2000 Vol. 17, No. 1
Some issues of participatory rural technique spreading mechanism were discussed , particularly those in relation to farmers' economic behavior , cognitive features of techniques , economic condition and system background , ways of technique spreading , social relation structure , and mutual promotion .The study was based on the case of high-yield technique of Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox)in Gaohong Township of Linan City , Zhejiang Province .It was pointed out that farmers' participation should be emphasized in rural technique delivery , and a rural science and technology service system , represented by science and technology demonstrating households , should be established to ensure the effective spreading of information and technology .
The plant selected thinning with the intensity at 20 % ～ 30 % was conducted in the Chinese fir seed orchard grew for 12 years in Qingyuan Forest Farm of Zhejiang .The observations were made in the later seven years.It showed that through thinning the yearly growth of clones tree height , DBH and lateral branch were 51.0 %, 58.0 % and 88.2 % higher than those untreated respectively . Average amounts of female and male cone flowers produced by the thinned forests were 4.16 and 3.54 times that of the check .The yield of cone per hectare in thinned plot was 1.30 ～ 1.39 times that of the untreated , and the single tree yield of cone in thinned plot was 1.48～ 2.12 times that of the check .Meanwhile , it also revealed that the effect of plot averaged increase production in 0.5 of forest canopy density was larger than that in 0.7 of forest canopy density .
Ninteen primary selected half-sib elite families of Chinese fir were tested on seedling growing in Jiande City , Zhejiang Province .The results showed that seed germination potential , seedling disease resistance and height increment of elite families were 20.6 %, 82.1 % and 33.6 % higher than those of control family respectively .Seedling height increment and growth rhythm of each family were of significant difference , and field germination percentage , disease resistance and cold resistance of each family seedlings were of obvious difference too .Therefore , some different management measures should be taken on families or family categories in seedling growing .
On more than 20 sites in subtropical zone of China carried out the test planting of six conifers introduced from Taiwan ,Chamaecyparis formosensis , Ch .obtwsa var .formosana , Cunninghamia konishii , Taiwania cryptomerioides ,Pseudotsuga wilsoniana and Calocedrus formosana in 1991 ～ 1995 .This paper summarizes the 5-, 6- years results of test plantations of these conifers established in Zhejiang on 4 sites , Qiandaohu of Chunan (2901N , 150 m alt .), Ankou of Suichang (2820N , 680m alt .), Shankang of Longquan (2809N , 500m alt .)and Caoyutang of Jingning (2754N , 1 050 m alt .).All of the six conifers demonstrated well adaptation to site conditions of this area and the Chamaecyparis formosensis performed the best .This species produces a timber wood of high quality and grows in all tests faster than the local principal cultural tree , Cunninghamia lanceolata . The C .konishii and T .cryptomerioides shows a growth rate near that of their generic relatives , C .lanceolata and T .flousiana .It indicates that the above stated 3 conifers can be introduced and wide planted in the tested and the south of tested regions on suitable mountainous land .The remaining species Ch .obtusa var .formosana , P . wilsoniana and Calocedrus formosana grow slowly and current suggestion is only to cultivate them as ornamental trees or in botanical gardens or in arboretums .
The respiratory rate was determined by using Warburg' respiratory instrument , and the soluble sugar , protein, conductivity rate and peroxidase activity were determined by using the usual chemical analysis methods . The results were as follows :①The peroxidase activities of roots in the mixed Cunninghamia lanceolata and Sassafras tsumu forest were lower than those in corresponding pure forest .②The protein contents and conductivity rate of the roots of Cunninghamia lanceolata in pure forest were higher than those in mixed forest , while those of the roots of Sassafras tsumu were contrary . ③The soluble sugar content and respiratory rate of the roots in Cunninghamia lanceolata mixed forest were much higher than those in pure forest , but the soluble sugar content of the roots of Sassafras tsumu in mixed forest was lower than that in pure forest .The difference of respiratory rate between Sassafras tsumu in pure forest and that in mixed forest was slight .
The activities of nitrate reductase (NR)and superoxide dismutase (SOD)were studied in seedlings of Pinus massoniana , Pinus taeda and Metasequoia glyptostrobides under osmotic stress by PEG (6000).The results showed that the activities of NR and SOD were all decreased in three seedlings under stress .The order of NR activity under stress was Pinus massoniana Pinus taeda Metasequoia glyptostroboides .The order of SOD activity was Pinus massoniana Metasequoia glyptostroboides Pinus taeda .Because the droughtresistance ablilty was Pinus massoniana Pinus taeda Metasequoia glyptostroboides (based on the former studies), there was a positive correlation between the activity of NR and drought-resistance in these seedlings under water stress , but there was no significant correlation between the SOD activity and drought-resistance .The conclusion obtained f rom this study reflected that the activity of NR could be used as an effective biochemical index for the criterion of drought-resistance in the three seedlings .
The relationship between the endogenous -glucosidase activity and the contents of alcoholic aroma and some environment factors were investigated .The -glucosidase activity was increased by using organic fertilizer and covering plastic shed .Alcoholic aroma precursors and total amounts of alcoholic aroma had the same trend effected by environmental factors .Alcoholic aroma precursors were the main sources of alcoholic aroma .The treatment covered with plastic shed and organic fertilizer was the best treatment for increasing the contents of free alcoholic aroma , alcoholic aroma precursors and total alcoholic aroma .As conclusion , temperature and fertilizer affected the -glucosidase activity and the contents of the free alcoholic aroma , alcoholic aroma precursors and the total alcoholic aroma .Using organic fertilizer and covering could improve the activity of -glucosidase that plays an important role in hydrolyzing glucodidic aroma precursors .
Leaf samples from 130 individual trees in a 5-year experimental stand belonging to 13 provenances of Magnolia officinalis were collected for an analysis of isozyme systems , vix .POD , EST and GOT by means of SDS-PAGE .The results indicated that the isozymes of GOT for different provenances only had one band and allele segregation exists between the provenance from Hubei and other provenance isozyems of POD and EST had 7 and 10 bands , respectively .Class groups were divided on the basis of separate analysis of the band patterns of the 3 enzyme systems and cluster analysis of similarity coefficients conform with types of leaf shape differentiation .
An observation was made on some characters of flowers , stems , leaves in F1 generation by using the multiple combination of fourteen varieties of Dendranthema morifolia and the selfed combination of two varieties . The results showed that not all of the colors of flowers belong to matroclinal heredity , it should be decided according to the concrete conditions .The florescence showed paternal and matroclinal heredity , and the flower type and plant height showed matroclinal heredity in a certain degree .Because of the wide separating characters of F1 generation and the existence of special hyper-parent individualities , new varieties of cut-flowers could be selected and breeded .
In National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmu , Schima superba was planted as fire protection tree at the fire belt in 1996 .The forest belts function of water-retention and soil-improvement was analysed in 1999 .The results indicated that the water amount intercepted by the crown of Schima superba was 5.237 thm-2 more than that of check (the fire belt of not any tree).The water amount stored by under-tree soil at 0 ～ 30 cm was 68.98 thm-2 more than that of check .The litter fallen from Schina superba and festratum contributed more nutrients to the soil , for example , the amount of N , P , K , Ca , Mg , Mn , Cu , Zn was 14.08 , 2.50 , 14.05 , 18.41 , 1.01 , 0.505 0 , 0.006 5 and 0.019 3 kghm-2 respectively more than that of check .The content of soil organic matter, total nitrogen , hydrolysable nitrogen , available phosphorus and readily available potassium was 2.20 , 1.45 , 1.56 , 1.30 and 1.46 times that of check respectively .
Treated in various ways , young wild fern of different types was used for processing with different ingredients and different ways of pasteuriazation adopted .Its shown that its quits feasible to turn properly treated fresh fern into a series of instant products of different flavors packed with soft materials .Purplish brown fern perfornmed well in terms of processing adaptability and flavor of finished products , while the treatment with fern was cut into sections and the combination of ingredients which were spicy are ideal in terms of sensory assessment .
This system is based on the Forest Cableways Design of LY1056-91 .It can be used for the design of single or multiplan cableways .Its main contents base on the multiplan cableway design of the parabola method (JIA SHI) for skyline design calculation , for selection of logging systems and logging ways and for drawing cableway vertical sectional profile .It provides the reliable technology parameters for installation of the cableways . It is good for producing safety , management , efficient , economic and using life .
Physicomechanical properties such as bending strength , bearing elastic modules and tension strength parallel to grain etc . were determined to the bamboo wood of Phyllostachys pubescens which were injected pestitcide into bamboo cavity and uninjected respectively .The results show that there is no obvious difference of two kinds of bamboo wood .Therefore , there is no effect of injecting insecticide into bamboo cavity on use value of bamboo wood .
Chemical control of Ceroplastes rubens damaged Cedrus deodara was made in Jinhua urban district of Zhejiang Province during 1996 ～ 1998 .The results revealed that there was a great deal of difference in control effectiveness after spraying different insecticides and different densities .Control of Ceroplastes rubens could be made at the initial nymph stage by spraying tree crowns with 437 mgL-1 and 267 mgL-1 of omethoate 40 EC or 437mgL-1 and 267 mgL-1 of omethoate-buprosezin 35EC , resulting in more than 80 % of the nymph being killed .
An investigation conducted for several years shows that Cryphonectria parasitica is very popular in Zhejiang , with more lightly infected cases than heavily infected cases .Poor administration , more disease-or pestinfected shoots and weak shoots contribute to heavy infection .Particularly , heavy damage caused by Taxoscelus curieps can induce the infection of Cryphonectria parasitica .Investigations and observations suggest that for inoculation onto plants that are not wounded , lightly hurt (bark-cutting graft)plants and heavily hurt (bark-lifting graft)plants , the diseased rate is 0 , 20 % and 100 % respectively and the death rate is 33 % and 80 % respectively for diseased plants after one year , which shows that its difficult for Cryphonectria parasitica to infect unwounded or lightly hurt shoots but it does serious damage to heavily hurt shoots of Chinese chestnut .In the region of Hangzhou , Zhejiang , diseased spots that have wintered begin spreading in late February and spread fast from April to June , followed by a slow spread after July .
Music portrays artistic form in running and regular sound , which expresses peoples all kinds of feelings . Garden has characteristics with rhythm , melody , tone and musical milieu .There are a thorough knowledge and consanguinity of both music and garden .They express together and give people abundant perception on aesthetic judgment , and forward ideas and inspirations on musical creation and garden design .
The problem of environment is a serious problem , which is related to the sustainable development of the social economy in the whole world , especially in the developing countries .Directed at the environmental problem existing in our country and the weakness of ethical awareness of the pepole to the environment , the paper points out in the environmental protection peoples ethical awareness and moral attitudes should be raised and the technique of bringing the environment under control should be selected to achieve the production without social effects of pollution ;the implementation of basic state policies of the environmental protection should be ensured to carry out the sustainable development strategy of the social economy .During the discussion of the environmental protection and constructions , by absorbing the essence of environmental ethic in the traditional culture , the paper puts forth that the executive intensity of the polices and regulations of the environmental protection must be increased , and its instruction and propaganda should be enhanced .At the same time the paper points out improving the publics environmental ethical awareness can solve many environmental problems without any additional investments .
The paper aims at expounding the main fields and important measures on future bamboo shoot research . Through inspecting 3 685 bamboo theses in the 22 kinds of special publications , it reviews development course , papers distribution , research situation and representative thesis about Chinas bamboo shoot study this , and especially looks forward to the future :developing new shoot variety with the characteristics of lately breeding and widely planting by biological technology ;exploring new cultivationmodel for bamboo shoot production as the plant ; studying the new technology by that shoots can be produced and supplied annually ;and breaking through a new way for bamboo shoot to be kept fresh .
According to the growth pattern of the rhizome , bamboo was distinguished in two main types by Rivieres (1879) firstly :i. g. monopodial and sympodial bamboos. McClure (1966) used two new terms , leptomorph and pachymorph , to describe the different rhizomes growth pattern .However , some sympodial bamboos , like Pseudostachyum ,Racemobambusa and Sinarundinaria spp ., have scattered culms similar to monopodial bamboos due to the elongation of the culm neck .In this paper it deals with only the real monopodial bamboos .Studies on the species diversity of monopodial bamboos started at the beginning of the 19th century .Michaux (1803)in Flora Breali-Americanna created the first monopodial bamboo genus , Arundinaria Michaux .Thousands of publication about new taxa or revision are exist .At moment 35 genera belonging to monopodial bamboos were recorded .But 11 ～ 21 genera are accepted by taxonomists only .Reports about ecological and genetic diversity are very limited . Only a few papers are available .It is urgent to enhance the research work on these aspects .As for utilizaton of monopodial bamboos , a lot of valuable species are neglected .The development of new processing techniques will promote the utilization of bamboo wood greatly .
Utilization of funds which from the World Bank loan on China's afforestation project was studied by an example of Linan City , Zhejiang Province .The results showed that the funds taked a great effect in afforestation , and the project made a good result in economy , ecology and society .However , there are some problems including risks in management , uncoordination of harvesting benefit period to timble forest and repay loan period etc . Thus, some suggestions to improve utilization of funds in the project are given .
On the basis of the investigation on forest park resources in Zhejiang Province , the resource features of forest parks were expounded in the respect of fine ecological environment , various natural landforms and rich biological , climatic and humanism resources .A comparison of utilization in biological and landscape resources was carried out in such typical forest parks as Qiandao Lake in Chunan , Mt Yandang in Wenzhou and Qingshan Lake in Linan .The following viewpoints were advanced :①the utilization of forest park resources should be predicated on sustainable development ;②the construction of foundation equipment in forest parks must not lead to the deterioration of the quality of forest park resources .
Architectural culture is the historical heritage of development of technical science , social science , the humanities , religions , philosophy and arts. As one of cultural forms , architectural culture reflects the generality of general culture .The generality is as follows :the constituent layer of culture itself ;dimensional space-time layer caused by different time and space ;entirety of systems and dispersion of concrete substances constituted by multilayer ;obscurity of forms ;the medium among concepts ;the succeed-change quality in the course of development . Architectural culture also stresses its own feature-genius loci .The development of architectural culture is logical reconstruction of such factors as production relations , national characters , natural environment and etc .It reflects both complexity of development of architectural culture and boundless increasing of architectural culture .
The intention and development trend of agricultural scientific-technical revolution are analyzed in order to study relationship between agricultural scientific-technical revolution and agricultural modernization in China .The conclusion shows that to propel and practice agricultural scientific-technical revolution is the only way of accomplishing agricultural modernization in China .Besides this, some limiting factors and correlated countermeasures at the present are detailedly discussed .
The results of extracting flavonoid compounds from dragon juniper leaves under different conditions show that alcohol volume percentage , extracting time and temperature all affect the amount of total flavone that is extracted .One of them alcohol volume percentage is a key factor .The best conditions of extracting flavonoid compounds from dragon juniper leaves are as follows :alcohol volume percentage is 75 %, extracting time 20 min , and extracting temperature 90 ～ 100 ℃.
Anoplophora chinensis is a primary borer pest damaged to Populus nigra .Chemical control was made at the larval stage by injecting into the worm channel in the trunk with 7 pesticides in different water solution .The results showed that 500 ～ 1 000-fold omethoate 40EC with 5 mL per worm channel could kill 96 %～ 100 % of the larvae .Injecting pesticite into worm grub is a good control way of Anoplophora chinensis .
In order to find out the species and distribution of coccids and their plant hosts in Huangyan District , Zhejiang Province , an investigation combining the detail survey in plots with random sampling was made at Fangshanxia Forest Farm, Jiufeng Garden and 15 towns .The results show that the coccids in Huangyan District belong to 8 families , 37 genera and 52 species and parasitize 49 species of forest plants .The scientific basis is provided to control the coccids in the district .
Aiolomorphus rhopaloides and Diomorus aiolomorphi are two dominant species of bamboo chalcid . Studies have showed that there is one generation per year in Aiolomorphus rhopaloides .Its pupae hibernate in a gall and the adults come out of the gall between late March and mid-April .Its larvae have 5 instars that are usually from early April to mid-September .There is one generation annually in Diomorus aiolomorphi .Its larvae hibernate in a gall and adults come out of the gall between mid-April and early May after emergence , ovipositing in a bud in which ovipositing has been done by Aiolomorphus rhopaloides .The larvae , after hatched , occupy the gall of Aiolomorphus rhopaloides and eat the dead larvae ofAiolomorphus rhopaloides when young .There are 5 instars for larvae that occur from early May to late March of the following year .After September the larvae gradually mature and hibernate .This paper is based on the observation and study of egg morphology , various insect forms and life habits of the two species of bamboo chalcid .
Early diagnosis of root rot of Chinese strawberry could help achieve an effective and economic prevention effect.The research was carried out to investigate its occurrence conditions and the simulated (root cutting) symptoms . A single tree demonstrated such chief symptoms as an increase in blind buds , paleness of learves , increase in abnormal fallen leaves , as well as death of new tiny tips which grew on old trunks .The withering of some thin roots and root nodules were the early symptoms of root systems . Damaged roots mostly occurred at the lower part of hillside and withered before others .The symptoms caused by leaf pests and physiological diseases should be differentiated from those caused by root rot during diagnosis . It is suggested that a group of trees be regarded as a big tree in diagnosis , and the death of a sick single tree as initial symptoms of the group .