2013 Vol. 30, No. 4

Impacts of forestland transfer on households’ inputs in forestland
XU Xiuying, REN Tengteng, CHEN Gaojie, ZHAO Na, LI Chaozhu
2013, 30(4): 463-469. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.001
[Abstract](2815) [PDF](834)
Forestland transfer is the important content of the collective forest tenure reform,and input in forestland is a great driving force to the development of forestry economy. Based on the survey data of farmer households, this paper analyzed the differences in forestland inputs not only between the households which had transferred their forestlands and those hadnt transferred, but also between transferred plots and non-transferred plots. The comparisons indicated that the transferred households input in forestland per hectare was higher than those non-transferred. The input per hectare of the transferred plots was higher than the non-transferred plots. The research established a multiple linear regression model to analyze the impact of forestland transfer on the households input in forestland. The results indicated that forestland inflow had significantly positive influence(P<0.10)on forestland input in the economic forestland,while forestland inflow had no significant effect on forestland input in the bamboo forestland. [Ch,6 tab. 10 ref.]
Phytolith production in wetland plants of the Hangzhou Xixi Wetlands ecosystem
LI Zimin, SONG Zhaoliang, LI Beilei, CAI Yanbin
2013, 30(4): 470-476. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.002
[Abstract](3392) [PDF](827)
Phytoliths,also referred to as plant opal,are silicified features that form as a result of biomineralization within plants and plays an important role in terrestrial biogeochemical cycles of carbon and silicon. This study selected 18 different plant species at the Xixi Wetlands in Zhejiang Province,to determine the phytolith content and its production flux using microwave,Walkley-Black digestion,and a correlation analysis. The main purpose of this study is to provide scientific reference for understanding the role of phytoliths in biogeochemical cycles of silicon and carbon. Results showed strong variation in phytolith content among the 18 plants:Cortaderia selloana(7.7%),Setaria viridis(7.6%),Digitaria ternata(6.9%),and Phragmites australis (6.6%)were higher than Salvinia natans(1.3%),Halerpestes cymbalaria(1.1%),and Canna indica L.(1.0%). A positive correlation between phytolith content and total SiO2 in the 18 plants(R2=0.663 3,P<0.01)was also found. Phytolith production flux was 4.48-129.92 gm-2a-1;phytolith sequestration of atmospheric CO2 was 0.16-1.03 gm-2a-1;and the phytolith sequestration rate of atmospheric CO2 was 8.29 ta-1. So,it is very important to improve the flux of aboveground plant phytolith production in wetlands ecosystems by selecting a plant with high-phytolith(silicon)content and high-ANPP(aboveground net primary production)yields for the plant Phragmites australis.[Ch,1 fig. 1 tab. 35 ref.]
Volatile organic compounds in flowers of four Magnoliaceae species
DING Qianqian, WU Xingbo, LIU Fang, XU Gaiping, ZHENG Jie, GAO Yan
2013, 30(4): 478-483. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.003
[Abstract](3065) [PDF](866)
To measurre and understand the constituents of volatile organic compounds(VOCs),flower VOCs from Magnolia soulangeana,Magnolia liliflora,Magnolia denudataFeihuang,and Michelia maudiae were collected using the dynamic headspace air-circulation method and analyzed with thermal desorption system-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry(TDS-GC-MS). Results showed that the major compositions were as follows:Magnolia soulangeana emitted 15 types of terpenoids,mainly as cis-ocimene(relative content of 27.59%),-pinene(14.43%),and linalool(12.90%),accounting for 92.60% of total VOCs;Magnolia liliflora emitted 22 types of terpenoids,as myrcene(21.98%),selinene(10.16%),and limonene(8.12%),comprising 71.72% of the total VOCs;Magnolia denudata Feihuang emitted perillene (62.46%),cis-linalool oxide(9.56%),and cis-verbenone(7.54%)making a total of 79.6%;and Michelia maudiae chiefly emitted methyl benzoate(65.31%).[Ch,2 fig. 1 tab. 22 ref.]
Leaf anatomical structure for 15 tree species’ seedlings in Zhejiang Province
LIU Xinxin, ZHANG Mingru, ZOU Linli, WU Gang, YIN Zhuoyue, Lü Chengxiang
2013, 30(4): 484-489. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.004
[Abstract](3031) [PDF](905)
To reveal leaf adaptability to the light environment for tree species common to the Western Zhejiang,characteristics of the leaf anatomical structure in 15 tree speciesseedlings:Castanopsis sclerophylla,Schima superba,Elaeocarpus decipiens, Sapium sebiferum,Lithocarpus brevicaudatus,Lithocarpus glaber,Phoebe chekiangensis,Quercus phillyraeoides,Podocarpus nagi,Pinus massoniana,Metasequoia glyptostroboides,Taxus chinensis,Photinia fraseri,Lespedeza formosa,and Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum were studied using the paraffin section method and a cluster analysis for leaf anatomical structure. Results showed that: 1)M. glyptostroboides and T. chinensis had an upper epidermis thickness(UET) of one layer with less developed palisade and sponge tissue;Pinus massoniana had needles in bunches of two with a half-ound cross section. 2)The nine broadleaf tree species had the thickest palisade and sponge tissue. Schima superba,Sapium sebiferum,and Podocarpus nagi had one layer of palisade tissue;Lithocarpus brevicaudatus,E. decipiens,Lithocarpus glaber,and Phoebe chekiangensis had two layers of palisade tissue. C. sclerophylla and Q. phillyraeoides had the most developed palisade tissue with three layers. Sponge tissue revealed a loose arrangement. 3)The order for palisade and sponge tissue thickness with shrub species was Photinia fraseri > Lespedeza formosa > Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum. 4)The cluster analysis of leaf anatomical structure showed that Podocarpus nagi was a shade-olerant tree species;Pinus massoniana belonged to a strong positive species;Sapium sebiferum,Photinia fraseri,C. sclerophylla,and Q. phillyraeoides were positive species;and Lithocarpus brevicaudatus,Lespedeza formosa, Phoebe chekiangensis,E. decipiens,Schima superba,M. glyptostroboides,T. chinensis,Lithocarpus glaber,and Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum were classified as neutral tree species. These results provided a developmental basis for the monodominant synusium structural regulation and control of Pinus massoniana and for zonal forest vegetation recovery of low mountain and hill areas.[Ch, 2 fig. 1 tab. 17 ref.]
Growth and physiological characteristics of five island tree species with drought stress
CHEN Wen, ZHAO Ying, YE Zhengqian, WANG Meiqin, WANG Jing, WANG Guoming
2013, 30(4): 490-498. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.005
[Abstract](2637) [PDF](760)
To compare the drought-resistance of five island tree species,namely, Ilex integra,Machilus thunbergii,Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii,Eurya emarginata,and Eurya japonica,an experiment was conducted using tree seedlings with different soil drought stress levels. Plant physiological responses to the drought stress were measured. Results showed that the root and shoot biomass decreased as drought increased, but the root-to-shoot ratios(R/S) increased first and then decreased. In addition,chlorophyll content(Chl) decreased as drought stress increased. With severe drought stress,the survival rate was C. japonicum var. chenii > I. integra > M. thunbergii = E. emarginata > E. japonica. A subordinate function used to rank drought-resistance showed: C. japonicum var. chenii > I. integra > M. thunbergii > E. japonica>E. emarginata . [Ch,4 tab. 25 ref.]
Water consumption and maximal photochemical efficiency for shade tolerant,ground cover plants during drought stress
ZHANG Pengchong, YING Qiushi, MO Yaying
2013, 30(4): 499-504. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.006
[Abstract](3126) [PDF](735)
To select drought-resistant and water-saving plants,water consumption and maximum photochemical efficiency(Fv/Fm)of eight shade tolerant,ground cover plants(Pellionia radicans,Lysimachia hemsleyana, Selaginella nipponica,Selaginella uncinata,Selaginella moellendorffii,Sedum chauveaudii,Ophiopogon bodinieri) experiencing drought stress were analyzed. The persistent drought method was used to find diurnal water consumption regularity,and Fv/Fm was determined with manual control of different relative water contents using an Li-6400XT(Split-plot design with treatments of 100%,80%,60%,40% and 3 replications). Results showed that with normal water content levels(100%),the diurnal variation for water consumption was a single-peak type between 10:00 and 14:00 with the peak and total water consumption varying among the eight plants(F=8.459,P=0.05). As water stress increased,water consumption decreased until there was no difference which were all under 0.5 gg-1h-1. The Fv/Fm of Selaginella moellendorffii,Selaginella uncinata,and Selaginella nipponica decreased dramatically at 80%,60%,40% by 61.6%,22.6%,48.5% respectively,and morphological characteristics deteriorated. Of the eight plant types,Ophiopogon bodinieri had the most ideal characteristics;whereas S. moellendorffii,S. uncinata,and S. nipponica were less fit as drought-resistant and water-saving types. Nevertheless,as long as peak water consumption was maintained, these plants could be used in gardens. [Ch,3 fig. 21 ref.]
Flora and life-form of wild vine resources in the Lushan Mountain
WEI Zongxian, SONG Manzhen, NIU Yanli, JIANG Bo, HUANG Qiang
2013, 30(4): 505-510. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.007
[Abstract](3880) [PDF](846)
Flora and life-form of wild vines resource in Lushan Mountain were studied. Several field investigations were conducted and literature was consulted on wild vines in the Lushan Mountain range with a floristic element analysis being conducted. Results showed that there are 167 species of wild vines, belonging to 72 genera in 29 families. The vine flora was composed mainly of small families with few genera. Families with 1-5 vine species accounted for 44.83 % of the total families; whereas genera having 1-5 vine species comprised 86.11% of the total genera. The vine flora had the features of richness in species, components were complex. The floristic element analysis revealed wild vine flora with tropical(43 of the total genera) features and temperate(25 of the total genera). Among them,Pantropic were dominant, accounted for 30.55% of all wild vines,followed by East-Asian element (18.06%). Woody vines were also predominant (about 50.00 % of the genera). Climbing types of wild vines were divided into 4 types: twining(50.90%),curling(28.14%),hooking(11.38%),and adhering(9.58%). [Ch,5 tab. 23 ref.]
Cloning and SNP analysis of PPO genes with cultivars of Phyllostachys nigra
XIAO Guohui, WANG Yi, LOU Yongfeng, LIN Xinchun, GUO Xiaoqin, FANG Wei
2013, 30(4): 511-516. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.008
[Abstract](2964) [PDF](897)
Polyphenol oxidase(PPO) fragments were cloned from cultivars of Phyllostachys nigra using a pair of primers designed according to a conserved region(CuA and CuB) of a PPO gene sequence in Poaceae family and analyzed with a sequence analysis. The genetic relationship of cultivars was also analyzed based on these fragments using DNAMAN software. Results of the sequence analysis showed that identity was 92.35% in nucleotide acid and 81.83% in amino acid. A truncated protein of the gene was found in some cultivars of P. nigra,such asOne-year-purpleandPurple Groove. Single?鄄nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) sites were also found among these sequences. This could lead to non-synonymous mutations.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 20 ref.]
Growth of Cyclobalanopsis myrsinaefolia in Zhejiang,China
LIU Binbin, LOU Luhuan, LIU Guangning, ZHANG Dongbei, YE Qing
2013, 30(4): 517-522. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.009
[Abstract](3346) [PDF](779)
The thesis aims at offering theoretical foundation for the reasonable development and efficient management of subtropical native tree species. Based on a stem analysis of 64-year-old Cyclobalanopsis myrsinaefolia in the Jiaoximen Forest Region of Qingyuan,Zhejiang Province,China,growth (tree height, DBH, and tree volume)and climatic factors (annual rainfall and average annual temperature) were studied with a correlation analysis. Results showed that: (1) The total increment for tree height,DBH,and volume increased with age. (2)Also,curves for current annual increment of tree height and DBH had many peaks and could be divided into three stages. Demarcation points for tree height and DBH were separately the 16th and 33rd year, the 29th and 56th year. For tree height,the mean annual increment declined during the first 32 years and then rose slightly.(3)With tree volume,the mean and annual increment curves did not cross indicating that stem volume had not reached maturity.(4)Tree height was consistent with changes in annual rainfall and average annual temperature; however, there was no correlation between DBH increase and tree volume. Thus,we could conclude that the growth of tree height was more sensitive to the effect of outside factor;annual rainfall and average annual temperature were important environmental factors influencing increases in tree height,but not DBH and tree volume. Although the most 2 important factors were studied, it could not cover all the external and internal carses. So the correlation between growth and climatic factors needed to be made further studies.[Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 18 ref.]
Forest management division research using the minimum variance method
XU Jun, LIU Anxin, XU Da, WANG Wenwu, TAN Ying
2013, 30(4): 523-528. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.010
[Abstract](2669) [PDF](723)
The forest management division uses concrete measures,such as subjective judgment and qualitative analysis,for forest management. To classify similar areas objectively,Longquan was used with the minimum variance method,which had been tested there for structural land classification,to calculate two forest management distribution systems: one using elevation data and the other slope data. Comparing the two distribution systems with the actual local forest management plans showed a strong goodness of fit based on elevation and slope. Thus,the two systems could be used as an important basis for forest management,and the minimum variance method could be used as an important analysis factor,based on quantitative data such as elevation and slope,to guide the forest management division.[Ch, 6 tab. 10 ref.]
Distribution and influencing factors of three-dimensional green biomass for artificial greenbelts in sanatoriums
WANG Dongliang, JIN Hexian, FAN Likun, TANG Yuli
2013, 30(4): 529-535. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.011
[Abstract](2559) [PDF](789)
This study was conducted to find a method for measurement and distribution of three-dimensional green biomass (TGB) in an artificial greenbelt of a small area. Thirty-six 20 m 20 m plots from artificial greenbelts of three sanatoriums in Hangzhou were chosen, and destructive measurements were used. According to a field vegetation survey,14 community indicators were selected, and then a stepwise regression and a Pearson correlation test were carried out to derive a total of 4 simulated equations for TGB. Results showed that overall,TGB had a normal distribution,and the tree layer took up nearly 90% of the total TGB. The coefficient of determination (R2) for the 4 simulated equations ranged from 0.922 to 0.973,but no evident pattern was shown in the residual analysis meaning that the simulated equations could be used to predict TGB of the artificial greenbelt. The most convenient simulated equation was y = 2 679.155x11 + 77.620,where y was simulated TGB and x11 was basal area at breast height. Thus,according to the standard regression coefficients for the simulated equations,basal area at breast height was the most important factor affecting TGB of a small area,artificial greenbelt. [Ch,2 fig. 7 tab. 22 ref.]
Densification of poplar veneer
CHEN Chen, FAN Xianglin, DENG Yuhe, CHEN Min, WU Jing, YANG Ying, HOU Tianyu, WANG Xiangge
2013, 30(4): 536-542. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.012
[Abstract](2692) [PDF](643)
The influence of compression and heat-treatment on density and dimensional stability of densified poplar veneer was studied. By changing the elements of hot-pressing and heat-treatment,such as the initial moisture content,compression pressure,temperature and time,heat-treatment temperature and time,the properties of poplar had significant improvement. Results indicated that the initial moisture content should be below 15%. As compression pressure and temperature increased, density continuously improved. When pressure reached 10 MPa,the density was 98.8% higher than untreated veneer,and it was 81.4% higher as the compression temperature rose to 140 ℃. Hot-pressing time showed a density increase of 0.748 gcm-3 for 8 min. Pressed veneer in 20 ℃ and 70 ℃ water had a recovery of set of over 50%. Optimal treatment parameters for densified poplar veneer were initial moisture content under 15%,pressing temperature of 140 ℃,pressing pressure of 8 MPa,and time of 8 min. Chemical component analysis showed that cellulose,hemicellulose and lignin changed with heat-treatment,especially the content of hemicelluloses decreased,and degradation of the strongest hygroscopicity of hemicellulose led to a reduction of hydroscopicity hydroxyl. With higher temperatures and longer times,the weight-loss ratio gradually increased and density decreased. Thus,to maintain density,the temperature should be below 210 ℃,and the time should be less than 40 min.[Ch,4 fig. 1 tab. 13 ref.]
Comparison of X-ray scanning and slice methods for moisture distribution measurements when drying Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation wood
YU Le, Lü Jianxiong, LI Xianjun, XU Kang, WU Yiqiang, JIANG Jiali
2013, 30(4): 543-547. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.013
[Abstract](2953) [PDF](875)
To test measurement accuracy of the X-ray scanning method and to explore its feasibility for determining moisture content distribution with Chinese fir plantation wood (Cunninghamia lanceolata),the X-ray scanning and slicing methods were compared during the conventional drying process. Results with the two methods for each drying stage showed no significant differences(P >0.05). In addition, a regression analysis revealed R2 > 0.90 for the two methods. During the entire drying process,the moisture content of each layer measured with the slice method was lower than the X-ray scanning method;however,differences were greater when moisture content was high. Thus,using X-ray scanning to measure the moisture content distribution of wood during the drying process would be practical.[Ch,1 fig. 1 tab. 13 ref.]
Physical properties of tobacco stalk fibers along the stem
LI Xiaoping, WU Zhangkang, ZHANG Congjie
2013, 30(4): 548-551. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.014
[Abstract](3485) [PDF](745)
To use tobacco stalks more economically and to improve their value, variation in fiber size,micro fiber angle (MFA),and the relative degree of crystallinity for fiber cells in tobacco stalk fibers along the height of the stem were studied. These were compared to industrial hemp stalks and castor stalks using an optical microscope and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. Results showed that the tobacco fiber cell had a favorable mid-length and good fiber size (The fiber length is 0.76 mm and the cell wall thickness to lumen diameter is 0.50). Also,there was a marked difference between the variation in fiber size for the tobacco stalk and the industrial hemp and castor stalks along the height of the stem, for example, the fiber length at bottom part of tobacco is longest wihile the fiber length at midoint of castor stalk and industrial hemp stalk is shortest. MFA of the fiber cell wall at its midpoint was samller compared to the bottom and top parts(P= 0.000 1), and the relative degree of fiber crystallinity decreased (P= 0.000 1) with the height of the tobacco stalk stem. In addition, compared to industrial hemp stalks,castor stalks,and Pinus kesiya,MFA was greater,the relative degree of crystallinity was also smaller,thus,tobacco fiber qualities were excellent and would be conducive to further study in the future.[Ch,2 tab. 9 ref.]
A new dietary fiber and structural feature analysis on Angelica sinensis extraction residue
QIAN Ci, ZHOU Yiping, GUO Ming
2013, 30(4): 552-560. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.015
[Abstract](2384) [PDF](1155)
A new dietary fiber was prepared by the enzyme-chemical method using the residue of Angelica sinensis as the raw material. The chemical composition,structural characteristics,and physical and chemical properties of this new A. sinensis dietary fiber (ADF) were determined and analyzed. Next,an adsorption thermodynamic equation was established between the new ADF and sodium cholate,and the adsorption rate of metal ions in vitro being determined. Results showed the new ADF with the following characteristics: ADF moisture content was 1.32%,protein was 5.47%,crude fat was 0.57%,total ash was 5.24%,ADF water holding capacity was 3.2 gg-1,swelling property was 1.3 mLg-1,and water binding capacity was 0.105 1 g. The structural feature analysis demonstrated that ADF and the angelica residue were not the same fiber type. Maximum ADF adsorption on sodium cholate was 40 gg-1 with the absorption mode corresponding to the Freundlich model. Also,the ADF adsorption rate for selected inorganic metal ions(in mgg-1) was nickel was 30.18,copper was 17.47,and lead was 21.22. Thus,this study could provide helpful references for dietary fiber in medicinal plants.[Ch,8 fig. 7 tab. 26 ref.]
Cloning and sequence analysis of claudin-4 cDNA from Bufo japonicus formosus
RUAN Jiajia, YUAN Jinqiang, YANG Xianyu
2013, 30(4): 561-566. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.016
[Abstract](2816) [PDF](827)
To clone the genes encoding the bioactive polypeptides included in Bufo skin and its secretions, the skin plasmid cDNA library of the adult Japanese toad Bufo japonicus formosus was screened by colony DNA polymerase chain reaction followed by a homologous analysis. Results revealed two full length cDNAs of claudin-4. The transcripts were 1 707 bp and 1 697 bp (GenBank: JX481975 and JX481976,respectively), both containing an open reading frame(ORF) of 630 bp. The same polypeptides consisting of 209 amino acid residues were encoded, although five nucleotides were different in the ORF. The 5 untranslated region (UTR) for the two cDNAs was 50 bp and 41 bp, in that order, while the 3 UTR was 1 027 bp and 1 026 bp,respectively. The homologous analysis indicated that Claudin-4 in B. japonicus formosus had an 88% similarity with Xenopus laevis and 65%-72% similarity with other species including Taeniopygia guttata,Anolis carolinensis,Danio rerio,Ornithorhynchus anatinus,Macaca mulatta,Mus musculus,Homo sapiens. This study will become the basis for further studies on biological functions of Claudin-4 in B. japonicus formosus and the drug development for tumor theraputics.[Ch,5 fig. 21 ref.]
Knowledge mapping of research on forest carbon sinks
ZHANG Zhe, SHEN Yueqin, LONG Fei, ZHU Zhen, HE Xiangrong
2013, 30(4): 567-577. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.017
[Abstract](2807) [PDF](918)
Taking the 4 619 and 403 literatures regarding research on forest carbon sink from Web of Science database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database respectively as the objects,the paper analyzes and processes relevant cited data and topic key words with CiteSpaceⅡ,and combs significant academic institutions both home and abroad,academic literatures and figures as well as research focuses concerning study on forest carbon sink by means of knowledge mapping. The results show that: (1) America,Canada, China and Germany etc. are principle nations researching forest carbon sink in the international arena, and America is holding the dominating position;(2) Major scholars conduct research on carbon cycling of forest ecosystem, the mechanism of carbon sequestration in soils,the ability of carbon sequestration for various sorts of forests and trees etc. from the angle of environmental science,ecology and forestry,and there are some scholars who perform conducive exploration from the angles of forest management and carbon sink trading;(3) Research focuses emerge in endlessly,and research area becomes increasingly mature with each passing day;(4)Research on forest carbon sink enjoys a late start domestically,and the number of issued documents demonstrates a trend of increasing. Institutions centering on Chinese Academy of Sciences and Peking University etc. take an internationally leading position in studying forest carbon sink,and the research focus is acting on the international convention. Chinas international status in research field of forest carbon sink needs to be improved;(5)Low-carbon economy and carbon sink market etc. mark the research focus of forest carbon sink study in domestic management discipline. [Ch,4 fig. 8 tab. 12 ref.]
Effect of intensive cultivation management on stability of Phyllostachys violascens forest ecosystem
CHEN Shan, CHEN Shuanglin
2013, 30(4): 578-584. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.018
[Abstract](3355) [PDF](746)
As an important factor affecting the structure and function of forest ecosystem,disturbances can change the effectiveness of the resources and play a constructive or destructive role. As an excellent shoot-purpose bamboo with high yield and efficiency,Phyllostachys violascens was affected by the artificial disturbance frequently and seriously. In order to provide reference for sustainable management of Ph. violascens forest,the effect of mulched stand and fertilization under intensive cultivation management on rhizome-culm system,soil and biological characters were summarized and analyzed. The results indicated that decreasing stability for rhizome-culm system,chemical,physical and biological deterioration of stand soil would cause degradation of stand productivity. Future research on the stability of Ph. violascens forest ecosystem will focus on the screening and bio-decomposing of organic mulch materials,testing soil balance fertilization and soil improvement.[Ch,49 ref.]
Coarse woody debris in forest ecosystems: a review
WEI Shujing, SUN Long, WEI Shuwei, HU Haiqing
2013, 30(4): 585-598. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.019
[Abstract](2929) [PDF](736)
Coarse woody debris(CWD)is an important structural and a functional element in forest ecosystems. CWD is found in forest ecosystem nutrient cycling, carbon storage,and community regeneration;it is also beneficial for organisms providing habitats and other linkages. It is also conducive to the energy flow and material cycling of forest ecosystems. CWD is useful for conducting effective scientific quantitative research to understand the carbon cycle and carbon balance. This paper reviews CWD research progress in forest ecosystems covering 4 critical issues: (1) origin and classification of CWDs,(2) research methods for CWDs,(3)dynamics of CWDs (including study level,study area,storage and composition of CWDs,nutrient storage,decomposition dynamics,carbon storage,and the carbon cycle),and (4) ecological functions of CWDs. Four methods to improve quantitative research as well as structural and functional research are proposed:(1) improving research methods,(2) offering CWD as a basis for quantitative data,(3) accumulating background data, and (4) building a rich and informative CWD database. Emphasis is placed on CWD structure and function. Another aspect is strengthening the influence of human activities on CWDs,and CWD impact on ecosystem structure and function. This study provides quantitative development of CWD ecological functions with modeling. Additionally,quantitative study of the CWD decomposition rate and the role of CWDs in biogeochemical cycles,in global carbon cycling,and in carbon balance is discussed. Interactions of dynamic characteristics for CWDs and forest succession are mentioned as well as optimization of CWD sustainable management methods and management strategies. [Ch,64 ref.]
Research progress on blueberry(Vaccinium spp.)
FANG Zhongxiang, HU Junyan, JIANG Bo, FANG Jia, HE Yongqing, LU Weimin, ZHENG Bingsong
2013, 30(4): 599-606. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.020
[Abstract](3551) [PDF](1549)
blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) is a kind of fruit with high economic values and huge development potentials. The paper reviewed the biological characteristics including morphological features, growth, blossom and fruit bearing of three major varieties of blueberry,namely,Vaccinium corymbosum,Vaccinium angustifdium and Vaccinium ashei. This paper also reported the recent research progress on physiological and biochemical characteristics including stress resistance,photosynthesis and anthocyanins,and molecular biological characteristics including function genes related with nutrition and cold resistance. The paper indicated that the future research in this field would focus on the physiological and biochemical mechanism of the narrow pH range adaptation of Vaccinium spp. and the molecular biological mechanism of the different mature periods of fruit in the same branch of Vaccinium spp.,and predicted the prospects and development trends on the Vaccinium spp. research. [Ch,54 ref.]
Determination of strigolactones extracted from root of Phyllostachys edulis by ultra performance liquid chromatography
LIU Yingkun, LI Guodong, GUI Renyi, ZHANG Hui, HU Xiaowei
2013, 30(4): 607-610. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.021
[Abstract](2488) [PDF](843)
A simple and highly sensitive method was first developed for the determination of strigolactones extracted from roots of Phyllostachys edulis by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection;5-deoxystrgol(5-DS) one kind of strigolactones was conducted qualitative and quantative analysis. This method presented good recovery (80.5%-95.8%),precision (RSD<12%),and linear relations 0.5-40.0 mgL-1). The extract from roots of Phyllostachys edulis was determined as 5-deoxystrgo according to the retention time and spectrum of analyses. The content of 5-deoxystrgo in roots of Phyllostachys edulis is (6.62 0.27) gkg-1. [Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 11 ref.]
Tissue culture and rapid propagation of Caragana sinica
CHEN Jialong, ZHU Jianjun, WU Xiushui, YU Hong′ao
2013, 30(4): 611-614. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.022
[Abstract](5091) [PDF](721)
Caragana sinica is a edible flower,having good market demand. This aim is to establish a efficient tissue culture system for its commercial propagation. The stem was taken as the explants,this experiment adopted the single factor experimental design,the effects of different plant growth regulator treatments on various processes of tissue culture were studied. Results were as follows:the optimal sterilization method for the explant was dipping in 1.0 gL-1 HgCl2 for about 10 min. The contamination rate(36.7%) and browning rate(16.7%) were better than other treatments. The Murashige and Skoog (MS) culture media containing 2.0 mgL-1 6-benzyladenine (BA) + 0.2 mgL-1 -naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was suitable for the initial culture,the induction rate was 60.0%(P<0.05). For proliferation,the optimal medium was MS supplemented with 0.5 mgL-1 thidiazuron(TDZ) with 5-6 clustered buds being induced,the multiplication rate could reach 4.5(P<0.05). When shoots were inoculated with MS supplemented with 0.5 mgL-1 NAA,the rooting rate was up to 86.7%. The results could provide technical guidance for large-scale micropropagation of Caragana sinica. [Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 11 ref.]
Physiological and biochemical characteristics of Camellia oleifera during root cutting establishment
WANG Rui, CHEN Yongzhong, PENG Shaofeng, WANG Xiangnan, CHEN Longsheng, LUO Jian
2013, 30(4): 615-619. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.023
[Abstract](2752) [PDF](820)
The aim of this study was to determine the soluble protein content,soluble sugar content,and peroxidase(POD)activity for two Camellia oleifera cultivars(XL1 and XL4)during root cutting establishment. The content of soluble proteins was detected by coomassie brilliant blue method,soluble sugar content was detected by anthrone colorimetry,and the POD activity was detected by guaiacol method. Results showed that rooting of C. oleifera was derived from the callus. Also,during root cutting establishment the content of soluble proteins and soluble sugars for XL1 was higher than XL4,and soluble protein content increased first,decreased later,and then increased rapidly. Soluble sugar content first increased and then decreased. Additionally,POD activity of XL4 was higher than XL1 reaching a peak during the callus formation phase and the adventitious root induction phase,which was beneficial to the induction of root primordia. POD activity decreased during the expression period of callus and adventitious roots,which was beneficial to the growth of root primordia and elongation of adventitious roots. [Ch, 4 fig. 1 tab. 20 ref.]
Establishment and optimization of an ISSR-PCR system for Chukrasia tabularis
WU Chong, ZHONG Chonglu, ZHANG Yong, JIANG Qingbin, CHEN Yu, CHEN Zhen
2013, 30(4): 620-626. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.024
[Abstract](3783) [PDF](812)
The genomic DNA from twenty-four varieties of germplasm material for Chukrasia tabularis leaves was systematically analyzed for template DNA,primer,dNTPs,Mg2+ concentration,dosage of Taq DNA polymerase,and annealing temperature with an inter simple sequence repeat(ISSR)-polymerase chain reaction(PCR). Results showed that the optimal reaction system for the ISSR was a 20 L system containing 30 ng template DNA,1.00 molL-1 random primers, 0.15 mmolL-1 dNTPs,2.50 mmolL-1 Mg2+, and 2.50 16.67 nkat Taq DNA polymerase. The optimal annealing temperature was 56 ℃ with the PCR procedure pre-denaturized at 94 ℃ for 5.0 min, denaturized at 94 ℃ for 45 s, and annealed at 56 ℃ for 45 s with an extension at 72 ℃ for 1.5 min,a reaction of 40 cycles,and re-extension at 72 ℃ for 7 min. These products were then stored at 4 ℃. Results indicated that stable bands could be amplified. [Ch,8 fig. 1 tab. 27 ref.]
DNA extraction and molecular identification of imported Dalbergia wood
FU Jianguo, LIU Jinliang, YANG Xiaojun, AN Yulin, LUO Jiayan
2013, 30(4): 627-632. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.04.025
[Abstract](3694) [PDF](1045)
Establishing a reliable and cost effective method to identify and distinguish wood is important in preventing the illegal timber trade. To overcome the difficulty of distinguishing Dalbergia,which consists of many valuable species,by morphological methods,molecular genetic tools to control species identity were studied. Seven species of Dalbergia wood,D. melanaoxylon,D. oliveri,D. retusa,D. louvelii,D. greveana,D. cochinchinensis,D. cultrate,imported from different countries and one domestic species D. odorifera were selected for testing. Next,an array of different wood DNA extraction and purification methods,including DNeasy Plant Mini Kit,hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide(CTAB),sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and Magnetic Beads based method,were tried;For the amplification of DNA from wood samples, two PCR reactions were successively performed(nested PCR)and allowed the amplication of one coding region of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA). Results showed that a CTAB-SDS-Magnetic Beads based method was available for Dalbergia wood DNA extraction. Then,433 bp matK gene fragments were amplified and sequenced from the seven species,of which a total of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms were found. These polymorphic sites were able to distinguish the eight Dalbergia species. Thus,establishment of this method for DNA isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification makes Dalbergia wood amenable to DNA-based identification.[Ch,2 fig. 1 tab. 23 ref.]