2000 Vol. 17, No. 3
To correctly recognize the insect resource and master the developing tendency of insect population in Mt . Longwang , Zhejiang , the insect species diversity was analyzed by means of data obtained in insect investigation from 1995 to 1998 .Lepidoptera , Coleoptera and Diptera were dominant orders from Mt .Longwang .The diversity of species and genera indicated that insect population had a stable structure .Abundance index varied from 2.53 to 25.20 , but diversity index changed in a narrow range .There were abundance rare and endemic insect species in Mt .Longwang .
Toxicity test was conducted with four mixtures of fenpropthrin and malathion in proportion as 1∶1 , 1∶1.5 , 1∶2 , 1∶3 and two pesticide units to Dendrolimus punctatus (Walker) indoors .Test's result shows the blend formula in proportion as 1∶1 have the best toxicity affect and obvious reinforcement affect as well .It provides scientific basis for control harm of Dendrolimus punctatus (Walker) .Next are 1∶3 , 1∶2 , and the worst is 1∶1.5 .
Effects of new pesticides (Dursban , Silonen and Sumialfa)on termite control were made through toxicity test and field soil treatment test .The result showed that these pesticides all had good contact poisoning effects to termite .In exposition on rain-and light-proof , the treatments by 5.0 ～ 20.0 gkg-1 Dursban and 2.500 0 gkg-1 Sumialfa had a period of validity for more than six years and more than seven years respectively .Pesticide effect was positively related to the Sumialfa concentrations in 0.312 5 ～ 2.500 0 gkg-1 .
The present paper deals with 6 new species of Mecoptera collected from China .All the type specimens are kept in the Zhejiang Museum of Natural History .1 .Panorpa jilinensis sp .nov .Fig .1 .This species similar to P .japonica Thunborg , but differs from it in the following characters :basal band incomplete , comprising somall spot near C and wide band extending from hind margin of wing ;hypovalves widely divergent at bases , shape of ventral parameres , shape of genital plate .Holotype ♂, Allotype ♀.Paratype 2 ♂♂.1988-07-22 .Dongliao , Jilin Prov .Coll Hu .2 .Panorpa alticola sp .nov .Fig .2 .This species resemble P .leei Cheng 1949 , but differs in the apical band incomplete posteriorly but uneven , in the basal plate broad , with a round distal plate . Holotype ♂, 1984-08-01 .Liupanshan , Ningxia Prov .Coll Ren .3 .Neopanorpa yingjiangensis sp .nov . Fig .3 .This species resemble N .heii Cheng from sikang , in the markings of the fore wings .It differs from that species in the arms of genital plate long , anterior axial portion of genital plate forming two strongly divergrnt , large apodemes .Holotype ♀, 1983-05-35 .Yingjiang .Yunnan Prov .Coll Zhou .4 .Neopanorpa curva sp .nov . Fig .4 .This species somewhat resembles N .dorsalis Byers in the markings of the fore wings , but it differs from that species in having a short process on abdominal tergum 3 , in the shape of the hypovalves and aedeagal structure .Holotype ♂, 1981-05-02 .Mengxiu .Yunnan Prov .Coll Hu .5 .Neopanorpa tenuis sp .nov .Fig . 5 .This species resembles N .angustipennis (Westwood), in wing markings and shape of the genital bulb .It differs from that species in having a long process on abdominal tergum 3 , and aedeagal structure .Holotype ♂, 1981-05-02 , Mengxiu .Yunnan Prov .Coll Hu .6 .Neopanorpa uncata sp .nov .Fig .6 .This species similar to N .tengchongensis Zhou in the shape of the genital bulb and the markings of the fore wings , but differs from it the following characters :posterior process of tergum 3 short , extending less than halfway across tergum 4 ; hypovalves outer margins sterongly infolded dorsally ;shape of the basal lobe ;and aedeagal structure .Holotype ♂, 1984-04-25 , Ruili .Yunnan Prov .Coll Zhou .
The butterflies here dealt with were collected from National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmu , 3018～ 3025N , 11923～ 11929E , Zhejiang Province , China .Twelve families , 113 genera and 208 species are listed .
The paper is a supplement to the checklist of insects from Nature Reserve of Mount Gutian , Zhejiang after Insects and Macrofungi of Mount Gutian , Zhejiang published in 1995 , which lists 1 genus and 1 species under family of Odonata , 2 genera and 2 species under 2 families of Coleoptera , 2 genera and 2 species under 1 family of Neuroptera , 2 genera and 2 species under 2 families of Lepidoptera , 3 genera and 28 species under 2 families of Diptera , and 12 genera and 18 species under 3 families of Hymenoptera .
During April to June 1996 and November 1999 , an avifaunal suvey was conducted in Xiaojiang Forest District of Xinchang , Zhejiang Province .There are 117 species of birds , belonging to 11 orders and 30 families . Among them , there are 66 residents (56.51 %), 26 summer visitors (22.22 %), 21 winter visitors (17.95 %), and 4 migrants (3.42 %).The paper also reports the ecological distribution of birds and makes a scientific evoluation to the birds resources in this district .
Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox f .preveynalis)is an elite species of bamboo shoot in Zhejiang . The results of field study indicate that photosynthetic speed of Lei bamboo reaches peaks at 10 :00 and 14 :00 respectively in dry-heat conditions , and lows at noon .The reason of sleeping at noon is stomatal resistance increasing by atmospheric saturation deficit .There is a great effect between photosynthetic speed and light intensity , air temperature , relative humidity and stomatal resistance .The optimum temperature for photosynthesis of Lei bamboo is from 28.2 ℃ to 32.2 ℃, and the optimum light intensity is from 860 molm-2 s-1 to 1 020 molm-2 s-1 .
Effects of bagging with 4 types of bags on fruit weight , appearance and quality of 5 varieties of pears are discussed here .It's indicated that fruit weight is largest in Yellow Flower Pear covered with a single-layered yellow bag , while in Shinseiki the heaviest fruit is that bagged with a double-layered black bag .Types of bags obviously affect the fruit appearance of different varieties .The fruit covered with a double-layered bag is uniformly yellowwhite in color and smooth in skin , with no apparent macula .Meanwhile , there are a reduction in skin thickness and quantity of stone cells of flesh and a slight increase inmoisture content of the flesh .The ratio of sugars to acids also changes .As a result , economic effects increase , which meets the requirement of a high quality reward resulting from a high input .
By analysing many soils collected from different bamboo forests with various productivity , the following conclusions can be implied .There limitational factors impaired growth of bamboo .are poor physical properties such as thin soil strata (60 cm), too much gravel (1 mm gravel reach 45 %～ 50 %), firm earth (volume weight is 1.20 ～ 1.34 gcm-3), and unfavourable chemical properties , for example , less total soil nutrient storage , imbalant nutrients , excess in nitrogen and deficiency in phosphorous , especially in 20 ～ 40 cm strata .
In 1998 , the contrasting study was carried out about soil physical structure properties of mixed forest of Chinese fir and paulownia and pure Chinese fir stand in Nanzhou Forest Farm of Fujian .Productiveness of the mixed forest is better than that of the pure fir stand .Soil water and physical properties of the mixed forest , such as soil particle composition , soil aggregate , soil pore space , water content of soil , etc . , were better than those of the pure plantation . Noncapillary porosity , capillary porosity , total porosity and gas permeability of soil in the mixed forest increased by 2.48 %, 2.01 %;4.47 % and 2.74 % respectively . The resultant reason was further discussed in this paper .
A study on productivity and ecological characteristics of mixed forest of Chinese sweet gum and Chinese fir was carried out .The results show that the mixed forest has a harmonize species relation , with relative high productivity and rational special structure .The mixed forest has ameliorated soil physical and chemical properties , stimulated the activities of microbes and enzymes , and improved the growth of both Chinese sweet gum and Chinese fir .It is , therefore , an advantageous mixed forest in rebuild of poor-yield plantation of Chinese fir and control of site degradation .
Caculating equations of drawing out the out-turn percentage table of stands is reckoned based on the cardinal principle of general volume equation of single tree , volume calculation by general out-turn percentage table of woodcategory and out-turn quantity of stand .Further more , the model of accumulative out-turn quantity of woodcategory is established based on auxiliary factors of the diameter and height according to Richards equation and the materials of actural bucking of sample trees on the spot , and the out-turn percentage table of stand for Chinese fir plantation is made by applying the technique of parameter rescovery of diameter distribution and the relative diameter height curve model and by forecasting the height and individuals probability in each diameter class with general volume equation .
The organoleptic properties and chemical composition among Zhejiang kudingcha (Ilex latifolia Thunb .), Guangxi kudingcha (I .kudingcha C .J .Tseng), Guizhou kudingcha [Ligustrum robustum (Robx .) Bl .] and tea [ Camellia sinensis (L.)O .Kuntze] were compared using organoleptic evaluation , HPLC and absorption methods .The results showed that the appearance of Zhejiang kudingcha and Guangxi kudingcha was green and tight , they had the typical characteristics of kudingcha , which tasted bitterly and aftertaste was sweet . Their chemical components , such as amino acids , alkaloids , soluble sugar , flavone , -carrotene , were almost unanimity .Meanwhile , Guizhou kudingcha and tea were different either in organoleptic properties or chemical components with the two others .Both I .latifolia and I .kudingcha were real kudingcha .
Regression analysis is used to find understand the reason of CO2 content increasing and its effect on temperature .The great increasing of world population has been proved to be the essential cause inducing the growing of CO2 content in atmosphere .The increase of CO2 content makes an apparent rising of winter air temperature of Hangzhou .The lower the air temperature is , the more apparently the air temperature rising .CO2 content is obviously related to average air temperature in January , the lowest air temperature in January and the extreme low air temperature of whole year .Correlation coefficients are respective 0.461 1 , 0.471 6 and 0.576 0 . The increase of CO2 content dose not make the same effect on summer air temperature as on wintes but on the average air temperature of the whole year (r =0.457 4).It is very important that population control , especially the control of the large cities population , is a good way to control theorigin and amount of CO2 discharging .Effect of CO2 content on temperature varies from different zones and seasons .
Spiraea bumalda Gold Flame, Spiraea bumalda Goldmound, Spiraea bumalda Bushin America first , were introduced into Hangzhou from Beijing in 1994 .The results of cultivation for five years successive suggested that a two-year-old young tree had made good growth , with crown diameter of 50 cm .Its vegetative propagation could easily operated with 90 % survival rate .For these species , summarize a set of good vegetative reproduction methods and cultured techniques , and give a proposition in application of garden .
The variety of street trees applied is simple at present by way of investigating current situation in Hangzhou , which dont confirm to the status of international tourism city .Street trees should be diversified .Some hardwoods with high aesthetic value such as Liriodendron chinense , Liriodendron tulipifera , Liriodendron chinense L .tulipifera , Ginkgo biloba , Cercidiphyllum japonicum , Albiaaia julibrissin , Pseudolarix amabilis ,Magnolia denudata , and some ever-green trees with good greening effects such as Neolitsea sericea , Cinnamomum japonicum var .chenii ,Daphniphyllum macropodum ,Machilus thunbergii , Altingia gracilipes and Michelia foreolata var .cinerascens are selected for main street trees .According to five zones composed by the West Lake scenic zone , factory zone , resident zone , window zone , downtown zone , different trees are applied to form scale and specialty in accordance to different function .Furthermore , reasonable assembling between level and color should be considered in order to attain the target of different sceneries with each step , different sceneries in four seasons and green color in four seasons .
the garden of storing books house of Tianyi Pavilion in Ningbo is a kind of classical garden .The pattern of the storing books house reflects the profound meaning of its name .Tianyi Pavilion was originally a simple private garden in the south of China .Having been enlarged after renovation of many dynasties it becomes a big book city consisting of collection of books , calligraphy , carved stones , stone buildings and civil houses in the east of Zhejiang Province .Therefore , the name of garden is not only a simple title but an outline governing the plan and design of the whole garden .To protect classical gardens , we should not only maintain their original appearance but enrich and develop them actively also .
Artificial hill is an important part of Chinese natural mountain and water gardens .Whether artificial hill is constructed properly or not has a great influence on its artistic quality because of its various shapes and outlines . The construction of artificial hill requires the closest coordination of the whole and the part , and should adopt dolly and concrete base which must be firmed .Artificial hill must be piled up in stratification , and stones must be stabled so as to gear artificial hill to an integral whole .
Under conventional conditions the dyeing technology of fast-growing Chinese fir was studied by a series of single-factor experiments and multi-factor orthogonal experiments .The dyestuff solution permeability is the most important indicator determined wood dyeing effects .The results showed that solution permeable direction , specimen moisture content and dyestuff solution consistence hadmore effect on wood dyeing , but steeping time and permeable agent amount had less effect .The optimal dyeing technology was as follows :dyestuff solution consistence of 20.0 gL-1 , specimen moisture content of 30 %, steeping time of 45 min and permeable agent amount of 1.0 ～ 2.0 gkg-1 .
One hundred and twenty-seven plant type specimens collected from Lin'an City of Zhejiang Province are researched , which belonging to 117 species , 86 genera and 53 families .Among of them , there are 8 species of rare and endangered plants of Zhejiang , 5 species of national protective plants of Chian , and 26 species of endemic plants of Lin'an City .The type plants are put in order of family , genus , species , collection locality , collector , specimen number , reserved place , original record literature , and so on .
A class of multistep hybrid methods is constructed .These methods can be carried out by three processors .The stability , consistency and convergence properities of these methods are discussed .
This study was made in Xinchang County of Zhejiang Province during 1998 and 1999 . Four methods were used for attracting Monochamus alternatus .The results indicated that improved attractant was of a good attracting method , with 111 adults catched in each trap .There was a significant difference between improved attractent and the other methods on attracting effect .The order of attracting effect was improved attractant , Mattractant , pine log bait and trapping light . Attractants could be conveniently used for trapping Monochamus alternatus in large area .
The control of Anoplophora chinensis was made in urban areas of Shaoxing City from 1996 to 1998 . Three insecticides were used on Salix babylonica with three application doses each drug .The results showed that A .chinensis control could be made at the larval stage by putting the drug into the holes with 800 gL-1 solution of dichlorvos 80EC or 3.6 gL-1 solution of adamectine 1.8EC or 1/16 tablet of 56 % aluminium phosphate , resulting in more than 90 % of the larvae being killed .This method was suitable for control A .chinensis harmed on the trees in gardens , urban parks and scenic areas .