2013 Vol. 30, No. 6

Silicon fractions in Phyllostachys edulis soils derived from different parent materials
CAI Yanbin, SONG Zhaoliang, JIANG Peikun
2013, 30(6): 799-804. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.001
[Abstract](2396) [PDF](830)
To provide theory for regulating avilable silicon(Si)in forest soils, silicon forms and available Si conversion from amorphous Si with sequential chemical extraction technology was studied. In Zhejiang Province Phyllostachys edulis stands grown in five different soils derived from five parent matwrials(granodiorites,granite, basalt,tuff,and shale)were sampled at 0-20 and 20-40 cm with three replicates. Results showed that SiO2 decreased in the order:tuff>granodiorites>shale>granite>basalt. Available Si and relative percentage of Si were:basalt>granite>shale>granodiorites>tuff. Since available Si mainly came from regulating amorphous Si and had little relevance on total SiO2 content,soil parent matwrials affected silicon forms and distribution in Ph. edulis forest soils.[Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 22 ref.
Water erosion and soil nitrogen at the water-level-fluctuation zone of Qiandao Lake
YU Minfen, FANG Jia, HE Yongqing, LIN Taiben, ZHENG Bingsong, WANG Qiang
2013, 30(6): 805-813. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.002
[Abstract](2309) [PDF](729)
To analyze the effects of water erosion on soil nitrogen at the water-level-fluctuation zone of Qiandao Lake,Zhejiang Province,13 representative soil bands and 26 sample transects were set up to determine based on the temporal and spatial characteristics of the water level and differences in the soil matrix. Soil total nitrogen,hydrolytic nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen for depth of 0-30 cm,30-50 cm,and 50-75 cm in the water-level-fluctuation zone and in a woodland were analyzed respectively using the national forestry industry standards (GB 7173-1987),(LY/T 1229-1999),and (LY/T 1230-1999). Each soil sample was measured three times, and resulted the average value. Results showed that soil total N and hydrolytic N for the water-level-fluctuation zone were decreased than those for the woodland,whereas nitrate N for the water-level-fluctuation zone was increased than that for the woodland. The numerical least square method models for the water-level-fluctuation zone to the lake showed losses of total N 801 277.54 t and hydrolysis N 109 465.28 t with sedimentation of nitrate N from the lake to the water-level-fluctuation zone of 913.39 t. The BP neural network numerical models were soil total N 712 593.85 t,hydrolytic N 97 823.34 t,and nitrate N 849.30 t. Partial differential diffusion equation numerical models were soil total N 921 058.79 t,hydrolytic N 123 125.13 t,and nitrate N 1 028.35 t. The least square method models better explained the effects of water erosion at the water-level-fluctuation zone of Qiandao Lake,and protection and management of the water-level-fluctuation zone need to be strengthened.[Ch,1 fig. 1 tab. 33 ref.]
Determinants of spatial distribution of forest litter carbon densities in Zhejiang Province
ZHANG Jiajia, FU Weijun, DU Qun, ZHANG Guojiang, JIANG Peikun
2013, 30(6): 814-820. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.003
[Abstract](5351) [PDF](689)
Based on data of the permanent sample plots of continuous forest inventory (CFI) system, and forest litter carbon densities collected by Forest Resources Monitoring Center of Zhejiang Province from June to September,2010,determinants of spatial distribution of forest litter carbon densities in Zhejiang Province was studied. The results showed that the spatial distribution of forest litter carbon densities had differences in both large-scale scope of the whole province and small-scale scope of different counties. Forest litter carbon densities increased with the rising elevation,but some areas at lower elevation also had high densities. Forest litter carbon densities had no correlation with biomass coverage and humus layer,but had significantly positive correlation with soil organic carbon densities and forest litter nitrogen densities. Tree species had significant impacts on the accumulation of litters. The oak-based arbor had high value of litter carbon densities,while economic forest had lowest value. [Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 25 ref.]
A 5-year mid-mountain subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest study in Baishanzu,east China
CHEN Xiaorong, CHEN Yuanyuan, LUO Zhengrong, DING Bingyang
2013, 30(6): 821-829. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.004
[Abstract](2383) [PDF](719)
Population dynamics of primary forest species are important for a stable community structure and function. To explore mortalities,recruitments,fitness and changes of population size of the primary forest species in a mid-mountain,subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in a short term,how do these parameters differ with species life form, and finally the community dynamics of the forest,a 5 hm2 plot (250 m200 m) was established in 2002 on the north slope of Baishanzu Peak in Fengyangshan-Baishanzu National Nature Reserve, east China. In 2003,all 30 092 woody plants alive with a DBH (diameter at breast height) 1 cm were tagged,mapped,measured,and identified by species. In 2008,all these woody plants were measured, their living states were examined,and other individuals reached 1 cm DBH during the 5-year term were tagged,mapped,measured,and identified by species. Based on two datasets from censuses in 2003 and 2008,living,dead and recruited plants were grouped into canopy,mid-story,understory tree and shrub (4 functional groups),and analyzed to estimate annual mortality,recruitment rates and fitness of 30 tree species, and the species composition dynamics of the community were determined with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS). Results showed that (1) compared to plants living in 2003,over five years a total of 2 343 stems (7.79%) belonging to 96 species had died,and 1 131 stems(3.93%) comprising 65 species (36.72%) reached 1 cm DBH. (2) Of all species in the plot,the average annual mortality rate was 1.45%,and the average annual recruitment rate was 0.62%. The annual mortality rates of 4 functional groups were 1.19%, 1.95%, 1.30%,and 2.59% respectively,while the annual recruitment rates of them were 0.67%, 0.92%,0.68% and 0.92%. (3)For the 30 major species,the average annual mortality was 1.55%,the average annual recruitment rate was 0.78%,and the annual mortality as well as the recruitment rate and fitness,which were all unrelated to abundance of species. (4)The change of species composition of the community during the 5 years was mild,comparing to the difference in species composition caused by spatial heterogeneity of the plot. Thus,the mid-mountain, subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest had difficulty regenerating itself and independent of functional group and abundance, while the structure of the community was relatively stable during the 5 years.[Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 31 ref.]
Community structure of a public service forest in central Zhejiang Province
QIAN Yifan, HAN Bingyuan, Yilita, ZHANG Chao, YU Shuquan, ZHENG Chaochao
2013, 30(6): 830-838. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.005
[Abstract](2617) [PDF](677)
To reveal the vital signs of constructive species in the community development process,a static life table of the dominant population was produced based on a two-stage sampling method of 517 public service forest plots. Community composition and structural characteristics for six types of forests and bamboo stands: 1) pine,2) fir,3) broadleaf,4) mixed coniferous and broadleaf,5) moso bamboo,and 6) scrub growth forests were selected in central Zhejiang Province. Results showed 263 species of trees belonging to 103 genera in 52 families,449 species of shrubs in 125 genera of 59 families,and 286 species of herbs from 56 genera in 36 families. Dominant tree and bamboo populations were Pinus massoniana,Cunninghamia lanceolata,Schima superba,Cyclobalanopsis glauca,Phyllostachys edulis,and Myrica rubra. Forest communities all had an inverse J horizontal structure,and the number of tree species gradually decreased than others with an increase in DBH. The dominant species like C. glauca,in late successional stages,continuously declined when there was a reduction in environmental resistance with life expectancy. Therefore,maintaining succession late dominant population at the present stage of succession would be particularly important for transforming and upgrading the quality of a broadleaf forest and accelerating positive community succession.[Ch,4 fig. 4 tab. 22 ref.]
Cloning and analysis of the flowering-related gene,BoAP3,in Bambusa oldhamii
ZHU Longfei, XU Yingwu, LIN Xinchun
2013, 30(6): 839-843. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.006
[Abstract](2184) [PDF](731)
MADS-box family genes play important roles in the determination of floral meristem identity and the development of floral organ identity. Here we reported a full length MADS-box gene obtained from the flower bud of Bambusa oldhamii. It was named as BoAP3 based on sequence similarity. DNA sequence analysis showed that the BoAP3 was 654 bp length and contained an open reading flame(ORF) encoding a protein of 218 mino acids that shared over 80% homology with Oryza sativa and Triticum aestivum of APETALA3 homologues. The protein showed a typical MADS-box gene structure containing MADS domain,K domain,I region and C terminus. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of BoAP3 in flower buds was 8.1 times higher than in vegetative shoots,suggested that BoAP3 may be involved in floral organ development. [Ch,4 fig. 14 ref.]
An optimal SRAP-PCR system of Rhododendron hybridum and its genetic diversity analysis with SRAP marker
WU Yueyan, TAO Qiaojing, LI Bo, XU Danye
2013, 30(6): 844-851. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.007
[Abstract](6302) [PDF](699)
In order to find the optimal sequence-related amplified polymorphism(SRAP)-PCR system of Rhododendron hybridum and analyse its genetic diversity,the functional leaves of Rhododendron hybridum were used to extract its genome DNA,using an improved cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide(CTAB)method. Concentrations of Mg2+,Taq polymerase,dNTPs and primer, which maybe affect the SRAP-PCR reactions,were optimized by L16(44)orthogonal design experiments to establish the SRAP molecular marker system in Rhododendron hybridum. Then,an optimal, stable and repeatable SRAP-polymerase chain reaction(PCR)of 20.0 L containing 1.750 mmolL-1 Mg2+,0.175 mmolL-1 dNTPs,1.500 16.67 nkat Taq polymerase,and 0.200 molL-1 primer was established. Finally, genetic diversity and relationships of 24 Rhododendron hybridum cultivars were analyzed using an Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean(UPGMA)cluster analysis with this optimized system. Results revealed 10 highly polymorphic and stable primer pairs selected from 88 pairs of SRAP primers with a total of 217 bands being detected from these 10 primer pairs. Of the detected bands,212 were polymorphic(a 97.35% average)having a genetic similarity coefficient ranging from 0.591 to 0.708. The cluster analysis divided the 24 cultivars into two groups at a 0.590 similarity level,and these were further delineated into two sub-groups at a 0.623 similarity level. These results demonstrated that this optimized SRAP-PCR system can be applied to cultivars identification and genetic diversity research on Rhododendron hybridum.[Ch,3 fig. 6 tab. 19 ref.]
Silicon and drought resistance of Phyllostachys violascens
PAN Yue, RONG Jieqing, SHENG Weixing, GUI Renyi
2013, 30(6): 852-857. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.008
[Abstract](2178) [PDF](741)
To clarify how silicon(Si) enhances resistance to drought stress,the effects of exogenous Si on physiological and biochemical characteristics,including soluble sugar content,proline (Pro) content,peroxidase(POD) activity,catalase(CAT) activity,and photosynthetic characteristics,of Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys violascens) were determined with drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG6000) in hydroponic conditions. Treatments were as follows:(1)Control,(2)PEG 6000,(3)PEG 6000 + 1.8 mmolL-1 Si,and (4)PEG 6000 + 5.4 mmolL-1 Si. Results showed that with drought stress, compared to the treatment 1,soluble sugar content increased to 487.89 molg-1(59.00%)(P<0.05),proline content to 57.52 gg-1 (38.47%)(P<0.05),and POD activity of treatment 2 to 178.125 nmol mg-1min-1(32.56%)(P<0.05),but CAT activity decreased to 56.11 molg-1min-1(18.30%)(P<0.05),and leaf photosynthesis was inhibited. With treatment 3 compared to treatment 2,exogenous Si decreased soluble sugar content (50.31%)(P<0.05),proline content (35.94%)(P<0.05),and POD activity (50.88%)(P<0.05);and with treatment 4 compared to treatment 2,exogenous Si decreased soluble sugar content(43.69%)(P<0.05),proline content (44.77%)(P<0.05),and POD activity (68.42%)(P<0.05). However, treatment 3 with exogenous Si increased CAT activity 21.9% more than treatment 2(P<0.05);and treatment 4 was 25.87% more than treatment 2(P<0.05). Exogenous Si also enhanced leaf photosynthesis. This indicated that Si could increase drought resistance of Lei bamboo.[Ch,4 fig. 1 tab. 26 ref.]
Mineral elements in Chrysanthemum morifolium at different harvest stages
TOU Peiming, SUN Shufang, ZHANG Xinfeng, SI Jinping, LIU Jingjing
2013, 30(6): 858-862. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.009
[Abstract](2579) [PDF](621)
To promote new cultivars of Hangbaiju (Chrysanthemum moriflium) and to improve their quality, dynamic accumulation of mineral elements was carried out at four different harvest stages (Hualei Taiju Youju,and Quanju,that means the bud,ray florets being opened while tubular florets being not opened yet, ray florets being opened while tubular florets being opened 10%-30%, and ray florets being opened while tubular florets being opened 30%-70% respectively). Samples were selected from four new cultivars (Jinju No.1,Jinju No.2,Early Xiaoyangju,Late Xiaoyangju) and then digested and determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS),atomic absorption spectrometry(AAS),or ultraviolet-visible(UV-VIS) spectrophotometry. Results showed that during the four different harvest stages, all four new cultivars of Hangbaiju were rich in essential elements such as K,P,Mg,Ca,Fe,Mn,and Zn. Harvest stages of Hangbaiju can influence the content of mineral elements. Material collected in theHualei and Taiju period had higer content of essential elements than theYouju andQuanju period,but except for Youju and Quanju of Jinju No. 1 the total heavy metal content exceeded national standards. This study could provide important application values to help develop special methods for controlling heavy metals in C. parthenium.[Ch,3 fig. 2 tab. 6 ref.]
Phosphorus absorption with ten fungi inoculants in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis
XIE Anqiang, HONG Wei, WU Chengzhen
2013, 30(6): 863-870. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.010
[Abstract](1930) [PDF](634)
Eleven treatments,a control and ten Eucalyptuss endophytic liquid fungi,were inoculated into seedlings of Eucalyptus urophylla Eucalyptus grandis. After 30 d,an experiment on low phosphorus versus normal stress was conducted. Acid phosphatase activity was measured after 15,30,and 45 d with biomass, and phosphorus content was measured after 3 months. Results showed that for the normal P treatment,acid phosphatase activity increased in treatment G-69.24%,treatment E-53.87%,and treatment J-53.87%. In P stress treatment one, acid phosphatase activity increased for treatments E-50.00%,G-50.00%,and J-27.78%. In P stress treatment two, acid phosphatase activity increased for treatments J-50.00%,G-37.50%,and E-25.00%. Total phosphatase increased for treatments J-43.92%,E-35.14%,and G-33.78%. Biomass increased in treatments G-35.14%,J-21.65%,and E-20.62%. Thus,acid phosphatase activity increased significantly with fungi E,G,and J with phosphatase content increasing.[Ch,1 fig. 7 tab. 24 ref.]
Research and application of integrated multiple-business forestry outside patrol system
HUANG Long, XIE Yangsheng, TANG Xiaoming, HUANG Shuisheng, LUO Peng, LI Xingying
2013, 30(6): 871-879. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.011
[Abstract](4214) [PDF](592)
An integrated multiple-business forestry outside patrol system is a forestry outside patrol system integrating multiple business including forest fire protection and ecological forest management. The system is based on mobile positioning service and consists of both external mobile terminal and internal processing support services. The paper analyzed the forestry business which is related to the outside patrol and terminal information exchange and pointed out the importance of synchronizing various forestry business and the necessity to build an integrated multiple-business patrol system. The researchers built an integrated multiple-business forestry outside patrol system through architecture design and physical deployment design. The key technologies of building the system included LBS (location based servic)-based terminal information collection technology,SMS (short messaging service) and GPRS(general packet radio service)-based information upload technology between terminals and business application systems,LBS,SMS and GPRS-based information publishing technology from business application systems to terminals. At last, we applied the above mentioned technologies and systems in Lincang City of Yunnan Province. The application of the system improved the efficiency of outside patrol, enhanced the business synchronization and saved the operation cost of forestry departments. [Ch,9 fig. 17 ref.]
Classification of Hyperion hyperspectral imagery data using texture
ZHANG Qianqian, CHEN Jian, JIANG Hong, TANG Minzhong
2013, 30(6): 880-886. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.012
[Abstract](2551) [PDF](694)
Hyperspectral remote sensing has an obvious spectral signature,which can provide detailed spectral mapping across all 220 bands with high radiometric accuracy,but it is difficult to achieve classification accuracy for different cover types with their unique spectrum especially for the fine vegetation categories. To improve classification and to overcome lack of precision with the unique spectral signature of Hyperion hyperspectral imagery data, spectrum data together with textural information,which described the images change of gray scale and structural characteristics in the research area of Baizhang Town,Yuhang District, Hangzhou City,was used with endmembers of roads, buildings,farms,Phyllostachys edulis,Pinus massoniana,Quercus,and other species being extracted from images based on sub-compartmental division of high resolution images. Then,from these seven mixed endmembers,linear spectral unmixing was conducted. Next,the second order probability matrix from ENvironment for Visualizing Images (ENVI)software was used to extract eight texture quantities from the unmixing results. Finally,all texture quantities together with the eight unmixing endmembers were utilized for classification, and compared to treatments of Spectral Angle Mapper and replications of Support Vector Machine with single spectral information,precision of building increased 34.13% and 17.16%,accuracy of farming improved 19.71% and 9.24%,precision of Pinus massoniana increased 27.09% and 5.42%,accuracy of Quercusoak improved 3.00% and 10.00% nearly. Classification accuracy of most cover types increased. Therefore, to achieve classification of Hyperion hyperspectral imagery data with spectrum and textural information and to solve the salt and pepper effect problem,extraction of endmembers, combinations of eigenvectors during texture analysis, and selection of the texture sizes moving window,all played an important role during the classification process.[Ch,6 fig. 1 tab. 19 ref.]
Huff Model used for green space layout of Guanhaiwei Town,Zhejiang,China
CHEN Shu, JIANG Wenwei, WANG Yuan
2013, 30(6): 887-895. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.013
[Abstract](11761) [PDF](830)
:For scientific planning green space layout,application of the Huff Model and GIS techniques combined with traffic networks,green land areas,and population distribution of Guanhaiwei Town in Zhejiang, the affinity value between green land position and departure point of visitors was calculated. Also,green land spatial patterns,service capability,and relationships with residential requirements were studied. Based on the Huff Model and with the help of network analysis functions,the green land layout scenario was used to quantitatively analyze composition and structure of the green land spatial element and to optimize the green land layout. Results showed that green land distribution was uneven being concentrated mostly in the middle?鄄west part of the town where the green land count was large,however the area was small, and the serving scope and expected number of visitors were greater. In the south,there were a small number of natural landscape zones, but their area was large with service scope and expected number of visitors being limited. In the north, there were fewer green land resources. Based on the Huff Model by the help of network analysis function,the composition and structure of the urban green land spatial element could be analyzed quantitatively to optimize the green land system layout and maximize the ecological protection function of green land in Guanhaiwei Town. [Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 34 ref.]
Potential ecological habitat of Muntiacus crinifrons within National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmu,Zhejiang Province
XU Wenhui, YUE Xiaolei, GAO Peng, XIA Shujuan
2013, 30(6): 896-903. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.014
[Abstract](2707) [PDF](790)
To provide guidance for the ecological habitat protection of Muntiacus crinifrons(black muntjac), habitat suitability was evaluated in the 9.23 km2 study area in National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmu. Lifestyle habits of black muntjac and analysis of four important living conditions:vegetation,terrain,distance to water sources,and human disturbance,were conducted. Natural environmental conditions of Mount Tianmu during the four seasons were used to determine evaluation criteria and analytical methods for suitability in an ideal habitat. Results showed that,due an unreasonable distribution of mao bamboo and the coniferous forest,as well as intense human disturbances in the 800-1 000 m altitude range,the potential suitable habitat of black muntjac was 3.212 km2 (34.8%) of the study area,less suitable habitat was 3.022 2 km2(32.7%),and unsuitable habitat was 2.992 2 km2 (32.5%). Thus,within National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmm,control of human interference on upper slopes needed strengthening with a stronger link to potential suitable habitats for black muntjac through ecological greenway development as well as conversion of less suitable to suitable habitat.[Ch,2 fig. 5 tab. 26 ref.]
Selection behavior of Leptocybe invasa with different Eucalyptus cultivars and colors
ZHANG Huafeng, CHEN Shunli, KANG Wentong, TANG Xinghao, OU Wensheng, FANG Xiaomin
2013, 30(6): 904-909. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.015
[Abstract](3451) [PDF](668)
In order to assess the oviposition preference of Leptocybe invasa to Eucalyptus cultivars,the smell of 13 different cultivars and colors on host preference with Leptocybe invasa Fisher et La Salle (Eucalyptus gall wasp) were studied in the laboratory, and the selection behavior for oviposition of this pest was studied in the field. Results revealed (1) strong differences in host preference of female adults presented in 13 different Eucalyptus cultivars. The Eucalyptus gall wasp preferred the smell from 10 Eucalyptus cultivars with Eucalyptus urophylla Eucalyptus camaldulensis clone DH201-2 the most preferred. However, the pest had negative taxis or no selection for Eucalyptus wetarensis E. camaldulensis clone GL3 and Eucalyptus cloeziana. (2) Color tests using color cards showed obvious differences in pest-attraction with pure white (RAL9010) and signal yellow (RAL1003) having a strong attracting effect (selection coefficients,respectively,0.29 and 0.28). (3) Oviposition scars per leaf with E. urophylla E. camaldulensis clone DH201-2 were greater than all other cultivars and none were found on E. wetarensis E. camaldulensis and E. cloeziana. It indicated that the smell and color of host Eucalyptus significantly affected L. invasa oviposition preference. [Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 18 ref.]
Cryptomeria fortunei tumor disease and a removal method
HUANG Yiming, YANG Shuzhen, ZHAO Mingshui, CHEN Jiaqi, WU Jianqi, WEN Guosheng
2013, 30(6): 910-913. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.016
[Abstract](2746) [PDF](623)
In recent years,tumor disease has seriously damaged and endangered Cryptomeria fortunei in National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmu. To help eliminate C. fortunei tumors,the Tumor Removing Method which uses a high pressure water pump was devised. In this study fresh tree top length, tumor size,and some related chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of treated samples collected from Mount Tianmu in May,July,and December 2011 were measured. Then the Independent Sample T test function in SPSS statistical software was used to compare treated samples. Results showed 1.76 tumors per meter for a 3 cm sample which was lower than the control. However,growth data and chlorophyll parameters revealed yield of the control was 0.682;whereas yield of the treated sample was 0.406. Thus,the Tumor Removing Method inhibited tumor growth but also inhibited growth and photosynthesis of C. fortunei;so the search for a solution to the tumor disease on C. fortunei will continue. [Ch,5 fig. 6 ref.]
Hydraulic loading rate for rural domestic sewage treatment with an eco-tank
CHU Qiying, XIAO Jibo, WANG Huiming, CHU Shuyi
2013, 30(6): 914-920. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.017
[Abstract](2359) [PDF](628)
To evaluate the effect of a hydraulic loading rate on an advanced treatment of rural domestic sewage, an eco-tank consisting of three rectangular tanks(2.0 m 0.5 m 0.5 m) was sequentially connected with a floating aquatic plant of either Pistia stratiotes,Hydrocotyle leucocephala,or Myriophyllum aquaticum planted in each. Water samples were collected daily and analyzed for water quality properties including dissolved oxygen,chemical oxygen demand (COD),ammonium nitrogen (N),nitrate-N,nitrite-N,total-N,and total phosphorus(P). Results showed that effluent dissolved oxygen concentration declined with an increase in hydraulic loading rate. When hydraulic loading rates were 52.90 Ld-1m-2 and 90.20 Ld-1m-2, effluent dissolved oxygen concentration was more than 3.00 mgL-1. However, as the hydraulic loading rate increased to 129.40 Ld-1m-2,dissolved oxygen dropped below 0.60 mgL-1. The increase in hydraulic loading rate did not promote COD removal. When the average hydraulic loading rate increased from 52.90 Ld-1m-2 to 90.20 Ld-1m-2,the average COD removal efficiency dropped 16.70%. Also,effluent concentrations of ammonium-N,total-N,and total P increased with an increase in the hydraulic loading rate. When the hydraulic loading rate was 129.40 Ld-1m-2,effluent concentrations of ammonium-N increased to 1.34 mgL-1 meeting the fourth class national environmental quality standard for surface water,and total P increased to 0.11 mgL-1 meeting the third class standard. However,total-N concentration did not reach the fifth class surface water standard. Thus, the Eco-tank was efficient in removing aqueous pollutants as the hydraulic loading rates varying from 52.90 Ld-1m-2 to 129.40 Ld-1m-2. [Ch,6 fig. 3 tab. 18 ref.]
PhytOC in plant ecological system and its important roles in the global soil carbon sink
MENG Cifu, JIANG Peikun, XU Qiufang, ZHOU Guomo, SONG Zhaoliang, HUANG Zhangting
2013, 30(6): 921-929. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.018
[Abstract](12422) [PDF](816)
As a substantial component of soil organic carbon occluded within phytoliths,PhytOC is a result of biomineralization within plants and highly resistant to decomposition in the soil environment. PhytOC accumulation rates have contributed about 15.0%-37.0% to the estimated global mean long-term soil carbon accumulation rate which is 2.4 gm-2a-1 over the last 10 000 years. There are ways to enhance both short and long-term carbon sequestration by cultivation of high PhytOC-yielding plant species of agricultural crops. Most of the economically important agricultural plant species such as barley,maize,rice,sorghum,sugarcane and wheat, are producers of phytoliths. It was estimated that the above-mentioned crops globally produced PhytOC of (5.08-12.01)106 ta-1. The paper reviewed the formation mechanism,characteristics and accumulation rate of PhytOC in the plant ecological system,the agronomy measures to improve the accumulation rate and its important role in the global soil carbon sink. [Ch,56 ref.]
Advanced research on SOC1 / AGL20 genes in plants:a review
MA Tengfei, LIN Xinchun
2013, 30(6): 930-937. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.019
[Abstract](3688) [PDF](907)
SOC1(SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1) / AGL20(AGAMOUS-LIKE 20),one member of the MADS-box family,plays an important role in regulating plant flowering by integrating signals involved in photoperiod, vernalization,and gibberellin and autonomous pathways as well as interacting with many other genes to regulate the flowering time,floral patterning,and floral meristem determinancy. Recent studies have proved that the overexpression of SOC1 resulted in early flowering,and soc1 mutant plants showed later flowering than the wild type Arabidopsis thaliana. Besides affecting flowering activity,SOC1 also functions in other physiological activities of plants. In this paper,SOC1 and homologous genes in flowering plants and other physiological activities,and functions of SOC1 gene expression regulation research progress were reviewed. The phylogenetic dendrogram of SOC1 homologue analysis found that SOC1 gene homology reflected the genetic relationship among species. This offered prospects of future relevant gene research of SOC1 with the homologous genes providing reference. [Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 42 ref.]
Review on the carbon sequestration of forest operation subjects in southern collective forest area of China
ZHU Zhen, SHEN Yueqin, WU Weiguang, HUANG Min, NING Ke
2013, 30(6): 938-943. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.020
[Abstract](2518) [PDF](686)
Forest carbon sequestration is an important way to reduce global climate change. After the reform of collective forest tenure in south China,forest operation subjects became more diversified. It is meaningful to provide policies basis for promoting forest carbon sequestration supply, allocating scarce resources and reducing climate change through analyzing forest carbon sequestration supply difference,discussing its induction factors and relationship. This paper reviewed research on forest carbon sequestration supply,identified the achievements and shortcomings of the existing research. The shortcomings included no forest carbon sequestration market,improper application of the models in the research and shortage of long time-series data. It also proposed important technological difficulties and solutions for future research. It argued that it was more feasible to discuss forest carbon sequestration innon-Kyoto protocol market; the model and data should be revised according to carbon forest operation,and the induction factors of forest carbon sequestration should be combined with C-D production function. [Ch,43 ref.]
Root activity and cell membrane permeability in Phyllostachys violascens with NaCl stress
HE Qijiang, LI Nan, FU Maoyi, ZHOU Wenwei, WANG Bo
2013, 30(6): 944-949. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.021
[Abstract](4224) [PDF](657)
In order to expand Phyllostachys violascens planting area,we try to find the reason of Ph. violascens fail to grow well even decay and death in the saline?鄄alkali land,therefore salt tolerance in Phyllostachys violascens with NaCl stress is studied,root activity and cell membrane permeability were studied in a pot culture experiment with a different concentration of NaCl(mass concentration,respectively 0,1.0 ,3.0,5.0 gL-1)treatments:(1) 12.83 gg-1h-1 treated with 0 gL-1 NaCl solution,(2) 9.4 gg-1h-1 treated with 1.0 gL-1 NaCl solution,(3) 10.80 gg-1h-1 treated with 3.0 gL-1 NaCl solution,(4) 7.22 gg-1h-1 treated with 5.0 gL-1 NaCl solution. Results showed that Treatment 1 made roots the most active,Treatment 3 was not significantly different from the control(P = 0.326),and Treatment 4 was significantly different from the control(P = 0.008). Ph. violascens showed some adaptability under NaCl stress with higher root activity in the earlier stages. However,the root system was damaged,and vigor declined over time. Cell membrane permeability of the Treatment 1 was 6.03%;there were no significant differences with Treatments 2 (6.97%)or 3 (6.93%),but Treatment 4 was greater at 8.75%. Overall,changes in cell membrane permeability were greater in the early stages of NaCl stress treatment and more stable in the later stages.[Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 25 ref.]
Pollen vitality and stigma receptivity of Cymbidium hybridum and Chinese orchid
CHU Yi, FAN Yirong, ZHANG Shaoyi, SUN Yufen, NING Huijuan
2013, 30(6): 950-954. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.022
[Abstract](3176) [PDF](720)
To ensure effective cross-breeding work,high vitality of pollen and stigma receptivity are required. 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride(TTC),iodine-potassium iodide(I2-KI),and Carmine staining methods were used to determine pollen viability for Cymbidium hybridum and Chinese orchid;benzidine-H2O2 was utilized to determine stigma receptivity and to observe stigma mucus secretion. Results indicated that the I2-KI and Carmine methods were not suited to test pollen vitality while the TTC method verified to be best. Throughout flowering,the stigmas of Cymbidium hybridum and Chinese orchid were receptive. The stigma of Cymbidium hybridum reached its highest receptivity from 20 d to 40 d,after flowering,stigma receptivity gradually weakened after 45 d. For the Chinese orchid from about 15 d to 25 d,receptivity strengthened,but at 30 d,stigma receptivity gradually weakened and disappeared. Thus,the stigma receptivity process changed from weak to strong to weak.[Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 19 ref.]
Treated wood physical properties after reagent-impregnation with heat-treatment technology
CHEN Lifang, MA Hongxia, ZHANG Yanjun, WANG Jianjing, CAO Yongjian
2013, 30(6): 955-959. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.023
[Abstract](2466) [PDF](739)
Three reagents (the main component of zinc chloride,ammonium dihydrogen phosphate,and a copper salt compound) were impregnated into Pinus massoniana wood and Eucalyptus wood which were heat-treated at 160 ℃,175 ℃,and 190 ℃. By testing mechanical properties and dimensional stability of untreated and treated woods,the effects of reagent type and target temperatures on wood properties were determined. Results showed that the heat treatment process improved dimensional stability of treated wood. For the same temperature the three reagents improved variation in the wood anti-shrink efficiency (ASE) by 10%-45% and then slightly reduced the mechanical properties;the modulus of rupture (MOR) decreased,but there was little effect on modulus of elasticity(MOE). Among the three reagents,zinc chloride had the strongest effect on dimensional stability and the greatest impact on the MOR and MOE values. With an increase in temperature, mechanical properties decreased and dimensional stability (ASE value) increased gradually. [Ch,2 fig. 1 tab. 12 ref.
Roadside housing disturbances with Trachypithecus francoisi at the Mayanghe Nature Reserve, Guizhou Province
PAN Hongxing, LIU Jie, LIU Ning, ZHANG Xin, LI Rong, HU Gang
2013, 30(6): 960-964. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.06.024
[Abstract](2453) [PDF](719)
To determine housing increases along a road and their effects on Trachypithecus francoisi more disturbed habitat (XGB1),XGB2,and less disturbed habitat (LYY1) (Francoislangur),interviews were conducted from July 2010 to August 2011. Movement of the Francoislangur XGB1,XGB2,and LYY1 was observed by tracking all day,and XGB1 strategies for adapting to the new environment were noted by full event recording. Results showed that 47 houses were built along the road with a 100% increase every five years and that 90.16% of the villagers favored house building. Due to interference from villagers, the probability of a Francois langur crossing the road successfully was 74.77%. The average vertical distance (L1) between houses ranged from (20.00 2.16) m (n = 7) to (23.10 2.69) m (n = 10). Thus, to cross the road,animals would go between buildings that were at least twice L1. Based on the analysis some options were presented for survival of the Francoislangur and for villagers building in this area. [Ch,2 tab. 12 ref.]