2012 Vol. 29, No. 5

Intraspecific and interspecific competition in Liquidambar formosana on Mount Tianmu
LUO Wen-jian, WEI Xin-liang, TANG Meng-ping, ZHANG Zhi-hua, WANG Jing, FENG Xue
2012, 29(5): 641-646. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.001
[Abstract](3413) [PDF](1431)
Field data from 145 Liquidambar formosana target trees and 614 individuals of competing species in the National Nature Rreserve of Mount Tianmu were quantitatively analyzed using the Hegyi competition index model for single-tree intraspecific and interspecific competition intensities. Results showed that competition intensity decreased gradually with an increase in tree diameter class. The order of intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity was as follows:Pinus massoniana > Liguidambar formosana > Cunninghamia lanceolata > Albizia macrophylla > Quercus acutissima > Quercus fabri > Castanopsis sclerophylla > Lithocarpus brevicaudatus > Castanea henryi > Platycarya strobilacea > Quercus chenii > Phoebe sheareri > Loropetalum chinense > Mallotus philippensis > Schima superba > Pistacia chinensis > Symplocos sumuntia. The competition index (IC) and diameter at breast height (DBH) of the objective tree were related. Also,when the DBH of Liquidambar formosana reached 30 cm,the competition intensity became very small. Simulating and predicting competition intensity of the Liquidambar formosana community suggested Hegyis competition model for individual trees could supply a quantitative index for study on intraspecific and interspecific relationships in plant population ecology and provide a reliable basis for the operation and management of the National Nature Rreserve of Mount Tianmu.[Ch,1 fig. 5 tab. 15 ref.]
Population structure and distribution of Fagus lucida in the Baishanzu forest
CHEN Xiao-rong, LI Le, XIA Jia-tian, YANG Xu, WANG Wei, DING Bing-yang
2012, 29(5): 647-654. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.002
[Abstract](3135) [PDF](1191)
To study the structure and population dynamics of Fagus lucida,as well as its distribution pattern,the study was carried out in a 5 hm2 permanent plot established in the north slope of Baishanzu Nature Reserve,Zhejiang Province. Size structure and index of assembling intensity (K) were analyzed. Results at fourteen growth stages,based on diameter at bright height (DBH),showed that stages 1 and 2 comprised only 4% of all individuals,stages 4 to 9 made up 80%,and stages 10 to 13 accounts for 13%. Also,K for small trees (1.0 cmDBH<7.5 cm) was 0.588,for seedlings (DBH<1 cm) it was 0.029,for middle-sized trees (7.5 cmDBH<22.5 cm) it was 0.143,and for large trees (DBH22.5 cm) it was 0.169. Thus,Fagus lucida population structure was a spindle-type with the population declining due to lack of seedlings;whereas K revealed that spatial distribution was random for small trees but clumped for seedlings,middle-sized trees,and large trees,as a result decided mainly by interactions of biological and ecological properties like the inter-competition and density limitation,as well as environmental factors like drought and storm.[Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 37 ref.]
Biomass for saplings of primary species in a spruce-fir understory of the Changbai Mountains
ZHANG Meng-tao, KANG Xin-gang, CAI Shuo
2012, 29(5): 655-660. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.003
[Abstract](2996) [PDF](1096)
To replenish the understory biomass of shrubs and herbs and to provide a more detailed dataset,this study analyzed biomass models which to fit and estimate sapling biomass of primary species in the under-story of the Changbai Mountains. Three Picea jezoensis and Abies nephrolepis (spruce-fir) forests classified according to their canopy densities of 0.6,0.8,and 1.0,sixty 5 m5 m plots were designed,five species (including Tilia,Pinus,Abies,Acer,Picea) were sampled. Results showed that the organ biomass models (for trunk,branches,leaves,and roots) of the primary spruce-fir species was most closely associated with independent variables D2H (where D is basal diameter and H is tree height) and DH with the optimal models being linear functions,coefficient of determination was above 0.85,all functions were significance (P<0.05). In addition,an increase in canopy density,sapling biomass (dry weight) performanced for the W(1.0)>W(0.6)>W(0.8). Also,for canopy densities of 0.6,0.8,and 1.0,fir saplings contributed the most biomass 34.94%,40.79%,and 50.26%,respectively; whereas biomass from spruce saplings contributed the least with 6.03%,8.58%,and 8.03%,in that order,we can predict biomass changes in the different canopy density,and enrich understory biomass for this area.[Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 16 ref.]
A height growth model for Cunninghamia lanceolata based on Richards’ equation
WEI Xiao-hui, SUN Yu-jun, MA Wei
2012, 29(5): 661-666. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.004
[Abstract](4464) [PDF](1331)
To establish a height growth model for Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) on a Chinese fir plantation in Fujian Province at the Sanming Citys Jiangle State-owned Forest Farm using Richards equation,field survey data from 15 sample plots were used to simulate the tree diameter-tree height curve,the tree diameter-cumulative tree number (%) curve,and the tree height-cumulative tree number curve (%). Then data were analyzed with distributive rules for stand relative diameter (dR) and relative height (hR) using statistical software SPSS 20 for P = 0.95. Results for present stand structure were r = 0.993 with parameters A = 28.606,B = 1.094,k = 0.031,and m = -0.466. These parameters estimated values were fit to the Chinese fir growth rhythm. Richards growth equation could greatly improve forest survey indicators for tree height simulation and could provide basic data to help achieve optimal allocation of forest resources.[Ch,3 fig. 3 tab. 30 ref.]
Estimating forest volume in hilly regions with the ALOS PALSAR model’s dual polarization data
WANG Xiao-ning, XU Tian-shu, LI Yi
2012, 29(5): 667-670. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.005
[Abstract](3230) [PDF](1373)
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR),having a particular imaging mechanism that can acquire data at any time,has become more and more important for estimating forest biomass. In this research,based on field survey data,correlations between ALOS PALSAR dual polarization data backscattering coefficients (HH0,HV0 and V/HH0)and Yunnan pine forest volume from hilly regions were analyzed. A simple linear model,an exponential model,and a multiple regression model with terrain factors were developed. Results showed that correlation of the polarization ratio (V/HH0) to forest volume (r = -0.407) was higher than any single polarization (HH0 with r = 0.204 and HV0 with r = -0.242). Also,the multiple regression model with terrain factors was with highest accuracy.[Ch,3 fig. 2 tab. 12 ref.]
Microstructure and chemical composition of compressed and carbonized poplar
CHEN Chen, DENG Yu-he, XU Liao, ZHOU Yu, CHEN Min, WU Jing, WANG Xiang-ge, YANG Ying
2012, 29(5): 671-679. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.006
[Abstract](3813) [PDF](1097)
The study of microstructure and chemical composition of carbonized wood has an important meaning for its application. Changes in microstructure and chemical composition of compressed and carbonized poplar(Populus euramevicana) were studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM),Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS) Analysis,and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. Results showed that after Poplar was compressed and carbonized,to maintain cell wall integrity the cell cavity and the distance between the cell walls,which reduced 56.94%,53.34% at maximum,noticeably diminished. Element content in the sapwood and the heartwood varied similarly after hot-pressing and after carbonization with carbon content increasing and oxygen content decreasing. For example,the C-over-O ration of untreated wood was 1.76,after compressed and carbonized,the ration reduced to 1.65 and 1.45. Cellulose and hemicellulose degradation led to a reduction in peak absorption intensity for CH and C=O during hot-pressing and carbonization with some displacement also taking place. In addition,the change in peak absorption intensity for a benzene ring and phenolic-ether bond illustrated a chemical change in lignin. Thus,after carbonization in the heartwood,the new absorption peak located near the wave number at 2 853 cm-1 indicated that during this treatment a complicated chemical reaction had generated new chemical groups.[Ch,9 fig. 1 tab. 15 ref.]
Kinetics analysis of Phyllostachys edulis pyrolysis with a cuprous chloride catalyst
OUYANG Gan, SHAN Sheng-dao, LUO Xi-ping, YANG liang, SONG Cheng-fang
2012, 29(5): 680-685. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.007
[Abstract](3124) [PDF](1391)
Thermogravimetric analysis was used to study the cuprous chloride (CuCl) catalytic pyrolysis characteristics of Phyllostachys edulis (mao bamboo) at different heating rates in a nitrogen atmosphere. The Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method was used to determine the kinetic parameters in pyrolysis. Results showed that the pyrolysis temperature range of bamboo was about 200.0-379.0 ℃ with a maximum weight loss rate of 17.18% at about 328.5 ℃. For Ph. edulis,CuCl catalysis reduced the pyrolysis temperature,increased the pyrolysis rate,and shortened the pyrolysis time. The Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method revealed that the average pyrolysis activation energy of Ph. edulis was 213.21 kJmol-1. Also,the average pre-exponential factor was about 1017 meaning that CuCl increased the pre-exponential factor 10 times to about 1018;however,the average activation energy did not change.[Ch,6 fig. 3 tab. 12 ref.]
Effect of wood modifiers on the physical properties of fast-growing poplar wood
LANG Qian, CHEN He-yu, SHE Ying, WU Guo-feng, PU Jun-wen
2012, 29(5): 686-690. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.008
[Abstract](3463) [PDF](1220)
Impregnation drying of fast-growing poplar wood was conducted through wood modifiers,and the characteristics of poplar wood before and after modification were observed with X-ray diffractometer (XRD),scanning electron microscope (SEM),energy-dispersive spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer to analyze the physical properties of the wood. The results indicated that the modification could significantly improve physical properties of the poplar wood. XRD data showed that wood modifier could reduce crystallinity of wood from 39.65% to 36.89%. The findings of energy-dispersive spectrometer indicated that N,O and C were evenly distributed in the wood. SEM spectrum analyzed the distribution of wood modifier in the wood pores. Finally,the FTIR spectra showed that there was cross-linking reaction between the modifier and the internal parts of the wood and the number of hydroxyl decreased sharply.[Ch,4 fig. 1 tab. 7 ref.]
Sealed state and moisture volatilization of water-based sealers for wood furniture tested in five environmental conditions
LU Ze-guang, JIA Wan-da, WANG Meng
2012, 29(5): 691-695. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.009
[Abstract](2668) [PDF](1259)
The sealed state and moisture volatilization of a water-borne sealer for wood furniture using maple-veneered panels were determined for five different natural environments. Drying ability in different conditions was analyzed and the sealed state was studied with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The dried-water weight for moisture and the drying rate were measured using a water weight-loss method. Results showed that the drying condition greatly influenced the sealed state and drying speed. After drying for 30 min with drying conditions of temperatures of 11.2-13.2 ℃,relative humidity of 21.1%-23.4%,and air velocity of 0.04-0.05 ms-1;the moisture evaporation rate of the sealer was 16.48%. However,with temperatures of 18.9-19.1 ℃,relative humidity of 54.1%-55.6%,and air velocity of 0.03-0.15 ms-1,the evaporation rate was 2.23%. Thus,the sealed state with 11.2-13.2 ℃ was better than with 18.9-19.1 ℃.[Ch,6 fig. 19 ref.]
Identification and pathogenicity of bacterial strains carried by American pine wood nematodes
ZENG Fei-li, BEN Ai-ling3, ZHENG Jing-rong, HAN Zheng-min
2012, 29(5): 696-702. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.010
[Abstract](3399) [PDF](984)
To confirm that pine wood nematodes carrying attenuated bacterial strains could alleviate pine wilt disease,bacteria were isolated from two nematodes native to America. Bacterial virulence and pathogenicity were tested with pine seedlings,and preliminary identification of predominant strains was determined using bacterial staining reactions and morphology combined with 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Results of the isolation experiment showed that the predominant bacteria which American nematodes carried were strains MG4 (Delftia tsuruhatensis),MG5 (Pseudomonas putida),MG8 (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia),and MG9 (Pantoea sp.) Virulence and pathogenicity results demonstrated that compared with the high virulent bacteria strains(Pseudomonas fluorescence) isolated from Chinese nematodes,toxicity and pathogenicity of bacterial strains from America were relatively low. Thus,the bacteria carried by American nematodes should be considered the candidates for biological control agents.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 20 ref.]
Comparison of soil microorganisms and biochemical roles for first and second generation Pinus massoniana plantations
HE Pei-yun, DING Gui-jie, CHEN Hong-hui
2012, 29(5): 703-709. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.011
[Abstract](2790) [PDF](982)
Through the pairing method of different generations (1st and 2nd) and ages (8,9,15,18,and 20 years),a comparison of soil microorganisms and the biochemical role for the first and second state of Pinus massoniana plantations was made. Results showed that after successive rotations in young and middle-aged forests,bacteria,actinomycetes,fungi,and total microorganisms for corresponding soil layers were higher in the second generation than the first. Significant (P < 0.05) and highly significant (P <0.01) differences were found in the young forest for bacteria and fungi in the 0-20 cm layer,and total microorganisms in the 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm layers; and in the middle-aged forest,fungi in the 0-20 cm layer and bacteria,fungi,and total microorganisms in the 20-40 cm. Soil microbes in the young and middle aged first and second generation forests were in the order: bacteria > actinomycetes > fungi. The biochemical role for different soil layers,after successive rotations,for the second generation compared to the first,showed higher soil nitrification and lower ammonification in the young and middle-aged forests;also,differences in soil nitrification in the middle-aged forest at the 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depths was significant (P <0.05) or highly significant (P <0.01). Thus,successive rotations had an effect on soil microorganisms and biochemical roles in the young and middle-aged Pinus massoniana forest.[Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 18 ref.]
Canonical correlation and principal components analysis of different production areas of Dendrocalamopsis oldhami with quality indicators of bamboo shoots and its soil nutrients
2012, 29(5): 710-714. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.012
[Abstract](3518) [PDF](1255)
The analysis of principal components and canonical correlation was applied to study the correlation among quality indicators of bamboo shoots of Dendrocalamopsis oldhami and soil nutrients in 12 production areas in both Fujian Province and Zhejiang Province. The results showed that the cumulative variance rate of the first three principal components was 84.658 per cent in the principal component analysis. Therefore,the three principal components could be used as composite indicators which reflected the main quality characters of bamboo shoots. The first three principal components included the contents of reducing sugar and water-soluble total sugar,the second was water,and the third were protein and total ash. The quality characters of bamboo shoots were significantly correlated with soil nutrients,the first canonical correlation coefficient was 0.999 99 with the canonical information accounted for nearly 100 per cent of the total canonical information. The soil affected the quality characters of shoot mainly through its pH value,total nitrogen,and organic matter. The contents of reducing sugar,water-soluble total sugar and water in the shoots were predicated by the first canonical variables.[Ch,3 tab. 15 ref.]
Trait variations of male Torreya grandis trees
DONG Lei-ming, SHEN Deng-feng, YU Wei-wu, ZENG Yan-ru, WU Zhi-min, DAI Wen-sheng
2012, 29(5): 715-721. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.013
[Abstract](3481) [PDF](1148)
Variation in traits associated with male trees of Torreya grandis were studied using a survey of leaf length,width,and thickness;size of staminate strobilus;pollen weight;and flowering time. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe pollen grains and a pollination test with pollen from different 3 locations and 2 individual male trees of the same location was conducted in T. grandis Merrillii that is the only female cultivar of T. grandis. Results showed that for male trees on the average,leaf length was 2.12 cm (ranging from 1.53 to 3.20 cm),width was 0.32 cm (0.28-0.39 cm),and thickness was 0.23 mm (0.17-0.32 mm) with the length longer than that of leaves from female trees (1.1-2.5 cm);for staminate strobilus,length was 0.79 cm (ranging from 0.49-1.32 cm),width was 0.42 cm (0.32-0.54 cm),and weight was 1.19 g (0.33-2.66 g);and pollen weight was 0.170 g (ranging from 0.151-0.548 g). For leaf and staminate strobilus characteristics,CVs (coefficients of variation) varied from 55.3% for pollen weight to 8.8% for leaf width. Male trees mainly started flowering from the 16th to the 18th of April with a 1-week difference between one another in flowering time. Also,pollen was ball-shaped with a diameter of 22-26 m. No differences were found in pollen morphology among different origins or individuals located in the same area. Finally,pollen of different origins had a strong effect (P=0.016) on the young fruit-setting percentage of T. grandis Merrillii. Thus,differences in flowering time,especially selecting those late in flowering,could be used to select male trees when establishing a T. grandis Merrillii plantation,and the fruit-set indicated a potential for selection of T. grandis male,elite individuals.[Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 27 ref.]
Allelopathic effects from aqueous extracts of exotic Thalia dealbata on six aquatic plant species
WANG Yuan, MIAO Li-hua, GAO Yan, JI Meng-cheng
2012, 29(5): 722-728. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.014
[Abstract](4119) [PDF](1087)
To test the allelopathic effects of Thalia dealbata on seed germination and seedling growth,aqueous extracts of the T. dealbata rhizome and root were applied to six aquatic plants;namely,Nymphoides peltatum,Vallisneria natans,Nasturtium officinale,Iris pseudacorus,Phragmites australis,and Polygonum hydropiper using the bioassay method. Results showed that the aquatic rhizome and root extracts at a concentration of 50 gL-1 had highly significant (P < 0.01) allelopathic effects on seed germination for all six aquatic plant species. Seedling shoot length for the six listed species above were reduced 29.2%,64.9%,42.3%,87.1%,18.2%,and 75.6%,respectively;and seedling root length was reduced 50.5%,90.1%,72.7%,76.2%,29.9%,and 74.2%,in that order. Also the seed germination index was more sensitive to extract application than germination percentage and other indexes with allelopathic sensitivity in the order of Polygonum hydropiper > Nasturtium officinale > V. natans > I. pseudacorus > Nymphoides peltata > Phragmites australis.[Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 26 ref.]
Nutritional component differences in petal of Paeonia suffruticosa
XU Xiao-bo, JIA Wen-qing, LIU Hui-chao
2012, 29(5): 729-733. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.015
[Abstract](3744) [PDF](1416)
The vitamin C content,crude protein,flavonoids,amino acids,and nine kinds of mineral elements were studied using petals of six Paeonia suffruticosa cultivars (Wulongpengsheng,Baixueta,Yingrihong,Junyanhong,Chunhongjiaoyan,and Wanshishengse) as meterials. Results for Wulongpengsheng showed a vitamin C content of 13.08 mgg-1,crude protein of 1.12 mgg-1,and flavonoids of 0.11 gg-1,which are higher than other cultivars. Meanwhile,different types of amino acids were found in sufficient quantity with the highest being glutamic acid (9.64-15.83 mgg-1) and the lowest being cysteine (0.15-0.86 mgg-1). Many kinds of mineral elements were found with the microelement Se having the highest content. For nutritional components,great differences among different cultivars were exhibited. The synthesis analysis showed Wulongpengsheng had a highest nutritional value,especially for flavonoids and Se.[Ch,3 fig. 2 tab. 14 ref.]
Leaf color changes in Acer palmatum ‘Atropurpureum’ and relations to pigment content
HUANG Ke, WANG Xiao-de, LIU Yi-fei, LIU Meng
2012, 29(5): 734-738. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.016
[Abstract](3663) [PDF](1312)
To determine regular patterns of leaf color change for Acer palmatum Atropurpureum in spring and to explore linkages between leaf color expression and leaf pigment,a spectrophotometer and leaf scanning were used to measure the chlorophyll,carotenoids and anthocyanins,as well as the hue value,brightness and purity of leaf color. Results showed that,as time passed,the chlorophyll content for the upper,mid-level and lower leaf positions increased gradually; whereas variation in the carotenoid content first increaed and then decreased. Anthocyanin in the upper and mid-level leaves increased slightly at first and then overall decreased. For the lower leaves,change in the ratio of anthocyanin to chlorophyll gradually decreased. Compared with the upper leaves,the a* value,representing the red color in lower leaves,declined rapidly with the deline of anthocyanin. Thus,leaf color turned green too early,which could affect the ornamental value of the plant.[Ch,6 fig. 1 tab. 15 ref.]
Correlation of seed germination capacities under salt stress with four plant species distribution in the Hangzhou Bay Wetlands
YE Xiao-qi, WU Ming, WANG Qi, JIANG Ke-yi, SHAO Xue-xin
2012, 29(5): 739-743. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.017
[Abstract](3210) [PDF](1135)
In the Hangzhou Bay Wetlands,plant species occupy different habitats. It is not clear whether the distribution pattern of plant species was related to their ability to germinate under salt stress conditions. Soils from the habitats of four populations of Suaeda glauca,Suaeda australis,Phragmites australis,and Artemisia lavandulifolia were sampled respectively and soil salt content,pH,and water content were analyzed and compared. The percent germination of their seeds when exposed to 0-50 gL-1 NaCl solution was measured by germinating 30 seeds in three Petri dishes respectively in an illumination incubator at 28 ℃. Finally,correlation between germination percent of seeds for the four species exposed to a 20 gL-1 NaCl solution versus soil salt content,pH,and water content was analyzed. Results for the four species showed that the soil salt content of the growth habitats was S. glauca > S. australis > P. australis > A. lavandulifolia;soil pH was P. australis > A. lavandulifolia > S. glauca and S. australis;and soil water content was S. glauca > P. australis > S. australis > A. lavandulifolia. With the NaCl solution (0-50 gL-1),the percent germination decreased significantly (P < 0.001) with increase in NaCl concentration. For the same level of NaCl concentration,the percent germination was S. glauca > S. australis > P. australis > A. lavandulifolia. After replacement of NaCl solution (0-50 gL-1) with distilled water,the seed germination percent remarkably increased (P < 0.01). But the final germination capacity was in the same order as before the replacement. In addition,only the soil salt content was strongly related to percent germination of the four seed-types exposed to 20 gL-1 NaCl solution (P < 0.05). These results indicated that soil salt content was an important limiting factor for seed germination, and the distribution pattern of the four plant species was generally related to their habitats soil salt content and the ability of the seeds to germinate at high NaCl concentrations.[ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 17 ref.]
Morphological changes and physiological characteristics of seedlings from 16 tree species with salt stress
YANG Sheng, ZHANG Hua-xin, LIU Tao
2012, 29(5): 744-754. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.018
[Abstract](3217) [PDF](1140)
In order to study morphological changes and physiological characteristics under salt stress,seedlings of 16 tree species were cultivated in pots treated with sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions of 0,100,200,300,400,and 500 mmolL-1 and three replications. Results showed that (1) salt tolerance of Tamarix chinensis,Nitraria tangutorum,and Nitraria sibirica was high;of Euonymus alatus,Salix psammophila,Ligustrum obtusifolium,Elaeagnus angustifolia,Rhamnus cathartica,Celtis laevigata,and Gleditsia triacanthos was medium-high;and of Pyrus betulifolia,Salix maizhokunggarensis,Lonicera tatarica,Buddleja lindleyana,Cephalanthus occidentalis,and Fraxinus americana was medium. (2) With an increase in salinity,relative height growth and biomass significant decreased;however,the malondialdehyde (MDA),proline,and soluble sugar content marked increased for all species. Also,chlorophyll content and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity varied greatly among tree species. In addition,for all physiological indexes,Tamarix chinensis,Nitraria tangutorum,and Nitraria sibirica revealed marked differences from other species. (3) After applying salt treatments,Na+ and Cl- ions in roots,stems,and leaves greatly increased with both ions having a consistent increased. Differences in the Na+ and Cl- content in roots,stems,and leaves showed that except for Tamarix chinensis,Nitraria tangutorum,and Nitraria sibirica,the 13 other tree species were halophytes that excluded salt. These results suggested that different tree species should be selected for the salt content of the soil,so that trees could be grown in suitable soils to increase biodiversity in saline soil. It is necessary to consider salt-tolerance type of plant in the study of plant salt tolerance characteristics.[Ch,9 fig. 2 tab. 31 ref.]
Photosynthetic characteristics of three Coreopsis species
GUO Yun-xue, JIANG Wen-wei, DAI Feng, HUANG Jian-rong
2012, 29(5): 755-761. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.019
[Abstract](4173) [PDF](1214)
To determine diurnal variation of photosynthetic characteristics and light intensity responses for Coreopsis grandiflora,Coreopsis lanceolata,and Coreopsis rosea an Li-6400 photosynthetic system analyzer was used under natural light conditions. Results indicated different light compensation and light saturation points. The light adaptive range sequence was C. lanceolata > C. grandiflora > C. rosea,and the ability to use relatively strong light was C. lanceolata > C. rosea > C. grandiflora. In addition,diurnal variation in the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) for all three species displayed double-peaked curves with a greater initial peak and a clear photosynthetic noon break. Compared to Pn,the transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Cond) showed similar changes;however,changes in intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (Ci) were reversed. Also,water use efficiency (EWUE) for the three Coreopsis species differed with C. grandiflora > C. lanceolata > C. rosea,which provide the basis for water management of Coreopsis species.[Ch,4 fig. 1 tab. 24 ref.]
Economic analysis of Chinese fir forest carbon sequestration:based on Zhejiang’s survey
WANG Feng, SHEN Yue-qin, ZHU Zhen, LIN Jian-hua, WANG Xiao-ling
2012, 29(5): 762-767. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.020
[Abstract](3427) [PDF](1119)
Increasing forest carbon-sequestration has become an important measure to address the climate changes. Based on the assumptions of planting in bare lands with medium site conditions and management intensity,this research analyzed the impact of carbon subsidies and carbon tax policies on Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation through the Chinese fir growth model and the modified Hartman model. The research findings indicated that raising carbon price had little effect on the optimal rotation and carbon supply in a comparatively large price range because the profit from the wood was much higher than that from carbon sequestration. However,the optimal rotation and carbon supply showed a tendency to rise;the land expected value was positively correlated with the carbon price. Because of the implementation of carbon subsidies and carbon tax policies,the values of forest land had been increased. Compared with other types of land use such as agricultural land,more land should be used as forest land.[Ch,5 fig. 1 tab. 16 ref.]
Conifer genomic resources and its applications in conifer genetics breeding
XU Chen-lu, ZHANG Shou-gong, SUN Xiao-mei
2012, 29(5): 768-777. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.021
[Abstract](3945) [PDF](1573)
Breeding programs to improve conifers have been in existence for more than 50 years,but progress has been slow because of the large size of genome and absent genomic-assisted breeding tools. Over the past two decades,research in conifer genomics has lagged behind that of agricultural and major hardwood species. This paper summarized the progress on conifer genomics research over resent years and molecular markers and transcripts applications in conifer genetics breeding. Genomic research in conifer was poised to enter into an important and productive phase owing to the advent of the new-generation sequencing technologies,and conifer genomics resources would play a more and more important role in conifer genetics breeding.[Ch,115 ref.]
Surface characteristics of an alkaline degreasing treatment on Pinus massoniana veneer
WEI Pei-xing, ZHOU Ding-guo
2012, 29(5): 778-782. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.022
[Abstract](3681) [PDF](1380)
Wood surface characteristics are very complicated,which is very important for wood bonding. Therefore,after Pinus massoniana veneer alkali degreased,related research of surface characteristics were studied. The influence of NaOH alkaline degreasing treatment on Pinus massoniana veneer was studied. Surface characteristics,such as surface free radical concentration,surface shape,and surface free energy,all with and without the degreasing process,were analyzed. The surface characteristics factors,such as surface free radical concentration,surface shape,and surface free energy,before and after degreasing process,were investigated by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy (ESR),Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM),and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM),respectively. The results showed that the free radicals peak strength of Pinus massoniana veneer decreased after dilute alkali degreasing,but the concentration of free radicals had no change (17.649 4 and 17.672 8). SEM of the surface shape revealed that the alkali degreasing treatment greatly in the wood,but it also reduced smoothness of the wood surface. In addition,the surface contact angle decreased,and the surface free energy increased slightly (about 8.7%). Based on the results,alkaline degreasing treatment on Pinus massoniana veneer impoved the wood bonding inefficiently[Ch,5 fig. 2 tab. 11 ref.]
Design and implementation of a forest fire monitoring system using a miniature unmanned aerial vehicle
MA Rui-sheng, YANG Bin, ZHANG Li-hui, LIU Zhi-ping
2012, 29(5): 783-789. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.023
[Abstract](3734) [PDF](1260)
To explore a new means of forest fire monitoring and to improve the management level of forest safety,real-time video and computer technology were combined to develop a new piece of forest fire monitoring equipment. This equipment and a miniature unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) together formed the miniature aerial forest fire monitoring system. Sampled RGB value of image pixels,a smoke recognition model was established by using the statistical product and service solution (SPSS) for cluster analysis. The model had been improved for smoke spectrum and noise reduction,cloud recognize more than 77% smoke pixels of test images. With the recognition model,immediate fire detection and warning could occur. Based on flight tests of the system,this study proposed operational processes,analyzed running costs and existing problems at present. In addition,application of a UAV forest fire monitoring system as well as meteorological sounding,combustible matter monitoring,pest and disease survey and others,could enhance forestry management.[Ch,5 fig. 2 tab. 14 ref.]
Pollen viability and storage of Chaenomeles sinensis
GUAN Yu, JIA Wen-qing, LIU Hui-chao, ZHANG Zhi-jun
2012, 29(5): 790-794. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.024
[Abstract](3746) [PDF](1775)
To determine the pollen viability of Chaenomeles sinensis,methods of culture medium,iodine/potassium iodide solution (I-KI) staining and 1% 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining were used to determine the pollen germination. Effects on pollen germination for different storage types and time were also studied. Results showed that the best culture medium was 100 mgL-1 sucrose + 30 mgL-1 boric acid + 8 gL-1 agar,with the germination rate reaching 75.1%. For pollen viability,TTC staining with a germination rate of 60.6% was suitable; however,I-KI staining with germination rate of only 17.9% was not suitable. The best storage temperatures,in turn,were -80 ℃,4 ℃,-23 ℃ and room temperature. At -80 ℃,the germination rate of pollen was 22.9% when it was preserved for 16 days.[Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 10 ref.]
Mating behavior and characteristics of Monochamus alternatus
LUO Ya-ping, XU Hua-chao, MENG Jun-guo, FAN Jian-ting
2012, 29(5): 795-798. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.025
[Abstract](3532) [PDF](1209)
The mating behavior and characteristics of Monochamus alternatus adults in cages were observed over a 24 h period. Results showed that the mating behavior consisted of two steps:1) the female got close to and moved around the male,and 2) the male caught the female and mated. Mating behavior rhythm within 24 h consisted of two mating peaks at 10∶00-14∶00 and 18∶00-24∶00. Little to no mating behavior occurred outside of these periods. Mating behavior revealed that multiple mating existed universally. Individuals with a mating frequency of 2 times (or more) accounted for 77.5% of all experimental insects,and mating lasted 50 s each time. Apart from the normal male-female mating,male-male mating and female-female mating occurred. In addition,two males sometimes fought for the right of mating with the same female.[Ch,1 fig. 1 tab. 15 ref.]
Coincidence level in spatial distribution of Eulecanium gigantea and Blastothrix sericae
WANG Yu-lan, LIU Ai-hua, ZHANG Jing-wen, ZHAO Bian-jian, YUE Zhao-yang, ZHANG Xin-ping, TANG Li
2012, 29(5): 799-802. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.05.026
[Abstract](3462) [PDF](1187)
The spatial distribution patterns of Eulecanium gigantea and its natural enemies Blastothrix sericae were determined,the equations of optimal sampling were formulated based on the regression models with multiple aggregation indices. The result showed that spatial distribution pattern of Eulecanium gigantea and Blastothrix sericae belonged to aggregative distribution. Regression analysis of Iwao and Tayler also obtained a similar conclusion,Eulecanium gigantea and Blastothrix sericae belonged to aggregative distribution and with the population density increasing,aggregation index increased. The coincidence in distribution effectively increased the control capacity of natural enemies on their hosts.[Ch,3 tab. 10 ref.]