinhong, YANG Liu, SHENG Weixing
2013, 30(3): 372-378. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.011
[Abstract](2789) [PDF](1401)
Abstract:
To determine variation in oil production rate and fatty acid content during the nut maturation period (between September and October) of Styrax tonkinensis,seven batches of nuts were collected from samples taken every 12 d from mid-August to late October. After a series of airing and peeling treatments,seeds obtained as a result of threshing were measured for seed hundred-grain weight,oil production rate,and fatty acid content. Results showed that the stage from September 27th to October 9th was the inflection point for nut and seed maturation due to strong variation in nut and seed characteristics. During this stage,nut shells began to dehydrate and dry matter accumulated rapidly. As nuts and seeds matured,saturated fatty acid content declined with content of most unsaturated fatty acids rising gradually. However,linoleic acid content declined sharply. These results have theoretical importance for determining harvest time and appropriate storage techniques for S. tonkinensis nuts.[Ch,3 fig. 2 tab. 14 ref.]
Design and implementation of an embedded automatic plant recognition system
CHEN Fang, ZHANG Guangqun, CUI Kunpeng, WANG Hangjun
2013, 30(3): 379-384. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.012
[Abstract](6092) [PDF](1843)
Abstract:
To identify plant categories based on steady characteristics of leaves with embedded techniques and image processing technology,a system was designed and implemented based on Ubuntu 10.04,Qt Creator1.3.1,and UP-NETARM2410-S board developed by Bochuang Company. The system includes four steps: (1) collecting leaves and taking images,(2) preprocessing images (transform them into grayscale images and extracting the contours),(3) extracting shape features (including leaf shape,complexity,and eccentricity),and (4) matching and recognizing the leaves. The results showed that this system can accurately recognize Ginkgo biloba,Cinnamomum camphora,Sapindus saponaria,and plant leaves from nine other species. [Ch,6 fig. 1 tab. 13 ref.]
Field tests for mold resistance with BHT and BTA added to bamboo preservatives
ZHOU Yueying, SUN Fangli, BAO Binfu
2013, 30(3): 385-391. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.013
[Abstract](2944) [PDF](1516)
Abstract:
To improve resistance of bamboo preservatives against hydrolysis,light degradation,and oxidation degradation in outdoor applications,an antioxidant,butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT),and an ultraviolet absorber,benzotriazole (BTA),were added to the preservatives propiconazole and tebuconazole and applied to four-year-old bamboo samples. Then,the influence on mold resistance was studied through 24 weeks of field tests. Results showed that for a 1.0% concentration of tebuconazole,adding BHT alone increased resistance against mold fungi on the up-face of bamboo from 19.14% to 34.84%;however,BTA alone reduced mold resistance. Nevertheless,adding both BHT and BTA to tebuconazole increased mold resistance to 42.75%. For a 1.0% propiconazole concentration,mold resistance on the up-face of bamboo with BTA alone increased from 14.4% to 37.23%,but BHT alone had little effect;adding both BHT and BTA to propiconazole,however,increased mold resistance to 54.12%. Thus,using BHT and BTA together could enhance mold resistance of both tebuconazole and propiconazole.[Ch,4 fig. 6 tab. 17 ref.]
Self-organization balance of Matsucoccus matsumurae in the pine forest ecological system
XIE Zhen, WU Zhongliang, ZHU Yunfeng, WANG Yongjun
2013, 30(3): 392-395. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.014
[Abstract](11186) [PDF](1566)
Abstract:
Matsucoccus matsumurae (Kuwana.) is an important invasive pest in China. Population changes of M. matsumurae and its predatory enemies during the period from 1982 to 2008 have been investigated in Hengfan Forest Farm of Linan City,Zhejiang Province. Twenty-eight species of the predatory enemies have been found. Results showed that the population of M. matsumurae exhibited a wave mode declination. The population constructions of the predatory enemies have a tight relation to this declination. The utilized pest control accelerates significantly the stability of the populations of M. matsumurae and its predatory enemies. It could be clarified that M. matsumurae processed its self-organization balance in the pine forest ecological system.[Ch,2 fig. 1 tab. 11 ref.]
Expression and antibody preparation of nonstructural protein 1 for Japanese encephalitis virus from pigs
SHEN Hongxia, HAN Xiujie, ZHAO Fanfan, ZHANG Baoxin, YU Fengyan, WANG Xiaodu
2013, 30(3): 396-400. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.015
[Abstract](14539) [PDF](1788)
Abstract:
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in breeding pigs,has caused reproductive disorders,such as orchitis,stillbirths,and mummified fetuses,and has produced encephalitis in piglets. The NS1 (nonstructural protein 1) gene is associated with viral RNA packaging and replication and with viral anti-host immunity.NS1 protein were expressed by prokaryotic expression system and polyclonal antibodies of NS1 were prepared. In this study,the cDNA of JEV was synthesized from a viral genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The NS1 gene was cloned from cDNA by PCR and subcloned into pET-28(a) plasmid. The recombinant plasmid pET-28(a)-JEV-NS1 was then transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Next,the recombinant JEV-NS1 protein (whose molecular weight is 46 kDa) was expressed by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction. To improve the expression level of the recombinant JEV-NS1 protein,the 958-1 245 bp of the JEV-NS1 gene was truncated,and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used for the analysis. Also,the protein was immunized into an Institute of Cancer Research(ICR) mouse;then the mouse anti-JEV-NS1 antiserum was prepared;the antiserum specificity were detected with western-blotting. Results showed that the truncated JEV-NS1 expression was greatly increased and the SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed this. In addition,purification production of the recombinant protein was 85% of the total protein content. The antiserum of NS1 can specifically recognized the production of JEV infected cells. This study will assist in JEV-NS1 functional research and exploration of JEV pathogenic mechanism.[Ch,6 fig. 13 ref.]
Cloning and sequence analysis of prothymosin-α cDNA of Bufo japonicus formosus
SONG Minguo, YUAN Jinqiang, YANG Xianyu, ZHANG Shufang, ZHUGE Hui, XU Yue
2013, 30(3): 401-405. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.016
[Abstract](3176) [PDF](1562)
Abstract:
To study the polypeptide effective components included in the skin of Bufo japonicus formosus (Japanese toad) and their secretions,the full length cDNAs were screened from the plasmid cDNA library of adult Japanese toad skin using colony polymerase chain reaction with a pair of primers,SP6 (the upstream primer of the vector) and poly(T) (a self-designed primer recognizing the area connecting polyA tail of cDNA and the vector). Results showed that a prothymosin- (ProT) cDNA was obtained from 1 344 colonies checked,whose transcript was 1 480 bp in length consisting of 125 bp in the 5 prime untranslated region (5 UTR) and 1 016 bp 3 UTR with a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 339 bp encoding a polypeptide of 112 amino acid residues. The homologous analysis indicated a similarity between B. japonicus formosus and Rana esculenta of up to 82%,but for other species it was 54%-73%. Previous studies have shown significant anti-tumor effects of ProT; therefore,this study could contribute to further studies on ProT.[Ch,4 fig. 17 ref.]
Analysis of pricing theory and composition of forest environmental resources based on marginal opportunity cost
DAI Xiaoting, YANG Jianzhou, FENG Xiangjin
2013, 30(3): 406-411. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.017
[Abstract](2987) [PDF](1521)
Abstract:
The theory of marginal opportunity cost provides a better method for resource pricing. It can reflect the production cost,user cost and environmental cost of the resource utilization. It is consistent with the idea of sustainable development. The theory has been widely used in coal and water resources pricing. However, there is few research on forest environment resources pricing,especially no systematic research. This paper firstly reviewed the marginal opportunity cost theory and its application,followed by a feasibility analysis of applying it to forest environmental resources pricing. Considering the characteristic of forest environment resources,the research proposed a specific pricing composition based on the marginal opportunity cost theory. It has laid a theoretical foundation for the future research based on the marginal opportunity cost of forest environmental resource pricing.[Ch,1 tab. 21 ref.]
Investigation and analysis of consumptive request for Chinese premium teas
ZHOU Zhixiu, DUAN Wenhua, WU Haiyan, SI Zhimin
2013, 30(3): 412-416. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.018
[Abstract](2513) [PDF](1709)
Abstract:
Chinese consumers demands for and consumption behaviors of premium teas was investigated and analyzed. The results indicated that the consumers top concerns were the internal quality and safety of premium teas,then their popularity and price. Consumers accepted different prices for teas with different purposes; the prices of teas for business and gift purposes were higher than those for private use. Approximately 62.7 per cent of consumers didnt care the early availability of the premium teas and 72.6 per cent didnt care the tenderness. About 40.7 per cent of consumers believed that the premium teas made from seedling landraces and clonal tea cultivars both had their unique advantages. Nevertheless,the number of consumers fond of clones was much larger. 65.5 per cent of consumers like hand-made premium teas or teas made by both hand and machine. Only 10.0 per cent preferred machinery made teas. 91.0 per cent of consumers recognized the three security certificates,namely non-pollution food,green food and organic food,and 85.0 per cent recognized QS (quality safety) certificate. About 77.4 per cent and 76.1 per cent of consumers paid attention to the brands and special packages of premium teas. The most favorable unit packages were 50 g and 2-3 g. Producers and consumers had comparatively significant differences in the awareness of hand-made and machinery-made,the earliness and tenderness of premium teas,which should obtain great attentions in order to keep the premium tea industry develop healthily and stably.[Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 17 ref.]
Photographic ways to tomatoes photographing
SHEN Zhiguo
2013, 30(3): 417-422. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.019
[Abstract](2741) [PDF](1479)
Abstract:
The 10 typical big tomato cultivars and 4 small cultivars which widely planted in Zhejiang are selected to analyze the photographic ways and growing process with the methods of common agricultural and advertising photography. The results show that the photographing of tomatoes is usually taken in the big vegetable shed and related to clarity of the scene, so it combines both of big scenes and specific parts. Meanwhile it also can be taken in the commercial photography mode to display tomatoes. Art expression way is often used for those patterns of manifestation such as main body manifestation, environmental manifestation as a foil. The fixed light way, which was overlooked before, is widely used in tomatoes photographing, because it is better to manifest the light quality of tomatoes. Special whether as cloudy and rainy days are the best time for tomatoes photographing, because the light in such days is scattering and soft without fixed directions, and the obtained photographs have soft color and delicate texture. Excellent photography of tomatoes is the first visual element to promote good agricultural products.[Ch,6 fig. 12 ref.]
Carbon accounting approaches for wood products and potential applications
BAI Yanfeng, JIANG Chunqian, ZHANG Shougong, LEI Jingpin
2013, 30(3): 423-427. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.020
[Abstract](2988) [PDF](1634)
Abstract:
Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC),all parties are required to report their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals with wood products being an important component of the national inventory. How to deal with the fairness and potential application of different approaches has been debated. This study compared discrepancies from four approaches: the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) default approach,the stock change approach,the production approach,and the atmospheric flow approach,regarding removals and distribution of emissions,to determine impacts of trade and forest benefits. Principles of choice,including feasibility,applicability,the relation to UNFCCC and the Kyoto protocol,and the context of national policy were analyzed. Then,potential implications of the different accounting approaches on the wood products market and sustainable forest management in China,based on whether responsibility for emission reductions in the future were undertaken or not,were reviewed. Results showed that the stock change approach may be favorable for China. Using this approach,China could strengthen its quantitative data concerning potential implications of different accounting approaches and diminish the uncertainty of parameters,such as decay rate,lifetime,recycle rate.[Ch,1 fig. 1 tab. 19 ref.]
Research progresses in the effect of land-use change on soil carbon pools and soil respiration
ZHANG Tao, LI Yongfu, JIANG Peikun, ZHOU Guomo, LIU Juan
2013, 30(3): 428-437. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.021
[Abstract](3384) [PDF](1680)
Abstract:
Land use change has a very significant impact on the carbon cycling in ecosystems and global climate change. Soil carbon storage has the 2-3 times capacity of the atmospheric carbon pool,and the process of soil respiration is regarded as the main pathway to the emission of pedosphere carbon into the atmosphere. Study on the effects of land use change on soil carbon pools and soil respiration rate would have a very important significance for revealing the response of ecosystems to land-use change and associated mechanisms,and scientific estimates of regional ecosystem carbon sequestration. The effects of land-use change among four land-use types (natural woodland,plantation land,agricultural land and grassland) on the soil carbon storage were reviewed in this paper. The effects of the above-mentioned land-use change on different labile carbon pools,including microbial biomass carbon,water-soluble carbon,readily oxidizable C,were analyzed in detail. Additionally,the response of soil respiration rate to the land-use change and associated mechanisms was investigated,and the focuses in this field for future research were put forward.[Ch,69 ref.]
A review of wood identification based on molecular biology technologies
FU Jianguo, LIU Jinliang, YANG Xiaojun, AN Yulin, LUO Jiayan
2013, 30(3): 438-443. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.022
[Abstract](3129) [PDF](1649)
Abstract:
The prominence of wood for the human society and progress in its identification technologies have been of great importance in the development of wood science and forest resource protection. Along with continuous breakthroughs in wood DNA extraction methods, molecular biology technologies have been applied to wood and wood assortment identification. In this paper the progress of molecular technology for wood identification was reviewed. Methods used in wood DNA extraction along with questions and improvement measures were presented. Technologies used in wood identification, such as microsatellite, single nucleotide polymorphism, and DNA barcoding, were reviewed. Also, successful instances of molecular biology technologies utilized in wood resource identification were described. Finally, problems and prospects of molecular technologies for wood identification were analyzed. [Ch, 43 ref.]
Establishing and optimizing a SCoT-PCR system for Lycoris
JIANG Xiaofeng, GAO Yanhui, TONG Zaikang, HUANG Chunhong
2013, 30(3): 444-452. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.023
[Abstract](11724) [PDF](1580)
Abstract:
An optimal SCoT(start condon tagreted polymorphism)-PCR(polymerase chain reaction)amplification system was established to provide a new way of studying genetic diversity and genetic improvement in Lycoris. This system was optimized based on the L25(56)orthogonal experiment and single factor experiment. Results showed that the optimal reaction system (20 L)contained 2.0 mgL-1 DNA template, 0.125 molL-1 primers, 0.2 mmolL-1 dNTPs, 3.0 mmolL-1 Mg2+, and 1.0 16.67 nkat Taq DNA polymerase. 34 materials of Lycoris were randomly selected and the test was repeated 3 times. Using this optimal reaction system, stable and clear polymorphic bands were acquired. These favorable results could provide a scientific basis for further study of Lycoris.[Ch, 7 fig. 6 tab. 25 ref.]
Tissue culture and rapid propagation of Ficus pandurata var.angustifolia with different plant growth regulators
ZHOU Yanqing, DING Lan, XU Buqing, XIA Guohua, CUI Yongyi
2013, 30(3): 453-458. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.024
[Abstract](3880) [PDF](1422)
Abstract:
Little information on callus induction, proliferation and regeneration from leaf explants of Ficus pandurata var. angustifolia, a commonly used medication with the She ethnic minority, has been found. To develop and utilize this ethnic herb, an in vitro induction and shoot regeneration from leaf explants was evaluated using an orthogonal experimental design with plant growth regulators,including 6-Benzylaminopurine(6-BA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-D), Thidiazuron(TDZ), and naphthaleneacetic acid(NAA), concentrations in a Murashige and Skoog(MS) media. Results showed that callus induction ratio in all 9 treatments exceeded 100%, but adventitious buds were extremely difficult to differentiate. The optimum medium for adventitious buds differentiation was MS + 1.0 mgL-1 6-BA + 0.2 mgL-1 2,4-D + 0.1 mgL-1 NAA, the differentiation rate of adventitious buds reached 6.7%. The orthogonal experimental design showed that the proliferation capacity of plant growth regulators was in the order: 6-BA > TDZ >NAA. The optimum medium for proliferation was MS + 0.3 mgL-1 TDZ + 1.0 mgL-1 6-BA + 0.3 mgL-1 NAA, the multiplication rate was 8.93, and the rooting rate in all 9 treatments was 100%. The tissue culture technique and rapid propagation system of Ficus pandurata var. angustifolia could be used for large-scale seedlings in short time and provide technical guidance for large-scale production.[Ch, 1 tab. 4 tab. 13 ref.]
Efficacy of three insecticides against Phenacoccus kaxinus and Eucryptorrhynchus brandti
CHU Jiamiao, ZHONG Tailin, HUANG Shanshan
2013, 30(3): 459-362. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.03.025
[Abstract](3939) [PDF](2556)
Abstract:
Use 2%(v/v) avermectins emulsifiable concentrate(EC), 50%(v/v) bamboo tar EC, and 80%(v/v) bamboo tar K+ solubility liquid (SL) to control Phenacoccus kaxinus and Eucryptorrhynchus brandti. We chose Fraxinus chinensis plantation harmed by Phenacoccus kaxinus and Ailanthus altissima Qiantou nursery harmed by Eucryptorrhynchus brandti as sampling fields with five levels and three replications, and 50% phoxim EC as the control. We investigate the control effect after 3, 7, 14 d after spraying respectively. Field experiments showed that the control effect of the three pesticides to Phenacoccus kaxinus all above 65%, and 50% bamboo tar EC is the best pesticide(90.03%) among the three pesticides, which no significant different (P>0.05) compared with the control; The best control effect to the Eucryptorrhynchus brandti was 14 d after spraying, and the efficacy of 2% avermectins EC and 50% bamboo tar EC reached 71.71% and 77.55% respectively, which no significant different(P>0.05) with the control(73.99%). While the efficacy of 80% bamboo tar K+SL was significant lower(P<0.01) than the control. It proved that 50% bamboo tar EC has further application prospect as the pesticide.[Ch, 2 tab. 9 ref.]