2012 Vol. 29, No. 3

Articles
Relationship of slope aspect and position on biomass and carbon storage in a Phyllostachys edulis stand
FAN Ye-qing, ZHOU Guo-mo, SHI Yong-jun, DONG De-jin, ZHOU Yu-feng
2012, 29(3): 321-327. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.001
[Abstract](4280) [PDF](1871)
Abstract:
The impact of slope aspect and position on biomass and carbon storage in a Phyllostachys edulis stand was tested by a two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results of the ANOVA showed:(1) no interaction between slope aspect and position. Stand carbon storage was significant for slope aspect (P <0.05) and slope position (P<0.01) with soil carbon storage and forest carbon storage significant for slope position (P<0.05). (2) Comparisons of mean index values at different locations showed that forest carbon storage on sunny slopes was larger than on shaded slopes and greater on mid to low slopes than on upper slopes. The maximum mean stand density (3 817 treehm-2) and stand biomass (48.705 thm-2) were found on sunny,low slopes with the maximum mean soil organic matter content (22.500 gkg-1),soil carbon storage (107.273 thm-2),and forest carbon storage (156.111 thm-2) found on sunny,mid slopes. Slope position and shading did not affect the mean diameter at breast height (DBH) or soil bulk density. (3) For spatial distribution,the mean forest carbon storage of 18 sample plots was (101.352 14.980) thm-2 (14.78%) of which 20.24% was in the standing biomass,and the remainder was in the soil.[Ch,3 fig. 4 tab. 19 ref.]
Zhejiang Province’s forest vegetation biomass assessment for guaranteed accuracy
JI Bi-yong, TAO Ji-xing, ZHANG Guo-jiang, DU Qun, YAO Hong-wen, XU Jun
2012, 29(3): 328-334. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.002
[Abstract](3324) [PDF](1295)
Abstract:
For an accurate assessment of forest biomass in Zhejiang Province,forest vegetation biomass was calculated at the plot level based on 2009 forest inventory data. Each plot was regarded as a basic unit with biomass calculated using the single tree biomass model and the biomass per unit area model with biomass per unit area methodology. Systematic sampling was utilized to estimate the overall provincial forest vegetation biomass with estimating accuracy and sampling range of assessment provided. Results for Zhejiang Province in 2009 showed a total forest vegetation biomass of 37 010.7 104 t. Within the major forest vegetation types,the arbor community was 29 096.3 104 t,the bamboo community was 3 763.0 104 t,and the shrub community was 1 748.0 104 t. Using a guaranteed reliability of P < 0.05,accuracy for total forest biomass was 96.64% with a sampling interval of 35 767.1 104 - 38 254.3 104 t;accuracy for the arbor community was 95.58% with a sampling interval of 27 810.2 104 - 30 382.3 104 t;accuracy for the bamboo forest community was 89.13% with a sampling interval of 3 353.9 104 - 4 172.0 104 t;and accuracy for the shrub community was 90.00% with a sampling interval of 1 573.2 104 - 1 922.7 104 t. Therefore,using these methods a high precision for forest vegetation biomass assessment was attained.[Ch,3 tab. 26 ref.]
Landscape indices with sensor grain size changes in Meitan County,China
LI Jia-jia, WANG Zhi-tai
2012, 29(3): 335-343. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.004
[Abstract](3644) [PDF](1311)
Abstract:
Based on the aerial remote sensing image of Meitan in 2010 and the thematic mapper(TM) image of Meitan in 2007,the grain size effect and fitted functions of 15 selected landscape pattern indices,which were divided into five categories of amplitude-accreting:stable decreasing and then stable,undulatory decreasing and then stable,undulatory decreasing,and anomalistic changing,from Meitan County were analyzed with ArcGIS 9,Fragstats 3.3 and SPSS software. Results showed that for the range of the grain size,most of the selected indices had an effect on grain size and there response curves could be fitted with linear function,quadratic function,cubic function,inverse function,power function and logarithmic function. To research the landscape of Meitan County,a suitable range for grain size when computing and analyzing landscape indices was 2-10 m with an aerial remote sensing image and 55-65 m with a TM image. To improve the results,high-resolution image data could be utilized to analyze the landscape pattern of Meitan County.[Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 19 ref.]
Forest landscape visualization based on SketchUp and GIS
WU Zhao-yan, TANG Meng-ping
2012, 29(3): 352-358.
[Abstract](6846) [PDF](1705)
Abstract:
Forest landscape visualization,a new technology,could be used in landscape design,forestry planning,and forest fire prevention by providing visual and intuitionistic three-dimensional displays. In this study of the National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmu in Zhejiang Province,along with the development of computer hardware and software,3D GIS industry,and forest management need,forest landscape visualization was utilized with precise 2D data mapping in AutoCAD as a basis. Then,using the SketchUp ESRI plug-in of GIS and SketchUp,shape files were transformed into identifiable.skp format data in SketchUp. The next step,was to apply intelligent software known as Google SketchUp to quickly process batch GIS data. Finally,the model was exported into Multipatch (*.mdb) format data. Results produced forest scenes,subcompartment lines,and three-dimensional terrain models with ArcScene,which allowed for roaming,query,data management,and spatial analysis,to provide rapid forest landscape visualization. Thus,this method could process a large regions 3D modeling data thereby providing important reference values for forest landscape visualization and forest tourism planning.[Ch,8 fig. 20 ref.]
Research recycling economy development of bamboo industry in Zhejiang Province
JIA Jia, SHAN Sheng-dao, WEN Guo-sheng
2012, 29(3): 440-445. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.019
[Abstract](2504) [PDF](1545)
Abstract:
Bamboo resources are widely distributed in Zhejiang Province. The bamboo industry which is one of the most important traditional industries has developed rapidly. Circular economy construction of bamboo industry is a way of utilizing industrial waste and bamboo residual in the process of bamboo production,which improving the resource utilization ratio,extending the bamboo industrial chain and minimizing waste emissions. This study overviewed bamboo resources in Zhejiang Province. On the basis of the status of bamboo industry,the achievement has been introduced from different aspects such as economical using of bamboo resources,increasing value-added of bamboo products and construction of bamboo industry chains. The problems including imbalance in regional development of bamboo industry,the low market orientation and imperfect industrial chain during the procedure of circular economy construction had been analyzed. Moreover,updating the conception,establishing brand products and relying the progress of technology had been proposed to solve these problems.[Ch,1 fig. 25 ref.]
Landscape pattern analysis of Yinzhou new city zone based on high spatial resolution aerial photos
GUO Hui-hui, JIANG Wen-wei, MEI Yan-xia
2012, 29(3): 344-351. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.005
[Abstract](2806) [PDF](1086)
Abstract:
With urban spatial analysis combined with some metrics,this paper attempts to quantificationally analyze the landscape pattern of Yinzhou new city zone,an important region in the development of Ningbo central district in Zhejiang Province,based on the land use of Gis-datasets derived from 1 ∶ 5 000 high spatial resolution aerial photos of 2009. According to the theory of landscape ecology and the characteristics of study area,the urban landscape was classified into 6 types,namely,hard surface,water,public green,protective greenbelt,agriculture,and road in this paper. Applying the spatial pattern analysis software FRAGSTATS 3.3,this paper includes these following four aspects:(1) urban landscape structure of patch;(2) class-level metrics of landscape types;(3) landscape-level analysis;(4) patch size distribution. The results show that there are numerous and well-proportioned landscape components in Yinzhou new city zone,which has formed the massive isotropic landscape in the progress of urbanization. Land used for construction occupies 49.96%,mainly in the northern region,along north of the Yinzhou Road. Agriculture,with an area of 1 785.51 hm2,occupies 23.9%,mainly along south of the Yinzhou Road. Water network,crowded and distributed evenly,is a typical model with urban features in south of the lower reaches of the Yangze River. The hard surface which has higher landscape fragmentation is complex and is most obvious in human disturbance. Among three kinds of urban green,the public green displays higher patch density with the edge density of 8.22 and 76.65 respectively. This indicates that the public green is quite seriously fragmented and complex;but the agriculture,concentrated in southeast of Yinzhou new city zone,is more unitary,and the patch density and the edge density is lower,with 2.34 and 41.46 respectively. Each type is predominantly the small size patch,taking up 71.01%. The patch distributions at mesoscale level or above are few. The agriculture has a higher mesoscale patch and a bigger scale patch,occupying 35.43% and 30.29% respectively. 73.94% of public green patch is identified as small scale patches with less than 1 hm2 of the area.[Ch,1 fig. 5 tab. 35 ref.]
Quantified estimates of plant landscapes in urban parks
SHAO Feng, NING Hui-juan, BAO Zhi-yi, HOU Wei-wei
2012, 29(3): 359-365.
[Abstract](3164) [PDF](1070)
Abstract:
Plant landscapes in Hangzhous Prince Bay Park were quantitatively estimated and researched,which could be used as a scientific reference for developing plant landscapes in urban parks. On the basis of investigating current plant landscapes in Hangzhous Prince Bay Park,five representative types of plant landscapes (waterfronts,compound-layers,garden roads,garden architectures,and colorful leaves) were selected as samples,and photographs of samples were taken as the media for estimates. Forty-nine participators were selected as estimators. Samples were estimated using the scenic beauty estimation (SBE) method from the psychological paradigm,and the data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software. Using the estimate results,plant landscapes with a higher scenic beauty score were analyzed. Results showed that for an estimator group,students who had received landscape architecture education were favorably correlated to an expert group and a non-professional student group (R = 0.538 - 0.752,P = 0.000 - 0.047 < 0.050). When estimating the compound-layers plant landscape,ecological principles and aesthetic principles were estimated respectively,whereas the other four types of plant landscapes were contrary (P = 0.237 - 0.920 > 0.050). Thus,professional students could be selected as estimators to predict estimates of plant landscapes,and requirement of ecology and aesthetics must be taken into account on developing plant landscapes in urban parks.[Ch,5 tab. 18 ref.]
Aero-anion concentration in different forest communities of Laoshan Forest Farm,Chun’an County
LIU Xin-xin, HUA Chao, ZHANG Ming-ru, ZHANG Jian-guo, LIU Dan
2012, 29(3): 366-373. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.007
[Abstract](3544) [PDF](1292)
Abstract:
The seasonal variation of aero-anions for six forest community types (i.e. evergreen broad-leaved forest communities dominated with Cyclobalanopsis glauca,Schima superba,Cyclobalanopsis glauca,C. sclerophylla,Lithocarpus glaber and coniferous forest communities dominated with Pinus massoniana,Cupressus funebris,or natural forest communities dominated with Cyclobalanopsis glauca,Schima superba,Cyclobalanopsis glauca,C. sclerophylla,Lithocarpus glaber,Pinus massoniana,and artificial forest communities dominated with Cupressus funebris,Myrica rubra) was studied using synchronous monitoring of negative air ions,PM10 (particulate matter < 10 m),and micro-climate factors at Laoshan Forest Farm,Qiandao Lake,Chunan County,China,during the four seasons of 2010. Analysis included a comparison of the polarity ratio and an air quality assessment index. Results showed that:(1) the concentration of aero-anions was highest in summer and second in autumn. (2) The annual average aero-anion concentration for the six forest community types was above 1 000 indcm-3. Aero-anions by communities showed natural forest > artificial forest and evergreen broadleaved forest > coniferous forest. (3) The air quality assessment index by season was summer > autumn > spring > winter. (4) Natural forest air quality was at the B-level in winter,and A-level in other seasons,whereas artificial forest air quality was A-level in summer and autumn,B-level in spring,and C-level in winter. Comparing the polarity ratio and the air quality assessment index for different seasons in these forest communities,the air quality of natural forest communities was better than artificial forest communities. These results provided the theory basis for the seasonal variation characteristics of aero-anions for six forest community types.[Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 20 ref.]
Spatio-temporal variation of distribution patterns in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations
YANG Zi-qing, CHEN Ping-liu, LIU Jian, YU Kun-yong, LIAO Xiao-li, YOU Hao-chen, GONG Cong-hong
2012, 29(3): 374-382. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.008
[Abstract](3075) [PDF](1139)
Abstract:
To aid in management of Cunninghamia lanceolata,the main timber species in southern China,its variation of spatial distribution pattern was analyzed. Three permanent plots of C. lanceolata plantations with approximately the same site conditions,set by China continuous forest inventory in Shunchang,Fujian,were selected. C. lanceolata growth was divided into two stages: young trees (5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) < 10 cm) and mature trees (DBH 10 cm). The DBH and coordinates of every tree (DBH 5 cm) in the permanent plots were recorded in 2003 and 2008. The function L(r),improvement of Ripleys K(r),the pair-correlation function g(r),and the uniform angle index (Wi) were used to analyze the spatio-temporal variation of spatial distribution patterns. The three permanent plots had mean uniform angle index (W) between 0.494-0.578 in low altitudes,0.465-0.477 in medium altitudes,and 0.426-0.601 in high altitudes. Results showed that altitude did not affect the spatial distribution pattern. The L(r) and g(r) function curves of mature trees were generally lower than young trees,i.e. tend to be more random or uniform distribution. So regardless of the initial distribution of young or mature trees,with the passage of time,there was a tendency for the aggregated distribution to change to a random distribution,and a random distribution to change to a uniform distribution.[Ch,3 fig. 2 tab. 24 ref.]
Haplocladium microphyllum spore germination with different culture mediums and sucrose concentrations
HANG Lu-lu, ZHANG Nan, JI Meng-cheng
2012, 29(3): 383-387. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.009
[Abstract](2938) [PDF](959)
Abstract:
Spores of Haplocladium microphyllum were inoculated on Benecke,1/2MS (Murashige and Skoog),MS,Knop,and improved Benecks culture mediums,and pH was adjusted to 7.0 with a pH meter. Sucrose at 40,30,20,10,and 0 gL-1 was added,and germination of the spores was observed by microscope after 24 h. Results showed that for treatments from 0-30 gL-1 sucrose concentration increased. Germination of the spores was highest with 30 gL-1 sucrose concentration and inhibited with 40 gL-1. After 7 d,the spore germination rate was greatest with the MS medium at 30 gL-1 (at 95.93%) and least with the Knop medium (60%-75%). It indicates the spore germination of Haplocladium microphyllum need certain osmotic pressure,but it would be inhibited in high osmotic pressure caused by high sucrose concentration.[Ch,6 fig. 14 ref.]
Flowering behavior and spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of Jatropha curcas in Luodian
WANG Xiu-rong, DING Gui-jie, LIU Lie-zhi, LI Ping
2012, 29(3): 388-393. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.010
[Abstract](3105) [PDF](1200)
Abstract:
To have a grasp of the overall situation of flowering characteristics of Jatropha curcas,which would provide basis for the further flower control experiment and produce higher yield of Jatropha curcas,continuous observation and statistical analysis on flowering behavior and spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of Jatropha curcas were carried out in Luodian. The results indicated that:Jatropha curcas can form flower bud many times in one year. It shoots out twigs more than once on which flower buds begin to take shape. At Luodian,Jatropha curcas is in bloom from May to September,during which there are two high tides of blossom generally and are characterized by vegetative stage and ripening stage. Vegetative Buds Germination is a main sign of Jatropha curcas entering critical period of bud physiological differentiation stage. Dichasial inflorescence grows on top of new branches. There was no significant difference in amount of inflorescence,leaf beneath the inflorescence,small flower of a inflorescence and female flower in a inflorescence in all directions:north,south,east and west,and in the upper,middle,lower of the tree. It takes about 40-50 days from inflorescences emerge to the entire small flowers blossom. A small flower is flowering for 2-5 days. One inflorescence has an average of 134 small flowers which contain 4 female flowers. Female-male ratio is 1 ∶ 33. There was great significant correlation between the distribution of female and the location of inflorescence branch. 69% females grow on the terminal of different level branchs in inflorescence,including 48% female growing on the first bifurcation of the primary rachis branch and the terminal of inflorescence. At different bifurcation in an inflorescence,the number of fruit increased with that of the female flowers,as against the percentage of set fruit decreased.[Ch,3 fig. 3 tab. 15 ref.]
Pollen morphology of 9 Magnolia species and 3 cultivars
SHEN Ya-mei, QIAN Chao, FAN Yi-rong, TONG Zai-kang
2012, 29(3): 394-400. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.011
[Abstract](3332) [PDF](1045)
Abstract:
Classification of Magnolia is confusion,and the relationship of species is complex. Pollen morphological features of the Magnolia studied are compared and discussed on the basis of taxonomical concepts. We studied the pollen morphology characteristics of nine Magnolia (M. biondii,M. sprengeri,M. viridula,M. denudata,M. denudata Lamp,M. stellata,M. soulangeana Jingxin,M. concinna,M. axilliflora,M.soulangeana Changhua,M. liliflora,and M. polytepala) by scanning electron microscope (SEM). All pollen grains of Magnolia were boat-shape,and monosulcate,bilateral symmetry. But the surface and size were different. Also,the pollen morphology of M. concinna,M. liliflora,and M. polytepala was similar. Base on the result,our study can conclude that M. biondii,M. sprengeri,M. viridula,M. denudata,M. denudata Lamp and M. soulangeana Jingxin are the primary;M. concinna,M. stellata,M. soulangeana Changhua, M. axilliflora,M. liliflora and M. polytepala are the evolutional species. In addition,the relationship of M. viridula and M. soulangeana Jingxin was close,they were different evolutionary types.[Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 9 ref.]
Mass fraction and compositional change of calcium forms in wild Prunus humilis fruits during the post-harvest storage period
MA Jian-jun, ZHANG Li-bin, DU Bin, YU Feng-ming, REN Yan-jun
2012, 29(3): 401-406. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.012
[Abstract](3098) [PDF](844)
Abstract:
To provide basic data for studying and evaluating calcium in Prunus humilis,mass fraction and compositional changes of different calcium forms in wild P. humilis seedling types (large fruit and small fruit) and grafted types (top-grafting and low-grafting) were studied by sequential extraction with H2O,1 molL-1 NaCl,20 gkg-1 acetic acid (HAC),and 50 gkg-1 HCl during the post-harvest storage process at room temperature. Results showed that in the harvest period the percent extraction of different calcium forms was 98.2%-99.3% with 70% of the total calcium form being water-soluble calcium and calcium pectate. Calcium pectate content in large fruits was significantly higher (P <0.01) than in small fruits. Also,water-soluble calcium,calcium phos-phate,and calcium oxalate in small fruits were significantly higher than in large fruits (P<0.01) with the total calcium content in small fruits significantly higher than in large fruits (P<0.05). Compared to wild seedling types,the extraction ratio of water-soluble calcium for grafted types increased and the extraction ratio of calcium pectate decreased. After post-harvest storage,the composition ratio of water-soluble calcium increased,whereas the ratio of calcium pectate and calcium oxalate decreased;also phosphate calcium and ratios of other forms of calcium did not change.[Ch,4 fig. 1 tab. 17 ref.]
Phosphorus absorption of two different Eucalyptus cultivars at different tree ages in the Leizhou Peninsula
ZHAO Gui, DING Xiao-dong, WANG Rong-ping, LIAO Xin-rong, LI Shu-yi
2012, 29(3): 407-411. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.013
[Abstract](3074) [PDF](887)
Abstract:
To clarify the characteristics of phosphorus uptake and distribution of Eucalyptus species,the effect of different ages on phosphorus (P) demand and absorption for Eucalyptus ABL 12 and Eucalyptus grandis U6 were studied. We selected the one to six years old of the tree randomly,and the one year age tree (P1YR) and more than one year age tree (P1YR) were separated as the two compared communities with ten replications. The P concentration of different part was analyzed by Mo-Sb colorimetry. Results showed no difference in P concentration between Eucalyptus ABL 12 and E. grandis U6 at one year of age (P1YR). However,for that of more than one year of age (P1YR),P concentration of Eucalyptus ABL 12 was significantly lower than that of E. grandis U6(P<0.05). For the young Eucalyptus tree,P was mainly distributed in leaves and branches with increases in the trunk,tree bark,and roots as the tree aged. Also,P concentration significantly (P<0.05) affected dry matter accumulation,for the both species of the Eucalyptus trees,the order of accumulated dry matter showed as trunk > roots > branches > tree bark > leaves. According to P efficiency,dry matter accumulation per kg of P showed Eucalyptus ABL 12 > E. grandis U6,meaning less P was required for Eucalyptus ABL 12. Therefore,P fertilizer application and management for Eucalyptus should take into consideration different varieties and different tree ages.[Ch,4 fig. 12 ref.]
Growth and heartwood characteristics of Ormosia hosiei plantations
ZHANG Rui, WANG Xiu-hua, CHEN Liu-ying, FENG Jian-guo, ZHOU Zhi-chun
2012, 29(3): 412-419. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.014
[Abstract](3585) [PDF](795)
Abstract:
In order to study the effects of site conditions,planting densities,and stand ages to the growth and wood characteristics of Ormosia hosiei plantations,we used twenty-three,38-year-old plantations of O.hosiei,and analyzed the growth and heartwood characteristics with statistical methods. Trees were grown in eight different locations of two provinces (Zhejiang and Fujian) and represented different site conditions,planting densities (630-500 treehm-2),and stand ages. Choosing typical site-plot (15 m 20 m) and made each trees survey (20-50 sample trees). The survey contained the height,diameter at breast height (DBH),stem straight,stem fullness and stem forking,after that,wood cores was picked. Results showed that O.hosiei exhibited more stem forking (59.1%) and lower stem straightness than other wood plants. O. hosiei grew faster in the early stages than other wood species. The wood basic density (WBD) of O. hosiei,which was ranging from 0.50-0.59 gm-3,was similar for each site,and having an average of 0.543 2 gm-3. WBD had an increasing tendency from pitch to outside (1-5 rings:0.497 6 gm-3,6-10 rings:0.524 6 gm-3,11-15 rings:0.544 8 gm-3,16-20 rings:0.560 5 gm-3,21-25 rings:0.566 1 gm-3,26-30 rings:0.566 7 gm-3,31-35 rings:0.571 0 gm-3,and 36-40 rings:0.552 7 gm-3),and having a relatively stable state after the 35th annual ring. But radial uniformity was higher,the average of the standard deviation was 0.031. Heartwood radius (HR) was significant,linear,and positively correlated to DBH (R2 = 0.749,F1,315 = 17.91,P = 0.005),and heartwood area (HA) was correlated significantly and positively as a power function to DBH (R2 = 0.771 9,F1,315 = 20.3,P = 0.004). Thus,recommendations were the following: timely pruning and wiping away the buds to produce high grade trunk wood,utilizing good site conditions and suitable planting densities to promote radial growth and volume,and extending the breeding-cycle and increasing the diameter growth-rate to increase the timber diameter and promote a higher heartwood ratio of high-value wood.[Ch,2 fig. 5 tab. 24 ref]
Lignin characteristics of steam exploded bamboo residue during hot pressing
SHANG Na-na, YE Xiao, HUANG Li-shuang, JIN Zhen-fu
2012, 29(3): 420-425. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.015
[Abstract](3266) [PDF](978)
Abstract:
bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) residue was subjected to steam explosion treatment to produce superior fibers for binderless boards. Then,lignin was isolated from extract-free bamboo meal,steam exploded pulp,and binderless boards with characteristics being determined by thermo-gravimetry (TG),differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results showed that (1) yields of lignin directly extracted with dioxane-water from steam exploded bamboo pulp (SEBPL) and binderless board (SEBBL) were higher than that of milled bamboo lignin (MBL). Also,yield of sebbl was lower than SEBPL. (2) FTIR results showed cleavage of ester and ether bonds between lignin and p-coumaric acid during steam explosion treatment. (3) SEBBL showed two glass transitions at 115 ℃ and 200 ℃,while MBL gave one glass transitions at 155 ℃. (4) the modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) decreased with an increase in steaming time; whereas internal bonding (IB) increased. In all cases the dimensional stability of boards did not exceed the maximum requirements for type GB/T 11718-1999.[Ch,5 fig. 1 tab. 15 ref.]
Microstructure and crystallinity of the Miscanthus floridulus culm
ZHAO Jia-mei, HU Yong-qing, QIAN Shao-ping, LI Bing, QIAN Jun
2012, 29(3): 426-430. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.016
[Abstract](2935) [PDF](1127)
Abstract:
The microstructure and crystallinity of the Miscanthus floridulus culm was studied to improve the research quality,to find possible new uses,and to lay a foundation for its industrial use. Results showed that the M. floridulus cortex was the portion of the outermost layer without vascular bundles,the xylem was the portion of the inner ring with comparatively more and closely distributed vascular bundles,and the pith was the portion of the central white culm with few vascular bundles. The culm epidermis were made up of epidermal membrane,long cells,short cells,and stomatal apparatus. Long cells were mostly serrated alongside the long edge. And the long and short cells containing silica. Vascular bundles were comprised of xylem,phloem,and fiber cells. Protoxylem contained circular grain vessels or spiral grain vessels,whereas metaxylem contained woven grain vessels or pitted vessels. The main features of the basic parenchyma cell tissue were thin-walls with pits and starch grains. The relative crystallinity of M. floridulus without pith for the upper culm cellulose was 43.21%,for the central part was 42.08%,and for the lower part was 44.49%. Thus,relative crystallinity was similar and did not show obvious regularity.[Ch,2 fig. 1 tab. 15 ref.]
Morphorlogy and biology on Tenthredo nubipennis
LIANG Xiang-mei
2012, 29(3): 431-434. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.017
[Abstract](3427) [PDF](1006)
Abstract:
Tenthredo nubipennis is a commonly encountered pest insect in Yangtze River valley in China,and has its distribution in Suichang,Songyang,Qingyuan and Longquan County,Lishui City,Zhejiang Province. The pest feeds on bamboo leaves and does his damage to bamboo forest including Phyllostachys edulis,Phyllostachys violascens,and Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis,etc. It concurs often with Eutomostethus longidentus and (or) Eutomostethus reticulates. And it has one generation a year. Its prepupa aestivates and hibernates in the soil. It pupates,emerges,and oviposits in spring the next year. The mid-April to mid-June is the larval feeding period. The pest spends most of its life time per year in soil within the cocoon made of soil.[Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 8 ref.]
Tourism development strategy in Qingyuan County under the brand of “the Chinese county with the best eco-environment”
ZHU Quan
2012, 29(3): 435-439. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.018
[Abstract](2580) [PDF](898)
Abstract:
By pointing out that the uncreative copying of the tourism managing mode of the developed area is responsible for the hold-back of the tourism development in Qingyuan County of Zhejiang,this paper analyses the benefits brought by the Haixi Economic Zone to the tourism in Qingyuan,and put forwards the measures to take for the latter to cope with the situation. It is suggested that the tourism in Qingyuan should be developed largely on the basis of the brandthe Chinese county with the best eco-environmentwith eco-leisure as its feature. The paper also advances the development strategy that serves for the practical situation in Qingyuan,including the orientation of tourism marketing,the development of tourism products,the creating of tourism reception and service environment,and the establishment of the guarding system for tourism and eco-environment,in the hope of offering constructive advices for the tourism development in both Qingyuan and other under-developed regions in Zhejiang Province.[Ch,1 tab. 10 ref.]
Reviews
Advances in molecular biology for plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs):a review
HE Yong-qing, FANG Jia, YU Min-fen, FANG Zhong-xiang, JIANG Bo, PAN Yin-hui, ZHENG Bing-song
2012, 29(3): 446-452. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.020
[Abstract](3819) [PDF](1391)
Abstract:
Water is an important component in plant cells with plant aquaporin being the major protein for water transport in and between plant cells. As a subfamily of plant aquaporins,the plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) located in the plasma membrane are classic,high water,selective channel proteins. This paper focuses on recent advances in the molecular biology of PIPs concerning structural characteristics,biological function,and a regulation mechanism. PIPs possess two highly conserved domains:GGGANXXXXGY and TGI/TNPARSL/FGAAI/VI/VFWF/YN. PIPs can also be divided into two phylogenetic subgroups named PIP1 and PIP2. PIP1 possesses longer N terminal sequences and shorter C terminal sequences than PIP2 with conserved amino acid sequences respectively. Studies of transgenic plants and expression in Xenopus oocytes cells indicate that PIPs not only may facilitate transport of water and small neutral solutes like CO2 and glycerin,but they also possess many physiological functions. The functions of plant aquaporins are regulated by many factors including post-translational modification,heteromerization,pH value,and divalent cations. These results indicated that PIPs act as a pivotal role in water and small neutral solutes transport in plants.[Ch,1 tab. 51 ref.]
Review of the studies on the accumulation mechanisms of sugar and organic acids in Eriobotrya japonica fruit
QIN Qiao-ping, LIN Fei-fan, ZHANG Lan-lan
2012, 29(3): 453-457. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.021
[Abstract](3690) [PDF](1312)
Abstract:
Sugar and acid content and sugar/acid ratio are the important indexes for fruit quality. Sugars not only determine fruit sweetness,but also provide raw materials for synthesis of pigment,amino acids,vitamins and other nutrients and aromatic substances. Fruit acids and sugar form sugar/acid ratio,which decides fruit flavor. Meanwhile,fruit organic acids provide respiratory substrates for the synthesis of other essential substances. Sugar/acid ratio is one of the most important determiner for fruit quality. Sugar and organic acid metabolism processes are extremely complicated,the two pathways are closely connected. Understanding towards sugar and acid accumulation mechanism would provide important theoretical basis for cultivation and breeding. This article reviews the recent research advances on loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) sugar acid metabolism,physiology,molecular biology,and cultivation,etc,which will be helpful for related areas. Combining the authors research experience,the possible researching focuses on future loquat sugar and acid metabolic and regulation mechanism are proposed:further clarify the molecular mechanism of cultivation measures and environment factors on the fruit sugar and acid metabolism;ascertain the fruit sugar and acid transporting mechanisms; regulate fruit sugar and acid composition by genetic engineering technology; clarify the interaction mechanism of sugar accumulation and acid accumulation.[Ch,22 ref.]
Discussion
Legal issues of rights to manage the understory land
ZHANG Zhi-ping
2012, 29(3): 458-492. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.022
[Abstract](2681) [PDF](1365)
Abstract:
Management of the understory land is an economic form to develop cultivation and breeding in making use of the forest ecological environment. It is also an important means to increase the income of forest farmers in the forestry regions after the reform of forestry real rights. This paper investigated the management status of understory land,and analyzed the impacts and destruction of its improper management upon the forest ecology environment. The management right of the understory land is a restricted right of property,because the management is related to the ecology protection of forest and woodland. In addition to private property rights,it should also comply with the arrangement of national forest management. Therefore,while encouraging and developing the understory land management,its important to establish a legal system for executing the management rights,and the management of the understory land should be included in the scope of the forestry management.[Ch,7 ref.]
Scientific notes
Growth of Pinus massoniana and broad-leaved tree mixed forest
DING Min, NI Rong-xin, MAO Xuan-ping
2012, 29(3): 463-466. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.023
[Abstract](3208) [PDF](1414)
Abstract:
Interplanting broad-leaved tree species under the Pinus massoniana forest (masson pine,which planted in 1960),respectively Castanopsis lamontii,Cyclobalanopsis myrsinaefolia,Castanopsis kawakamii,and Castanopsis sclerophylla in 1984,coniferous and broad-leaved mixed multiple layers were formed. The tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH) of the four broad-leaved tree species were measured every two years from the forth year. In the 16th year (2000),masson pines tree height,DBH,and timber volume were measured. The results showed that:current annual increment in tree height reached maximum,Castanopsi slamontii in the 14th year,Cyclobalanopsis myrsinaefolia in the 4th year,Castanopsis kawakamii in the 6th year,and Castanopsis sclerophylla in the 12th year;the DBH annual increment reach peak respectively in the 10th,8th,10th,and 8th year in order. Different broad-leaved tree species showed different growth rates,which in order of Castanopsis kawakamii > Cyclobalanopsis myrsinaefolia> Castanopsis sclerophylla > Castanopsis lamontii. Interplanting Castanopsis sclerophylla is more beneficial to the growth of masson pine. In the 16th year,masson pine had 23.1 m height,31.1 cm DBH,and 0.536 m3 timber volume.[Ch,4 fig. 1 tab. 7 ref.]
Four newly recorded plants in the limestone mountainous region of Zhejiang Province
WANG Li-min, CHEN Zheng-hai, MA Dan-dan, XIA Guo-hua, LI Gen-you
2012, 29(3): 467-469. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.024
[Abstract](3507) [PDF](1326)
Abstract:
4 species are newly recorded in the limestone mountainous region of Zhejiang Province. They are Cheilosoria patula (Baker) P. S. Wang X. Y. Wang (new record of East China),Quercus baronii Skan (new record of East China),Morus mongolica (Bur.) Schneid. (new record of Zhejiang),Zanthoxylum micranthum Hemsl. (new record of East China).[Ch,11 ref.]
Four newly records of naturalized plant found in Zhejiang, China
MIAO Guo-li, CHEN Zheng-hai, XIE Wen-yuan, MA Kai, MA Dan-dan
2012, 29(3): 470-472. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.03.025
[Abstract](3883) [PDF](1289)
Abstract:
Four newly recorded species found in Zhejiang Province were reported. Ludwigia leptocarpa (Nutt.) H. Hara and Nuttallanthus canadensis (L.) D. A. Sutton are new recorded species of China,and Nuttallanthus is a new recorded genus of China. Verbena brasiliensis Vell. is a new recorded species of Chinese mainland,and Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. ex D C was a new recorded species of Zhejiang Province. All of the four species were naturalized.[Ch,8 ref.]