2012 Vol. 29, No. 4

Net primary productivity estimates for Zhejiang Province based on the CASA model
YU Jing-fang, YU Shu-quan, ZHANG Chao, LI Tu-sheng
2012, 29(4): 473-481. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.001
[Abstract](4128) [PDF](1286)
Changes in vegetation and net primary productivity (NPP) are important indicators representing regional ecological qualitative changes. To examine NPP vegetative seasonal variation,spatial patterns,and land use change that affected variation,an NPP simulation was performed for Zhejiang Province in 2006 based on the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model with results further analyzed by Geographic Information System(GIS)-based software. Results showed that (1) average annual NPP was about 625.68 gm-2a-1. NPP also showed a spatial heterogeneity which lying down within the relief over the study area. NPP differed with land use type,but there seems to be a similar seasonal change which increased fast in Feb. to May and peaked in July and Aug. (2) Total NPP in 2006 was about 6 451.2 104 ta-1 with more than 70% found mainly in forest and cropland near each city in Zhejiang Province. Total NPP of Lishui City was highest (1 336.05 104 ta-1);whereas Zhoushan City was lowest (47.18 104 ta-1). For the Ecological Service Forests,the average annual NPP was about 815.28 gm-2a-1 which was higher than the mean values of forests. (3) Compared to 1996,total NPP in 2006 increased about 52.96 104 ta-1 due to land use type change. Thus,to effectively enhance vegetation NPP for Zhejiang Province,a forest network system should be built in the plains areas,the project accelerating the succession of coniferous forest into broadleaf forest should be conducted in mountain areas,and an intensive management for bamboo stands should be undertaken.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 19 ref.]
Biomass and allocation of young Azadirachta indica and Acacia auriculiformis for different restoration patterns in dry-hot valley
GAO Cheng-jie, TANG Guo-yong, SUN Yong-yu, ZHANG Chun-hua, XIE Qing-hai, LI Kun
2012, 29(4): 482-490. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.002
[Abstract](3086) [PDF](1400)
To understand biomass and its allocation in tree species for plantations using different restoration patterns for dry-hot areas,and to evaluate the benefits of mixed patterns of tree species,biomass and allocation characteristics in nine-year-old Azadirachta indica and Acacia auriculiformis were studied in the dry-hot Yuanmou Valley. Data from sample trees were averaged to determine biomass and allocation,and 17 Azadirachta indica trees and 16 Acacia auriculiformis trees in different diameter classes were cut to build allometric equations. One-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between biomass per plant of Azadirachta indica or Acacia auriculiformis in the pure and mixed plantations. Biomass in the mixed plantation was 16.525 thm-2;with Azadirachta indica it was 7.837 thm-2;and for Acacia auriculiformis it was 27.802 thm-2. Biomass of Azadirachta indica organs varied as follows: in the pure plantation:stem>root>branch>bark>leaf and in the mixed plantation:stem>branch>root>leaf>bark;whereas Acacia auriculiformis varied as follows: in the pure plantation:branch>stem>root>leaf>bark and in the mixed plantation:stem>branch>root>leaf>bark. The root/shoot ratio of Azadirachta indica in the mixed plantation (0.280) was significantly smaller (P<0.05) than in the pure plantation(0.400) and for Acacia auriculiformis mixed (0.163) it was larger (P>0.05) than the pure plantation (0.132). Relationships between organs or the organ and stem diameter (D) or stem diameter square multiplied by tree height (D2H) of the two species showed allometry with an allometric equation being y=axb. The allometric rate of the organs was as follows:for Azadirachta indica-branch>leaf and stem>root with aboveground>belowground;whereas for Acacia auriculiformis-branch>stem>root>leaf with aboveground>belowground. In the dry-hot valley,when the two species were planted in the mixed pattern and compared to the pure plantation,biomass increased for Azadirachta indica and decreased for Acacia auriculiformis with biomass allocation for organs changing for the same tree species in different restoration patterns.[Ch,4 tab. 38 ref.]
Niche characteristics for dominant species of a wild Pueraria lobata community in the Guizhou Karst Region
LI An-ding, LI Wei-jie, PENG Xi, XIE Yuan-gui, LONG Xiu-qin
2012, 29(4): 491-497. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.003
[Abstract](3133) [PDF](1573)
Based on plots of the Pueraria lobata community in the karst area of Guizhou,the niche width,niche proportional similarity,and population overlap of 16 dominant species were analyzed. Results demonstrated that:1) the top six niche breadths from first to sixth were Pueraria lobata,Lindera communis,Zanthoxylum planispinum,Rhamnus heterophylla,Rubus biflorus,and Pyracantha fortuneana;2) Pueraria lobata adapted well to the rocky,desertified environment of the karst;3) the proportion of niche similarity for all species pairs was between 0 and 1 with the degree of similarity for resource use being different;4) these 16 populations did not show a strong niche overlap as different resource use was noted;and 5) primary species in this study with a higher niche width did not have a higher niche overlap. Although for sustainable development some prospects of using Pueraria lobata for feed have been mentioned in the literature,increases in mowing and other human interference measures would be a drawback; also the lack of resource sharing for the Pueraria lobata community meant it was unstable.[Ch,4 tab. 15 ref.]
Structural characteristics and species diversity of the endangered plant Ardisia violacea
MA Kai, XIA Guo-hua, YAN Dao-liang, XIE Wen-yuan, YAN Cai-xia, WU Jia-sen, LI Gen-you
2012, 29(4): 498-509. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.004
[Abstract](3866) [PDF](1528)
To understand the Ardisia violacea plant community's structural characteristics so as to protect this rare and endangered plant,a survey of community structure and species diversity was conducted through quadrat sampling in Lhetang Forest Park,Jiande City,Zhejiang Province. Using permanent plots and examining every individual within,all trees were identified and measured. To describe community population characteristics,importance values of tree populations were calculated,Raunkiaer's life-form spectrum was used,and species diversity of tree and shrub layers were analyzed using Shannon-Weiner,Simpson,and Pielou evenness indexes. The population age structure of the different tree layer species were categorized into three regeneration types:unimodal,sporadic,and inverse-J. Results showed 47 families,79 genera,and 116 species of vascular plants. Raunkiaer's life-form spectrum revealed that micro-phanerophytes and nano-phanerophytes characterized the forest. Structural features of the community for the woody layer included two evergreen conifers species,48 evergreen broadleaved trees species,and 33 deciduous broadleaved trees species. Using habitat,community structure,and species composition,communities with Ardisia violacea were found in three forest community types:Castanopsis eyrei-Castanopsis fargesii,mixed Cunninghamia lanceolata-broadleaf,and Cunninghamia lanceolata. Vertical structure was composed of four layers:tree,shrub,herb and interlayer with the height structure being similar (P>0.05). Species richness in the three communities was greatest for the shrub layer(45,30,29,P<0.05). For the Shannon-Weiner index,the mixed Cunninghamia lanceolata-broadleaved community herb layer was biggest (2.42,P<0.01);whereas the Castanopsis eyrei-Castanopsis fargesii and Cunninghamia lanceolata community shrub layers were largest (2.61,2.37,P<0.01). For the Simpson index,the Castanopsis eyrei-Castanopsis fargesii and the Cunninghamia lanceolata community tree layers were hugest(5.130,6.957,P<0.01);whereas the mixed Cunninghamia lanceolata-broadleaved community shrub layer was largest (6.097,P<0.01). Unimodal type species included Liquidambar formosana,Alniphyllum fortunei,and Pinus massoniana;sporadic type species included Cyclobalanopsis glauca,Schima superba,and Lindera aggregata;and inverse-J type species were Cunninghamia lanceolata,Castanopsis eyrei,Castanopsis fargesii,and Symplocos caudate. In allusion to the biological characteristics of Ardisia violacea,means of in situ conservation was supposed to be taken as the most important management countermeasure for the forest in the future. In addition,it should be done that intermediate selective cutting of the subordinate species in the tree and shrub layer so as to create a good condition for Ardisia violacea populations regeneration and development.[Ch,2 fig. 7 tab. 29 ref.]
Genome-wide analysis of the phosphate transporter gene family in Populus trichocarpa
WANG Ce, QIN Jing-jing, GAN Hong-hao, LI Hong, LUO Zhi-bin
2012, 29(4): 516-526. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.006
[Abstract](3441) [PDF](1723)
Phosphate transporters are a family of proteins which actively transport phosphate. To investigate members of phosphate transporter family and their physical,chemical and structural properties in the woody model Populus trichocarpa,phylogenesis of the phosphate transporter family members and their physical,chemical,structural properties as well as sub-cellular locations of four phosphate transporters (PtrPHT1-1,PtrPHT1-9,PtrPHT2-1,and PtrPHO1-N1) from the sequenced genome of Populus trichocarpa were studied. A phylogenetic analysis of the transporters was conducted using local bioinformatics software,such as CLUSTALX 2.0,GeneDOC,and MEGA5. In addition,online bioinformatics software was utilized to analyze the physical and chemical properties,hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity,transmembrane domains,secondary and three-dimensional structures,and sub-cellular locations. Results showed 31 phosphate transporters in the P. trichocarpa genome divided into four subfamilies (PtrPHT1,PtrPHT2,PtrPHO1,and PtrPHO2) according to their sequencing similarities. The sequence identity of amino acids within PtrPHTs was higher than in PtrPHOs,and was highly conserved. The transporters were hydrophobic -protein. Also,PtrPHTs contained 12 transmembrane domains which were more than the PtrPHOs with the PtrPHT family members being located at different sub-cellular locations. Therefore,phosphate transporter subfamilies in P. trichocarpa could have separated in an early stage during their evolutionary processes,and these transporters could have played different roles in phosphorus metabolism to maintain phosphorus homeostasis for changing phosphorus conditions. [Ch,6 fig. 4 tab. 17 ref.]
Photosynthetic characteristics in three Camellia oleifera cultivars
YUAN Jun, TAN Xiao-feng, JIANG Zhi-na, YANG Qiao-li, LI Ze
2012, 29(4): 527-532. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.007
[Abstract](3209) [PDF](1368)
The aim was to study photosynthetic characteristics of three new Camellia oleifera (oil tea) cultivars (Huashuo,Huajin,and Huaxin) and provide reference for the cultivation of Camellia oleifera (oil tea). The index of eco-photosynthetic characteristics and the chlorophyll content for three new Camellia oleifera (oil tea) cultivars were investigated and their correlation was analyzed. Randomized design was applied in this study,three replications were designed and each treatment was sixty plants. Results for all three cultivars showed that net photosynthetic (Pn) diurnal change curves were single peaked,the midday depression phenomenon for photosynthesis did not occur,and the peak was at 9:00. The light compensation and saturation points (LCP and LSP) for Huashuo were 43.81 and 693.2 molm-2s-1,for Huaxin,respectively,were 58.49 and 638.8 molm-2s-1,and for Huajin were 54.24 and 684.85 molm-2s-1. The order for adaptation range of light intensity was:Huashuo> Huaxin > Huajin. Chlorophyll content for Huashuo was 1.35 mgg-1,for Huaxin was 0.97 mgg-1,and for Huajin was 0.90 mgg-1. Also,photosynthetic rates were negatively correlated with chlorophyll a (r = -0.947,P<0.01),but were not correlated to chlorophyll b or chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b. Thus,Pn,LCP,LSP and chlorophyll content,showed that Huashuo andHua-xin had a better in photosynthetic capability.[Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 13 ref.]
Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters under drought stress in three plants of Lonicera
LIU Zhi-mei, JIANG Wen-wei, YANG Guang-yuan, HUANG Jian-rong
2012, 29(4): 533-539. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.008
[Abstract](3387) [PDF](1337)
Changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters under drought stress for three honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Chinensis,Lonicera tellmanniana and Lonicera heckrottii) were studied. Results showed that minimal fluorescence (F0) and the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (qN) increased with the number of drought stress days;whereas maximal fluorescence (Fm),potential photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ(Fv /F0),maximal photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ (Fv /Fm),effective quantum yield of PSⅡ photochemistry (y),apparent electron transport rate (ETR),and the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) gradually decreased. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters under drought stress varied in the order:L. japonica Chinensis > L. tellmanniana > L. heckrottii. Thus,drought resistance was also in this order. [Ch,4 fig. 21 ref.]
Heat tolerance comparisons for 25 cultivars of Camellia oleifera
WANG Guo-xia, CAO Fu-liang, YANG Yu-zhen, FANG Yan-ming, LEI Xiao-lin
2012, 29(4): 540-545. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.009
[Abstract](3594) [PDF](1233)
High temperature has been a major climatic issue affecting yield and quality of economic non-timber forest products. In order to identify the differences of heat tolerance among Camellia oleifera cultivars,the study was based on the leaves of 25 C. oleifera cultivars in the C. oleifera germplasm nursery in Jiangxi Academy of Forestry,which are respectively treated with the temperatures of 40,45,50,55,60 and 65 ℃ (control) for 30 min,and determined the semi-lethal temperatures (TL50) by conductivity method and logistic equation(y=k/(1+ae-bt)). According to the the semi-lethal temperatures,the 25 C. oleifera cultivars were classified into three types:1) TL5050 ℃ (heat-resistant type:6 cultivars),2) 45 ℃ TL50<50℃ (medium-resistant type:14 cultivars),and 3) TL50<45 ℃ (heat-sensitive type:5 cultivars). These results showed important differences in heat tolerance of C. oleifera cultivars,which was similar to TL50 results for morphological characteristics of hydroponic cuttings at different high temperature stresses. The result will provide theoretical references for the study of heat resistance and directive breeding of C. oleifera.[Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 26 ref.]
Rubber latex yield and physiology of rubber tree with tea tree oil treatments
ZHU De-ming, WANG Jin, KONG Ling-xue, SHE Feng-hua, AN Feng, LIN Wei-fu
2012, 29(4): 546-550. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.010
[Abstract](3598) [PDF](1458)
To examine the effects of tea tree oil on rubber latex yield and the resulting latex physiological parameters of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis),clean water and 20%,40%,60%,80% and 100% of tea tree oil were applied on the tapping cut of rubber trees. The data were analyzed by Duncan test and its results showed that when compared to clean water (ck),80% and 100% of tea tree oil stimulation significantly promoted rubber latex yield(P<0.05). In addition,the latex physiological parameters changed with the sucrose content(P<0.01),magnesium ion content (P<0.01) and inorganic phosphorus content (P<0.01) of latex significantly increasing and thiol content significantly deceasing (P<0.01). The effect of tea tree oil treatments on rubber yield was similar to the impact of 0.5% ethrel stimulation. However,compared to ethrel stimulation,100% tea tree oil treatment significantly increased dry rubber and sucrose contents (P<0.01) and decreased thiol content (P<0.01). Thus,tea tree oil treatment involved different latex yield promotion mechanisms than that of ethrel stimulation. [Ch,3 tab. 13 ref.]
A new matrix solid-phase for heavy metal ion extraction and residual testing
GUO Ming, WU Xiao-peng, SUN Dong-hai, ZHOU Jian-zhong, ZHANG Hua
2012, 29(4): 551-557. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.011
[Abstract](2937) [PDF](1580)
Chemical modification of chitosan combined with characteristic bentonite was used to prepare new matrix adsorption and functional materials with a subsequent columnar extraction tube being designed and produced. Then,the new matrix solid-phase dispersion column was packed and prepared. With an orthogonal experimental design,metallic ions,used as prior indicators in Carya cathayensis leaves,were analyzed. Separation efficiency of the new matrix solid-phase dispersion column and relevance of the heavy metal ion residual content between leaves and fruit were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results of the atomic absorption spectrophotometry showed that compared with classical methods,the new matrix solid-phase extraction column separated heavy metal ions in pecans showing a dependent relationship in leaves for heavy metal ions of Ni2+ (91.1%) and Cu2+ (77.8%) and in fruit of Ni2+ (89.1%) and Cu2+ (76.9%). These results could provide a reference for studying solid-phase extraction technology and residual relevance of heavy metals. [Ch,2 fig. 7 tab. 22 ref.]
Comprehensive evaluation of landscape exploitation and application of wild tree and shrub resources in Mount Yuntai of Jiangsu Province
DING Yan-fen, ZHANG Jia-ping
2012, 29(4): 558-565. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.012
[Abstract](3145) [PDF](1440)
The application prospect of different wild ornamental plants varies greatly. Comprehensive evaluation can provide clear goals and prominent keys on the landscape exploitation and application avoiding unordered and random selection. A synthetical assessment was established to evaluate the potential on landscape exploitation and application of 80 wild trees and shrubs in Mount Yuntai of Lianyungang based on the analytical hierarchy process (AHP),which included adaptability,ornamental value,and exploitation value as criterion layers and 13 evaluation factors,especially concerning ecological functions and beautification benefits. Sequence was obtained:25 species,such as Sapium japonicum,Vitex trifolia var. simplicifolia,Elaeagnus macrophylla,ect,were divided into the first level,most of which have stronger adaptabilities,special ecological functions and multiple ornamental values. Many are local rare and endangered plants,or ancient and famous trees with high values of scientific research or social influence. Pyrus betulaefolia,Acer ginnala,Ardisia japonica,etc,and Prunus dielsiana,Tilia mandshurica,Aralia chinensis,etc,were respectively divided into the second and third level. Comprehensive evaluation can provide reference for the landscape exploitation and application of wild ornamental trees and shrubs in Mount Yuntai or some areas sharing similar climatic type.[Ch,1 fig. 6 tab. 16 ref.]
Straight-line intersect sampling with comprehensive forest resource monitoring
LUO Xian-Xian
2012, 29(4): 566-573. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.013
[Abstract](3009) [PDF](1458)
Line intersect sampling is an inventory method for rare populations using unequal probability sampling with replacement. For ecological management,the formula to calculate total volume,density,and mean and total number,as well as to of fallen dead woods estimate precision,variance,and the estimate interval was systematically deduced. Then,straight-line intersect sampling was applied to the inventory of fallen dead woods in the fourth small section of the first section of checking method in China. The effect of different transect length on inventory precision was discussed. The best transect length was determined to be 50 m taked inventory time and precision into consideration,for which the total volume of fallen dead woods was 536.85 m3,the volume density was 27.53 m3hm-2,the total number of fallen dead woods was 5 887,and the sampling precision gained was 90.05% (with a reliability of 95%). These results could provide scientific and practical applications for ground plot designs with comprehensive forest resource monitoring.[Ch,7 fig. 4 tab. 19 ref.]
The galectin-3 cDNA diversity and amino acid variation of Bufo gargarizans skin tissue
XU Yue, SONG Min-guo, YANG Xian-yu, YUAN Jin-qiang
2012, 29(4): 574-580. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.014
[Abstract](3883) [PDF](1240)
To obtain the cDNA clone of galectin-3,a first-strand cDNA library was synthesized from the total RNA of Bufo gargarizans skin and then used as a template for subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The PCR product was successfully cloned into pGM-T vector. After sequencing and using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI),an open reading frame (ORF) finder was utilized to determine the cDNA. Then,Clustal X 2.0 and DnaSP 4 software were used to analyze cDNA diversity and the deduced amino acid variation. Results of the ORF finder showed nine cDNA clones of galectin-3,two of which were estimated to encode truncated protein. Clustal X 2.0 and DnaSP 4.0 revealed a high density of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with an average of 1 SNP per 20 bp. For deduced amino acid residues,the N-terminal and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) were highly consistent with a phosphorylation site,a CRD,and two related motifs. Meanwhile,the tandem repeated domain showed strong differences. Thus,this study indicated a molecular basis for bio-adaptation of B. gargarizans in certain habitat.[Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 24 ref.]
Community structure and biodiversity of soil animals in bamboo stands of Lin’an,Zhejiang
YU Yun-wei, YING Ye-qing, REN Li-ping, HU Jia-fu, ZHAO A-yong
2012, 29(4): 581-587. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.015
[Abstract](3514) [PDF](1288)
The community structure of soil animals was studied in bamboo stands of Western Zhejiang with a stratified analysis. Results revealed 24 328 soil animals in total belonging to five phylum,11 classes,and 26 orders with the majority being Acarina and Collembola. The biodiversity level of bamboo stands was between plantations and natural forests. The stratified analysis showed that the highest diversity index value was in the upper stand layer (1.382 6),and the lowest was in the lower stand layer (0.636 7);the highest evenness index value was in the middle stand layer (0.943 1),and the lowest value was at the litter layer (0.357 4);and the highest richness index value was at the upper stand layer (3.466 6),and the lowest value was in the middle stand layer (1.021 7). Meanwhile,the highest similarity index value was found between the lower and middle stand layers (0.800 0) with the lowest value between the litter layer and the middle-lower stand layer. With the consumption of soil animals,organic matter decreased from the upper layer to the lower layer as did biodiversity.[Ch,4 tab. 25 ref.]
Fiber characteristics and variation patterns of Pinus massoniana
LU Cui-xiang, XIANG Dong-yun, CHEN Jian-bo, XU Feng, REN Shi-qi, LIU Yuan, TANG Ji-xin
2012, 29(4): 588-594. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.016
[Abstract](5182) [PDF](1226)
To comprehend the anatomical properties and search for variations of interior wood properties,fibers of Pinus massoniana were studied using a computerized electronic microscope and micrograph analysis system to determine quantitative anatomical properties. Results in the radial position for early wood showed average fiber values of:length 3 711.1 m,width 47.85 m,wall thickness 11.47 m,length to width ratio 76.48,wall thickness to cavity ratio 0.34,and cavity to width ratio 0.76;and late wood revealed average fiber values of:length 3 912.9 m,width 37.30 m,wall thickness 20.45 m,length to width ratio-104.13,wall thickness to cavity ratio 1.73,and cavity to width ratio 0.45. From pith to bark,all fiber morphological parameters gradually increased or increased to a steady state except for the wall thickness to cavity ratio of early wood and the cavity to fiber width of early wood were not significant.,and the cavity to fiber width ratio of late wood decreased. In the relative position,the average fiber values for early wood were: length 3 597.6 m,width 48.83 m,wall thickness 11.70 m,length to width ratio 73.65,wall thickness to cavity ratio 0.35,and cavity to width ratio 0.75;and average fiber values for latewood were:length-3 857.3 m,width 38.71 m,wall thickness 18.82 m,length to width ratio 100.82,wall thickness to cavity ratio 1.33,and cavity to width ratio 0.51. From base to top,all fiber morphological parameters increased at first and then decreased,except for the wall thickness to cavity ratio and the cavity to fiber width ratio were not significant.[Ch,12 fig. 2 tab. 20 ref.]
Comparing composition of Phyllostachys edulis ‘Pachyloen’ in native and introduced habitats
FANG Kai, YANG Qing-pei, GUO Qi-rong, SHI Jian-min, LI Jian, YANG Guang-yao
2012, 29(4): 595-599. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.017
[Abstract](3179) [PDF](1252)
Nine chemical components and twelve mineral elements in bamboo wood of Phyllostachys edulis Pachyloen from native and introduced habitats were studied. The diversity of bamboo wood among native and introduced habitats were revealed by two-tail variance analysis,meanwhile,bamboo age was referred to as an accessory factor in taking the significance test. Results from the native and introduced habitats showed significant differences for mineral elements (P< 0.05) but not for the main chemical components. Content (in gg-1) from the native habitat was as follows:lignin (0.290 0),cellulose (0.395 6),pentosan (0.260 3),cold water extract (0.055 3),hot water extract (0.064 6),benzene-ethanol extract (0.027 7),ash (0.015 7),and SiO2 (0.001 5) as well as 10.0 gkg-1 NaOH extract (0.298 2). The sequence of mineral element content was K > N > P >S = Mg > Fe > Ca > Mn > Al > Zn > Cu > B in the native habitat,but S > Mg > Ca Fe in the native habitat. The main chemical components in bamboo wood from introduced habitat were consistent to native habitat values,which affirm that the genetic stability of Phyllostachys edulis Pachyloen.[Ch,2 tab. 17 ref.]
A new wood microscopic image registration approach based on speeded up robust features (SURF)
ZHANG Guang-qun, WU Wei-zhi, WANG Hang-jun
2012, 29(4): 600-605. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.018
[Abstract](3491) [PDF](1219)
To solve the problem of narrow fields for microscopes,a new method of microscopic image registration based on speeded up robust features (SURF) was developed. First,feature points were extracted using SURF,and corresponding matching points were found using the nearest neighbor method. Wrong matches were eliminated using the Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm and bilateral matching. Then,transformed parameters were estimated using least squares techniques and matching the results. Finally,through interpolation,the registered image was achieved. Registration results of multiple wood images showed that the algorithm was robust. Regardless of whether the image is rotated,automatic registration can be achieved. The accuracy of our method is comparable with SIFT(scale-invariant feature transform) image registration method while registration is about 5 times faster. Therefore,algorithm is more real-time.[Ch,4 fig. 1 tab. 17 ref.]
An empirical analysis of the impacts of industry economic development on carbon emission
ZHU Zhen, YAN Yan, QIU Bao-yin, HUANG Min
2012, 29(4): 606-610. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.019
[Abstract](3334) [PDF](1301)
The economic growth which relies on the traditional energy consumption will lead to huge carbon emission. Its essential to study the relationship between economic growth mode and carbon emission,and maintain sustainable economic development on the basis of carbon emission reduction for Zhejiang Province which aims at economy transition in the 12th Five-year Plan. On the basis of two models including industry-energy consumption model,and energy-carbon emission model,this paper used the data during 1990-2009 to analyze the relationship among industry development,energy consumption structure and carbon emission in Zhejiang Province. The results indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between the industrial structure evolution and energy consumption but an insignificant impact of changes in energy consumption structure on carbon emission in Zhejiang. The authors proposed emission cuts-oriented policies on integrating energy utilization and industry economic growth,i.e.,developing new energy technologies,promoting diversified energy consumption structure,enhancing the transformation of energy-saving technologies of industrial enterprises,improving energy utilization efficiency,making use of economic advantages and guiding the financial organizations to serve low-carbon industries. [Ch,2 fig. 11 ref.]
WANG Yue-yuan, LIU Xiang-min, ZHOU Ming-bing, TANG Ding-qin
2012, 29(4): 510-515. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.005
[Abstract](3127) [PDF](1622)

生氰糖苷是由氰醇衍生物的羟基和D-葡萄糖缩合形成的糖苷,已在2 000多种植物中发现,分属于蕨类植物、裸子植物和被子植物的130个家族。生氰糖苷的主要生物学功能在于阻止食草动物和病原体对植物的侵害。通过反转录-聚合酶链式反应(RT-PCR)和cDNA末端快速扩增(RACE)技术从小佛肚竹Bambusa ventricosa幼笋中克隆到CYP79家族同源基因的cDNA全长,命名为BvCYP79。BvCYP79共有1 913个碱基对,翻译起始点为193碱基处,终止子位于1 752 bp,包含1个1 559 bp的完整编码区,开放阅读框共编码519个氨基酸。具有PERF和SFSTGRRGCIA保守结构域,属于典型的单子叶植物CYP79家族基因。生氰糖苷途径可能也存在于竹类植物,因而在食用笋的安全性评估上具有一定指导意义。图3参12

Recent advances with auxin response factors (ARFs):a review
FANG Jia, HE Yong-Qing, YU Min-Fen, ZHENG Bing-Song
2012, 29(4): 611-616. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.020
[Abstract](4210) [PDF](1679)
Auxin response factors (ARFs) are important transcription factors which regulate the expression of auxin response genes in plants and which take on an important role in auxin signal transduction. ARFs can bind specifically to a TGTCTC motif (auxin response element) and mediate auxin responses including activating or inhibiting gene expression. Based on recent advances in the molecular biology of ARFs,structural characteristics as well as biological functions of ARFs and their regulation mechanism are discussed. A typical ARF protein consists of a N-terminal DNA Binding Domain (DBD),a variable middle region that may function as an activation domain (AD) or a repression domain (RD),and one C-terminal Aux/IAA domain (CTD). ARFs promote the transcription of early genes by combining auxin response elements,and they regulate the expression of downstream genes in the process of auxin signal transduction. Different ARFs are expressed in different tissues and organisms. Also,the study of ARF mutants has indicated that different ARFs possess different functions,which are due to differences in temporal and spatial expression and due to affinities with promoters of target genes. Additionally,plant hormones,environmental factors,and non-coding small RNA act as important functions in regulating ARFs.[Ch,1 fig. 42 ref.]
Scientific notes
Visual cues for the host-finding and mating locations of Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera:Cerambycidae)
LIU Bo, XU Hua-chao, MENG Jun-guo, SUN Jiang-hua, FAN Jian-ting
2012, 29(4): 617-620. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.021
[Abstract](2881) [PDF](1407)
In order to explore the role of the visual factors,for Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera:Cerambycidae) four treatments of field traps (black,brown,green,and graycontrol) were tested. The mating behavior was observed after M. alternatus visual organ compound eyes and olfaction were treated. Results showed that the black and brown traps were stronger than the gray (control) traps (P<0.05);but the green traps were weaker than the control(P<0.05). In mating behavior assays,after the compound eyes were treated,the percentage of mating success decreased to 50.7% compared to the control which had an average of 93.3%. Also,the proportion of mating success after treating olfaction (antenna were cutting down) averaged 72.3%,which was lower than the control(P<0.05). With both vision and olfaction treated,the proportion of mating success averaged 26.7%,also lower than the control (P<0.05). This indicated that visual cues over short distances were very important in the mating behavior of M. alternatus.[Ch,2 fig. 24 ref.]
Survey and risk analysis of forest pests in Nanhu District,Jiaxing City
ZHANG Ting-ting, XU Hua-chao, JIANG Ting
2012, 29(4): 621-625. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.022
[Abstract](3894) [PDF](1360)
In order to prevent and control forest pests timely,during 2010-2011,forest pest species of Nanhu District,Jiaxing City in Zhejiang Province were systematically survey and analyzed using the quantitative analysis of pest risk assessment method. Results of the survey revealed 217 species belonging to 7 orders,60 families,and 183 genera with Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky and Anoplophora chinensis Forster being the most serious forest pests. The risk index value (R-value) of A. glabripennis was 1.95,which was moderate risk (between 2.00-1.50),and A. chinensis was 2.05,which was high risk. It will make the foundation for complementing and providing the information of the quarantine pests and major pests for Zhejiang Province.[Ch,3 tab. 24 ref.]
Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in Carya cathayensis
SONG Shuang, HUANG Yin-zhi, DONG Lei-ming, HUANG You-jun, ZENG Yan-ru, WU Zhi-min
2012, 29(4): 626-633. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.023
[Abstract](2974) [PDF](1465)
Codominant markers are better than dominant ones in genetic studies for their ability to distinguish homozygotes and heterozygotes,but their development is usually costly. There has been no report on application of codominant markers to Carya cathayensis so far,but the cDNA library associated with fat metabolism in Carya cathayensis revealed 43 cDNA sequences characterized by base repeats of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers,from which 34 pairs of expressed sequence tag (EST)-SSR primers were designed with Primer Premier 5. With an SSR protocol established,these SSR primers were used to analyze DNA of 40 C. cathayensis trees from a natural population in Linan of Zhejiang Province,which are at least 100 m apart from each other. A native PAGE (polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) design was used to analyze the applicability of the SSR primers in C. cathayensis. Results showed four pairs of primers had no amplification product,three pairs had an amplification product beyond the pre-designed product length,and 27 pairs had clear and stable amplification products. From the 27 pairs,18 pairs amplified 22 polymorphic loci accounting for 47.8% of the total loci amplified. Compared to other dominant markers (RAPD,ISSR,SRAP and AFLP) developed for C. cathayensis,the SSR markers were only high in the percentage of polymorphic loci. Thus,it would be feasible to develop EST-SSR markers in C. cathayensis.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 36 ref.]
Pollen morphology for three types of Camellia chekiangoleosa
WEI Zhao-zhao, XIE Yun, MENG Hui, GUAN Yu-mei, WU Yao-yao
2012, 29(4): 634-638. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.024
[Abstract](3149) [PDF](1316)
Based on petal colors,three types of Camellia chekiangoleosa (the white type,the light red type and the dark red type) were selected,and their morphological characteristics were described by observations and measurements. Comparative research on pollen morphology could provide the palynology basis of evolution and the cultivar classification of C. chekiangoleosa. Then pollen morphology of three types of C. chekiangoleosa were studied using a scanning electron microscope. Results showed that pollen grains were prolate or perprolate in shape,oblong or oval in equatorial view,and equilateral triangular or suborbicular with three-lobes in po-lar view,(43.6-60.2) mm (18.8-41.3) mm in size,more than 1.7 in P/E,big type. They had a germination hole with three ditches as the surface ornamentation for the rugular shape or the rugular-granular shape. In addition,the certain differences of the three types of C. chekiangoleosa were found in pollen size and surface ornamentation. These results could be used as a basis for classification.[Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 16 ref.]
Berchemiella wilsonii:a new plant record from Zhejiang discovered in Shengzhou
LI Hua-dong, DING Jian-lin, HE Xiao
2012, 29(4): 639-640. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.04.025
[Abstract](3182) [PDF](1324)
Endangered plant Berchemiella wilsonii (Schneid.) Nakai (Rhamnaceae) is a newly recorded species in Zhejiang Province,which were discovered in Shengzhou City. Its morphological characteristics,habit and distribution are described. [Ch,7 ref.]