2013 Vol. 30, No. 5

A target tree management assistant decision-making system based on GIS
SHEN Zhenming, WANG Yixiang, WU Tianhang, PAN Weihua, TONG Zhipeng, ZHANG Huafeng
2013, 30(5): 633-639. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.001
[Abstract](32577) [PDF](1008)
To assist with stand operation design in target tree management,the Target Tree Management Assistant Decision-Making System was developed using GIS technology and C sharp(C#) language based on a model for individual forest tree size differences and competition. The system involved construction and visualization of a stand,effective spatial structure analysis,automatic judgment of forest tree types,scene simulation of pre-and post-stand operations,and stand operation assessment. Key technologies based on GIS involvement in the system were also discussed. Results showed that the system was rigorous with easy manipulation and high maintainability. This system could allow widespread popularization and application of target tree management. [Ch,4 fig. 1 tab. 20 ref.]
Analysis of single-point positioning precision in forestry using a G330 handheld GPS receiver
FENG Xiaona, XU Wenbing, TANG Mengping, WU Guangzheng
2013, 30(5): 640-647. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.002
[Abstract](3226) [PDF](705)
In a forested area of Mount Tianmu,the precision of single point positioning with a G330 handheld GPS receiver compared to an observed value by GPS-RTK(Real Time Kinematic) was analyzed and evaluated. Results showed that(1) for BJ54 planimetric coordinates,inner precision with 90.0% of the test points was less than 4.0 m,but for the vertical coordinates, precision was about 85.0% in less than 6 m.(2)Also,for BJ54 planimetric coordinates, the outside precision with 85.0%-90.0% of the points was less than 5.0 m,but for the vertical coordinates,precision of was about 87.2% in less than 10.0 m.(3)For a handheld GPS receiver with no coordinate conversion parameters,when systematic deviation was eliminated,the observation accuracy of single point positioning improved.(4)Additionally,single point positioning precision could be improved through simultaneous observation using two or more handheld GPS receivers.[Ch,7 fig. 1 tab. 16 ref.]
Contour extraction of point cloud data for tree branches
GAO Shizeng, ZHANG Huaiqing, LIU Min, HE Qingping, LUO Liping
2013, 30(5): 648-654. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.003
[Abstract](3304) [PDF](715)
3D laser scanning technology was used with point cloud data of tree branches to measure the inherent complex characteristics and contour model of the branches was established. Branches were divided into different parts,and a hierarchical model of the tree was established. Also,distribution of the point cloud for tree height was analyzed. With high-precision sampling,the stratified point cloud was used for contour sampling data, and all points of different parts of the branches for each floor of data were connected using a convex hull algorithm. Then a contour model of the branches was established followed by validation of the model. Branches diameter of different height were extracted from the model,the error was less than 5% compared with the actual measurement value. Results showed that in the absence of prior knowledge of the contours and with the establishment of the point cloud objective model, an iterative convex hull algorithm effectively connected discrete point cloud data on the tree branches, and the model was validated. Thus,with the new contours being consistent with the original contours, feasibility of this approach was verified. [Ch,8 fig. 1 tab. 11 ref. ]
Bamboo char for soil fertility improvement and nutrient uptake,yield,and quality in Brassica chinensis
MA Jiawei, HU Yangyong, YE Zhengqian, WANG Xudong, WU Dongtao,
SHAN Shengdao
WANG Hailong
2013, 30(5): 655-661. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.004
[Abstract](2760) [PDF](800)
To study the effects of bamboo char on soil fertility improvement and on nutrient uptake,yield,and quality in Brassica chinensis,a field trial was conducted with four treatments: 1)control(no fertilizer);2) compound fertilizer(N∶P2O5∶K2O = 15∶15∶15)2 000 kghm-2;3)bamboo char,2 250 kghm-2;and 4)a combination of bamboo char(2 250 kghm-2) and the compound fertilizer (2 000 kghm-2). The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. Plant shoots and soil samples in each plot were collected at harvest. Soil pH and soil organic carbon content in the bamboo char treatment were significantly(P<0.05) higher than those in the compound fertilizer treatment. There were no significant differences between the concentrations of soil available N,P,and K among the treatments. Plant shoot yield and vitamin C concentration were significantly (P<0.05) higher than the compound fertilizer treatment. [Ch, 1 fig. 4 tab. 20 ref.]
Soil microbial biomass and biotic diversity with Bt insecticide
CHEN Mengyang, WEI Jian, GE Gaobo, SUN Ming, FENG Xiuzhi, WU Keren, LI Yongchun, XU Qiufang
2013, 30(5): 662-668. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.005
[Abstract](2970) [PDF](654)
Environmental safety assessment of soil microbial is essential for development and application of Bt insecticide. To analyze the effects of Bt insecticide on soil microbial in vegetable and pine forest soils,a chloroform fumigation-extraction method and a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE)were used to assess microbial biomass and the bacterial community after spraying insecticide Bt with three concentration gradients. Results indicated that, after spraying Bt insecticide at 375,1 315,and 2 255 ghm-2,soil microbial biomass carbon(MBC)for vegetable soil, significantly decreased, increased and then decreased(P< 0.05), respectively;whereas, for a pine forest soil, when spraying at concentration gradients of 1 315,2 255 ghm-2,MBC significantly increased(P<0.05). Compared with the samples without spraying Bt,MBC for both vegetable soils and pine forest soils reached a maximum at 1 315 ghm-2 of Bt. Also, compared to pine forest soils,DGGE patterns for vegetable soils revealed a higher richness in the bacterial community. After spraying Bt insecticide on vegetable soils,soil bacterial community diversity indices significantly increased(P <0.05),but for pine forest soils they significantly decreased(P<0.05)or were unchanged with different concentration gradient. In this study,soil types were a key determinant of soil bacterial community structure, and spraying Bt insecticide did not lead to new community structures.[Ch,3 fig. 3 tab. 20 ref.]
Infection and nodulation with Casuarina equisetifolia-Frankia symbiosis
ZHANG Xin, SHEN Aihua, LIN Yongjing, WANG Qiuqin, LIN Haiping
2013, 30(5): 669-673. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.006
[Abstract](3172) [PDF](641)
Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing Frankia strains are well known to promote the growth of Casuarina trees in coastal area. The studies on their infection process are very important to utilize them as bioagents. The infection process of two symbiotic Frankia strains,isolated from the root nodules of Casuarina equisetifolia in Zhejiang Province,was studied using parallel semi-thin and ultra-thin sections that were periodically analyzed with light and electron microscopy. Results showed that Frankia penetrated root hair cells and infection proceeded intracellularly in the root cortex. This stimulated infected cells which started producing abundant irregular dense electron deposits. Frankia,packaged by deposits,infected continuously,forming infection threadsthat penetrated adjacent cortex cells and ultimately approached nodules. Chronologically, nodule development began when Frankia infected root hair cells 6 d after inoculation. At 12 d,after being activated by endogenous hormones,pericycle cells underwent vigorous mitosis giving rise to lobe primordium. At 15 d,when a portion of parenchyma cells were infected by Frankia,the primordium transformed into pre-nodules. Finally,24 d following inoculation,after forming of the apophysis from the cortex,pre-nodules developed into new nodules and finally mature nodules. Thus,Frankia infection process consisted of the following processes:Frankia infection-infection thread-formation ofinterfacial matrix-penetration of cell wall-propagation-vesicles development-spores producing;and the development process for the nodule was primordium-pre-nodule-mature nodule.[Ch,9 fig. 20 ref.]
Physical and chemical properties of several kinds of agriculture and forestry waste composite matrix and their effect on container seedling of Phoebe chekiangensis
WANG Xuyan, LIN Xiazhen, LI Lin, RUAN Ying, XING Xiaoming
2013, 30(5): 674-680. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.007
[Abstract](2846) [PDF](713)
Litter, drug waste, sawdust, pecan shells, and corn straw were mixed with perlite and vermiculite to form 10 mixed matrixes of different proportions. The physical and chemical properties of the different mixed matrixes were analyzed by comparison with the commonly used container seedling matrix(peat:vermiculite:perlite = 3∶1∶1,the control). Results showed treatments 2,3,4,5 and 7 are more optimal. The more optimal matrix mixes were then used to determine growth indexes and physiological characteristics of three-year old Phoebe chekiangensis seedlings. Results showed height,basal diameter,branch number,shoot fresh and dry weights,root fresh and dry weights, soluble sugar content,and soluble protein content of seedlings of the treatment 3(litter ∶ corn ∶ straw ∶ vermiculite ∶ perlite=3 ∶ 3 ∶ 2 ∶ 2) were better than the control matrix. The height-iameter ratio,root-hoot ratio,root activity, and chlorophyll content of the treatment 3 were not significantly different from the control matrix(P>0.05). Price of trearment 3 is 89 yuanm-3 which could save about 150.00 yuanm-3 by comparison with the control. Thus, the control matrix with peat primarily can be replaced by the treatment 3 on planting in Ph. chekiangensis. It is of great significance to realize factory production of the Ph. chekiangensis container seedling.[Ch,7 tab. 12 ref.]
Inter-ite incubation with leaf decomposition for three forest types
CHEN Lisha, ZHANG Jinchi, ZHUANG Jiayao, SI Dengyu
2013, 30(5): 681-688. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.008
[Abstract](2714) [PDF](584)
The litter bag method was used to conduct an inter-site incubation experiment to study leaf decomposition changes and nutrient release for three forest types in the hilly areas of southern Jiangsu Province from January 2010 to May 2011. The Olsen exponential model and correlation analysis were employed. Results showed that the decomposition rate(k) of broadleaf >coniferous species with Quercus acutissima (k = 0.391 4)>Pinus massoniana(k = 0.238 8)>Cunninghamia lanceolata (k = 0.209 1). The initial N concentration and k were significantly and positively correlated(P<0.01,r = 0.843 0),but k was significantly and negatively correlated to initial C/N(P<0.05,r = -0.791 0). Meanwhile,the weight loss rates were significantly and positively correlated to the release rates of N (P<0.05,r =0.264 0),P (P<0.01,r =0.340 0),and organic carbon (OC)(P<0.01,r =0.910 0) but significantly and negatively correlated to C/N (P<0.05,r =-0.766 0). During decomposition,N and K were totally released;whereas P was released or immobilized. The OC release rate gradually increased,and the C/N value of leaf litter decreased. Inter-ite incubation showed that a faster litter k occurred with coniferous species incubated in broadleaf forests and a lower k for broadleaf species incubated in coniferous forests. The Olson exponential model for leaf litter decomposition indicated that inter-ite incubation decreased k for Q. acutissima and increased k for P. massoniana and C. lanceolata. After inter-ite incubation for Q. acutissima,decomposition of 50% and 95% of the leaf litter extended 0.09-0.20 years and 0.10-0.29 years,respectively,and for C. lanceolata shortened 0.60-0.11 years and 2.91-2.97 years,respectively;however,for P. massoniana incubated in a Q. acutissima forest,decomposition shortened 0.06 years and 0.09 years,respectively,and in a C. lanceolata forest extended 0.19 years or 0.36 years,respectively. For 50% organic carbon decomposition,incubation for Q. acutissima shortened 0.09-0.11 years, for C. lanceolata it extended 0.01-0.09 years,and for P. massoniana it shortened 0.07-0.08 years. Also,for 95% OC decomposition, decomposition for Q. acutissima extended 0.10-0.23 years,and for P. massoniana shortened 0.3 years. However,for C. lanceolata incubated in a Q. acutissima forest,decomposition shortened 0.01 years and in a P. massoniana forest extended 0.32 years.[Ch,3 fig. 6 tab. 30 ref.]
Forest floor fed chickens and biodiversity
WU Xiaonan, MIAO Jinli, ZHENG Ying, PAN Feixiang, LIU Tingxia, Yilita, XIA Guohua, WEN Guosheng
2013, 30(5): 689-697. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.009
[Abstract](3102) [PDF](787)
To study the influence of feeding chickens from the forest floor,typical investigation were used to obtain species diversity indices of the shrub and herb layers;soil physical and chemical properties;and the number of soil microorganisms in Carya cathayensis and Phyllostachys propinqua forests on the ecological chicken farm in Henglu Town,Zhejiang Province. Results showed 1)that the frequency of chicken activity influenced soil physical and chemical properties and that the number of soil available phosphorus and potassium, hydrolytic nitrogen,as well as the total number of soil microorganisms in the soil near chicken house were increased. 2)Feeding chickens from the forest floor decreased the diversity indices. For example,there were seven kinds of shrub species and twenty-wo kind of herb species in plot A1;the number of shrub species in plot A2 was three and herbs was fourteen;however,in plot A3,there were no shrub or herb left, which indiced that the closer to the chicken house the lower with diversity indices. 3)Also,the C. cathayensis forest had a superior biomass and water holding capacity in the litter layer compared to the Ph. propinqua forest. The C. cathayensis forest had a better water conservation function and was more suitable for raising chickens;therefore, by regulating the balance between the chicken density and biodiversity,greater benefits with sustainable cultivation could be achieved when feeding chickens from the forest floor. [Ch,1 fig. 8 tab. 12 ref.]
A floristic analysis of Fagaceae in Zhejiang Province,China
LIU Binbin, LOU Luhuan, LIU Guangning
2013, 30(5): 698-705. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.010
[Abstract](3055) [PDF](689)
A comparative study of Fagaceae flora in China was conducted. Six genera and 48 species(including varieties) of Fagaceae flora were found in Zhejiang Province,China of which evergreen trees comprised the most with 62.5%. Meanwhile,the genera having the most species was Quercus(16) with Fagus(4 species) being typical of the other genera. In this study all Fagaceae plants were divided into three types and 13 subtypes with the species endemic to China being divided into 11 subtypes. Zhejiang,compared to other areas,had the highest similarity coefficient with Anhui Province,followed by Fujian Province;Shandong Province had the lowest. Floristic components showed tropical zone characteristics and some from the temperate zone, so the flora expressed transitional characteristics. Analysis by Fagaceae location showed three areas:the Southwest Plateau area (29 species),the Mt. Tianmu and Mt. Huangshan area (2 species),and the Qinling-Bashan mountainous region (4 species). Many substitute phenomena were also found in Castanopsis,Lithocarpus,Cyclobalanopsis,and Quercus in horizon;whereas,only Cyclobalanopsis had a substitute phenomenon in the vertical. Overall,this study showed that Fagaceae in Zhejiang had rich diversity and centralization. [Ch,6 tab. 25 ref.]
Acid rain stress with leaf chlorophyll fluorescence in Pinus massoniana
SHEN Yan, Yilita, YIN Xiumin, YU Shuquan, LIU Meihua, GUAN Jieran
2013, 30(5): 706-713. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.011
[Abstract](2511) [PDF](655)
Using a portable PAM-2100 fluorometer,potted plants of Pinus massoniana were used to study chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in different seasons,with three levels of simulated acid rain stress (heavy stress,pH 2.5;moderate stress,pH 4.0;and control pH 5.6). Results showed that maximum efficiency of photosystem II in the dark(Fv /Fm) and potential photochemical efficiency(Fv /Fo)were decreased with increased pH values of acid rain after two years of acid rain spraying. And actual photochemical quantum (yield)also showed the same trend with time. Our results indicated that efficiency of primary conversion of light energy of PSⅡ,the efficiency of potential photosynthetic quantum conversion and the photosynthetic electron transport rate were negatively affected under acid rain stress,which was adverse to plant growth. Thus,P. massoniana is unsuitable for widespread planting in areas of heavy acid rain.[Ch,3 fig. 22 ref.]
Fat content and fatty acid composition of ten Carya illinoensis cultivars
YU Chunlian, WANG Zhengjia, XIA Guohua, HUANG Jianqin, LIU Li
2013, 30(5): 714-718. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.012
[Abstract](3134) [PDF](759)
This work analyzed the fat composition and the fatty acid composition of ten Carya illinoensis (pecan)cultivars by using gas chromatography and a correlation analysis. Results showed that fat content between 69.11%-78.19% for all pecan kernels,including palmitic(C16:0),stearic(C18:0),oleic(C18:1),linoleic(C18:2),linolenic(C18:3),arachidic(C20:0). And kernel content of the seed ranged from 36.79%-59.49%. Fatty acid content was greater than 90.00% with oleic and linoleic percentages having a significant negative correlation(r = -0.994 2,P<0.01). For pecan oils,the correlation analysis showed significant differences(P<0.05)in the fatty acid contents. The mono unsaturated fatty acid(MUFA) content of the fat was 73.01%-58.76%;the polyunsaturated fatty acid(PUFA) content was 32.20%-19.69%. Also,oil yield and shelling percentage had a significant positive correlation(r= 0.674 0,P<0.01);whereas,rate of seed and peel thickness was not significant.[Ch,3 fig. 3 tab. 12 ref.]
Insect diversity to monitor and evaluate forest environmental quality
LIU Jiamin, ZHANG Hui, HUANG Xiufeng, XU Huachao
2013, 30(5): 719-723. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.013
[Abstract](3032) [PDF](707)
Insect biodiversity is an important indicator of forest ecosystem health. A systematic study of insect community diversity in three nature reserves of Zhejiang Province:Mount Tianmu,Mount Longwang,and Mount Baishanzu,was conducted using insect diversity(Shannon-Weiner H and Simpsons D),evenness,dominance, and richness indices to evaluate different areas of forest environmental health. Results showed that the insect richness index of Mount Tianmu was greatest. Shannon-Weiner H and Simpsons D indices reflected the same situation. The insect community structure of Mount Tianmushan was more reasonable and stable supported by the all indices. So,the eco-environmental quality of Mount Tianmu was much better than Mount Longwang and Mount Baishanzu.[Ch,3 tab. 23 ref.]
Manufacture and properties of Pinus kesiya flame retardant plywood
LI Xiaoping, WU Zhangkang, WANG Jun
2013, 30(5): 724-728. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.014
[Abstract](2940) [PDF](732)
Pinus kesiya,which is widely used to make plywood,is commonly planted in Yunnan Province. To improve plywood properties(including mechanical and fire retardation properties)and promote safety because that the plywood panels without the fire retardation agents were easy to burn when those were used in interior decoration, the influence of flame retardation agents on the flame retardation agent impregnation rate of plywood,on mechanical properties,and on flame retardation of plywood panels was studied by means of orthogonal test. Results showed that when concentration of the flame retardation agent was 12 gkg-1 and the temperature was 100 C,flame retardation agent impregnation rates increased as the dipping time increased from 1 h to 5 h with rates of oven dry plywood higher than air dried. The impregnation rates were also different depending on the chemical composition of flame retardation agent and the moisture content of plywood(oven dry plywood and air dry plywood). Additionally, as dipping time increased from 1 h to 5 h and when the flame retardation agent was FR-A(flame retardation agent A),mechanical properties(bonding strength)of plywood panels decreased from 0.97 to 0.73 MPa,the oxygen index(OI) increased from 41.89% to 64.88%, and the smoke density grade increased from 1.20 to 10.95. With flame retardation agent FR-B(flame retardation agent B),the mechanical properties of plywood panels decreased from 1.09 to 1.07 MPa,OI increased from 42.35% to 44.11%,and the smoke density grade increased from 10.57 to 17.95. Thus, flame retardation agents negatively influenced the mechanical properties of plywood panels,but this improved flame retardation properties making Pinus kesiya wood feasible for use in flame retardation plywood with further study necessary to lower the smoke density.[Ch,4 tab. 11 ref.]
Effects of fertilizer on physical and mechanical properties of 5 years old Phyllostachys edulis
ZHOU Ziqiu, LU Yuanyuan, FAN Weiqing, YE Huiqun, WU Lidong
2013, 30(5): 729-733. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.015
[Abstract](2550) [PDF](659)
To determine the effects of fertilizer on physical and mechanical properties of Phyllostachys edulis (moso bamboo),a test of longitudinal shear strength,compressive strength,flexural strength,flexural modulus,and longitudinal tensile strength on three different bamboo stems was conducted by applying urea,branch-chain saturated fatty acids(BSFA)soybean meal organic fertilizer, and no fertilizer. Results showed that compared to bamboo without fertilization, the flexural modulus was significantly different(P<0.05)for the base of fertilized bamboo,but not significant for the middle and top of the stand;longitudinal shear strength was not significant for the base,but highly significant(P<0.01)for the middle and top. Comparing organic manure and chemical fertilizers,differences in rate of application for urea reached 8% with a maximum of up to -17.1%;difference in rate of application for BSFA soybean meal organic fertilizer was less than 4.9% with a minimum of -0.85%. The numerical value of using chemical fertilizer was twice that of organic fertilizer. Thus,urea fertilization strongly affected wood properties; whereas, BSFA soybean meal organic fertilizer only had a slight effect.[Ch,2 tab. 15 ref.]
On farmer households’ response to the “Two Separations and Two Exchanges” policy
LU Xinyue, LI Lanying, WAN Chaowei, HUANG Wenjing, LI Lang
2013, 30(5): 734-739. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.016
[Abstract](7004) [PDF](629)
TheTwo Separations and Two Exchangespolicy is an important reform for existing rural land system. Based on the 100-household-survey data of 5 villages in Yaozhuang township,Jiaxing City,this paper analyzed the householdswillingness to participate in theTwo Separations and Two Exchangespolicy and the determinants of their willingness by building the Logistic model. The results showed that the building area and quality of housing sites had significant negative influence on farmer householdswillingness to exchange the housing sites while the area of the contract lands also had significant negative influence on farmer householdswillingness to exchange the land operation rights. Meanwhile farmer householdsnon-agricultural income ratio, their expectation of living and working conditions after the exchanges, their understanding of policies and their satisfaction of subsidies had significant positive influence on bothhousing site exchangeand land operation rights exchange. [Ch,6 tab. 7 ref.]
Effects of several environmental factors on litter decomposition
BU Tao, ZHANG Shuikui, SONG Xinzhang, JIANG Hong
2013, 30(5): 740-747. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.017
[Abstract](3431) [PDF](802)
Litter decomposition is an important part of biogeochemical cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. This paper firstly described the general process of litter decomposition and the factors influencing decomposition. Then the effects of several environment factors,including acid deposition,forest fire,land use change,on litter decomposition were discussed. Acid deposition played an important role in the litter decomposition. As a main type of acid deposition,nitrogen deposition could promote,inhibit or have no significant effect on litter decomposition. Forest fire would inhibit litter decomposition in a short period of time,but would accelerate decomposition in the long time. The land use change could have a positive or negative effect on litter decomposition depending on the different ways of the change. The future research should focus on the combined interaction of multiple environmental factors on the litter decomposition. [Ch,52 ref.]
Parameter corrections for the Priestley-Taylor Model and applications in evapotranspiration estimation
LI Feifei, RAO Liangyi, Lü Kunlong, LI Huijie, SONG Dandan
2013, 30(5): 748-754. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.018
[Abstract](3591) [PDF](812)
Accurate estimation and simulation of evapotranspiration could help promote water use efficiency and could also use provide a scientific basis for reasonable development of water resources and sustainable management of forest vegetation. The Priestley-Taylor equation has been widly used for estimating evapotranspiration because it needs fewer parameters. Various correction methods for the Priestley-Taylor model parameterand their application conditions were summarized in this paper. The application in the agro-ecosystem and forest ecosystem was outlined with present state and future possibilities for use of the Priestley-Taylor equation. This could provide a reference for future study and wider application of the Priestley-Taylor equation.[Ch,1 tab. 42 ref.]
Research progresses on cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase gene (CYP7A1)
DU Xue, LI Jinjun, LU Lizhi, ZHAO Ayong
2013, 30(5): 755-760. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.019
[Abstract](3475) [PDF](705)
As a key rate-limiting enzyme in classical biosynthesis pathway of bile acids,cholesterol 7-hy-droxylase(CYP7A1)plays a vital role in keeping homeostasis of cholesterol metabolism. The expression of CYP7A1 is regulated by many factors including its single nucleotide polymorphisms. CYP7A1 metabolism is a part of lipids metabolic pathway, the change of its activity may lead to disease due to lipids metabolic disorder,such as gall-stone,gallbladder cancer, angiocardiopathy and so on. This paper reviewed and summarized the related research progresses on CYP7A1 gene in recent decades. [Ch,1 fig. 53 ref.]
Recent advances for plant ATP-binding cassette transporters
SHAO Ruoxuan, SHEN Yike, ZHOU Wenbin, FANG Jia, ZHENG Bingsong
2013, 30(5): 761-768. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.020
[Abstract](3945) [PDF](1364)
The ATP-binding cassette(ABC) transporter family is a large protein family, including complete and half transporter proteins,with a variety of functions. The core unit of the complete ABC transporter protein contains two nucleotide-binding domains(NBDs) and two transmembrane domain(TMD) regions,while the half transporter consists of only one MSD and one NBD. The plant ABC transporter is not only relevant to transportation of hormones,lipids,metal ions, secondary metabolites, and exogenous substance in plants,but it is also beneficial to many important physiological processes, such as plant and pathogen interactions and ion channel regulation in plants. Thus, it is an important plant membrane transport protein family. The plant ABC transporter is divided into eight subfamilies(A-H). Genome sequencing in pattern plants has enhanced the discovery and study of ABC transporter genes. In recent years various subfamily genes have been cloned from different plants followed by their expression and functional analysis. Recent studies have concentrated mainly on members of the ABCB,ABCC,and ABCG subfamilies,but the structure and function of every subfamily varies widely with their expressions differing in manifold ways. This paper summarizes recent advances in the ABC transporter family;systematically elaborates the structure,expression,and biological function of plant ABC transporter genes;and proposes further research.[Ch,1 tab. 49 ref.]
Anatomy and basic density of Tsoongiodendron odorum
LIU Xiaoling, FU Yunlin
2013, 30(5): 769-776. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.021
[Abstract](3108) [PDF](533)
To better protect and utilize Tsoongiodendron odorum plantations,fiber morphology,micro fiber silk angle,and basic density were studied for 27-years-old Tsoongiodendron odorum plantation wood. A cluster analysis is also employed. Results showed that: the average fiber length is 1 354.23 m,width is 27.08 m,lumen diameter is 17.69 m,and the length/diameter ratio is 51.75. Vertical variation patterns of fiber length,width,lumen diameter,and fiber lumen ratio are similar,presenting a gradual increase upward along the trunk,to a certain height and then again slowly becoming smaller. Vertical basic density variation gradually decreased upward along the trunk. With radial variation for all parameters increasing gradually from the pith outwards and becoming stable after a certain number of years. The average micro fiber silk angle is 10.45,and its radial variation from the pith outwards first increased rapidly and then diminished quickly,to a certain age. This is followed by slowing and gradually becoming more stable. The average basic density is 0.417 gcm-3,whereas radial variation from pith outwards increased, decreased,and then increased. In addition,the cluster analysis showed mature material is limited to material up to 10 years of age.[Ch,4 fig. 3 tab. 11 ref.]
Interactions of bivalent metal ions and bovine serum albumins
GAO Xingjun, GUO Ming, LI Bing, GUO Jianzhong, LI Minghui
2013, 30(5): 777-783. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.022
[Abstract](3179) [PDF](706)
To obtain the principal of the interactions among bovine serum albumins(BSA)and the bivalent metal ions,the interactions of five bivalent metal ions(Zn2+,Ni2+,Co2+,Ca2+,and Mg2+),and BSA were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Also, a quenching reaction mechanism of biomacromolecules was used with the site binding model, and quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA was found by adding Zn2+,Ni2+,Co2+,and Ca2+. For the appropriate ionic radius of Zn2+,Ni2+,and Co2+,a supramolecular complex was formed among the metal ions and BSA by effectively entering the binding site of the BSA. At the same time,the secondary structure of BSA was changed and manifested as static quenching. But the supramolecular complex could not be formed between BSA and Ca2+ for the influence of the steric hindrance due to a greater ionic radius of Ca2+. Additionally,since the metal ion Mg2+ had a much greater hydrated radius than the other divalent ions, an effective collision between Mg2+ and BSA was prevented. Therefore, the metal ion Ca2+ was only manifested as dynamic quenching, and metal ion Mg2+ had no quenching effect on the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA. Ca2+,Mg2+ other than the ions Zn2+, Ni2+,and Co2+,had no interactions with BSA.[Ch,3 fig. 2 tab. 16 ref.]
Area change and protection countermeasures for Xiazhu Lake Wetlands,China
WANG Kaili, WANG Xiaode, ZHANG Cheng
2013, 30(5): 784-788. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.023
[Abstract](2834) [PDF](480)
Xiazhu Lake Wetlands is a natural wetlands in the Yangtze River Delta Region of China with a high ecosystem diversity and a strong undisturbed native state. Using survey methods based on 3S(RS,GPS,GIS) technology,this research interpreted and compared satellite images of Xiazhu Lake Wetlands in the three winters from 2008 to 2010. Results showed that the total wetland area investigated decreased 0.160 km2 from 2008 to 2010,and eutrophication increased from 4.7% to 5.3%. This decline in wetland area and quality meant that in the future,influence from human disturbances should be reduced, and water level control or water connectivity should be utilized to enhance the wetlands anti-interference capabilities. [Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 14 ref.]
Optimization of an AFLP protocol with four Phoebe species
ZHOU Shengcai, HUANG Huahong, TONG Zaikang, WU Xiaolin
2013, 30(5): 789-796. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.024
[Abstract](8681) [PDF](651)
To meet the needs of an amplified-fragment-length-polymorphism(AFLP) protocol,high quality genome DNA was extracted from Phoebe chekiangensis,Phoebe sheareri,Phoebe zhennan,and Phoebe bournei seedlings with improved cetyltrimethylammonium bromide(CTAB)methods. For optimization of restriction system(30.0 L),the genome DNA,300 ng;was buffered with 0.3 L;bovine serum albumin (BSA),0.3 L;EcoR,50 nkat;and Mse,25 nkat;and incubated at 37 C for 4 h;then the restriction enzyme was killed with 65 C for 15 min. The best ligation system(25.0 L) was with 20.0 L of the digestion products;T4 buffer,2.5 L;T4 ligase,666.8 nkat;EcoR adapter,5 pmol;and Mse adapter, 10 pmol;and left at 16 C overnight (10-14 h). The optimal preamplification system (20.0 L) included 2.0 L ligation products;10 buffer,2.0 L;Mg2+,31.25 nmol;Taq DNA polymerase;16.67 nkat;dNTP,4 pmol; pre-amplification primers(E+A),6 pmol;and pre-amplification primers(M+C),6 pmol. Also,the best selective amplification system (20.0 L) was 2.0 L,1/40 pre-amplification products;10 buffer,2.0 L; Mg2+,31.25 nmol;dNTP,4 pmol;Taq DNA polymerase,16.67 nkat;amplification primers(M+CNN),15 pmol;and amplification primers(E+ANN),12 pmol. Moreover,screening with the optimized AFLP reaction system resulted in 13 pairs of suitable amplification primers for AFLP analysis of Phoebe chekiangensis. [Ch,5 fig. 3 tab. 24 ref.]
A new record of Sedum L. from east China
HONG Xin, LI Zhonglin, ZHOU Shoubiao
2013, 30(5): 797-798. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.05.025
[Abstract](2793) [PDF](686)
Sedum elatinoides,a new record of Sedum L. is reported in East China. The voucher collection is collected from Zhejiang and kept at Anhui Normal University. It is morphologically similar to S. filipes and S. drymarioides,both found in East China,but can be distinguished by plants glabrous;leaves 3-6-verticillate, sessile or subsessile,leaf blade narrowly oblanceolate;petals white;carpels minutely papillate. [Ch,12 ref.]