2001 Vol. 18, No. 1
With RAPD molecular markers , 19 cultivars and 2 affinis species of Phyllostachys praecox were analysed .Using 10 primers screened from 80 primers , 66 loci were amplified , and 54 of these were polymorphic (81.8 %).The UPGMA cluster analysis of POPGEN 32 program showed :(1)The cultivars and affinis species of Ph .praecox can be divided by UPGMA analysis , and the Yongjia Lei Bamboo recognized as one of the cultivars of Lei Bamboo before doesnt belong to Ph .praecox .(2)The production of narrow-leaved Lei Bamboo and broadleaved Lei Bamboo mainly decided by management . (3)The classification on bamboo under species based on RAPD markers is somewhat reliable .
The test aimed to search the technology curriculum of raising seed rate of Phyllostachys praecox .The pollen vigor , the influence of B (H3BO3)to pollen germination , the effect of artificial pollination were studied . The results show that the pollen germination rate of Ph .praecox is both weak and quick collapsing .Sprying proper low concentration B is beneficial to pollen germination .Art pollination may help to raise the seed rate of Ph .praecox ;The decay of seed and the disservice of worm may be one of the important factors that cause low seed rate of Ph .praecox .So it is possible in technology to raise the seed rate ofPh .praecox .
Using the method of numerical measure , regression analysis are made on site conditions of edible bamboo Phyllostachys praecox .The result shows that slope , soil type , soil fertility , soil texture , mean annual air temperature and rainfall in spring and autumn , etc ., have an evident effect on the growth of the plant . On the base of climatic data from 81 meteorological stations in middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River , 9 climatic factors such as air temperature and rainfall are compared with these in original of the plant by the method of optimal ratio of fussy similarity .According to result and combining with biological property and practical experiment , 3 kinds of introduction ranges are demarcated , which can provides scientific basis for introduction and cultivation farming of Phyllostachys praecox .
Seventy-six species of magnolia family have been introduced and 65 species preserved since 1976 in the Islands of Shoushan .Based on the manifestations of growth , over-wintering and exploitation value , these plants are classified into 5 types :succeed , relatively succeed , likely succeed , difficult succeed and never succeed .For 5 types , corresponding suggestions of exploitation or evaluations are advanced .Some elite introduced species , such as Magnolia soulangeana cv .Rubiflora , are described in blooming characteristics , morphological characters , aesthetic value , propagation and utilization .
A systematic study made in Linhai on wood properties of paper pulpwood of 17 new clones and other 3 clones as a control shows that the fiber length in the trunk of these 20 clones ranges between 0.966 0 and 1.143 0 mm , which has met the standard laid down by the International Timber Society for the fiber of middle rank and the specific gravity of the trunk is from 0.318 8 to 0.368 2 gcm-3 ;that the fiber length of branches ranges from 0.63 to 0.78mm and their specific gravity is from 0.344 2 to 0.400 8 gcm-3 ;that each clone differs from the other in timber properties either significantly or most significantly ;and that both fiber length and specific gravity have a relatively high genetic repetition (0.473 7 ～ 0.833 3).Genetically speaking , DBH is moderately in negative correlation between timber properties .Such 4 clones among 17 new clones as 367 , 366 , 370 and 351 are very prominent in growth and wood properties , their growth and wood properties being superior to those of Populus deltoides cv . 'Lux' that is best in pulping at present .Therefore , these four clones are a top choice for establishing a short-rotation forest armed at producing paper pulpwood and fiber wood .
By analysis of productivity of Populus forest stands cultured in normal patter , breeding aims of various main sites were determinate , and quantitative mature age , economic mature age and process mature age were calculated .The optimum rotation was determinate on basis of the highest VNP .The results were as follows :the rotation of the small diameter timber of Populus cultured in the place with a status index of 12 was 13 -14 years , the rotation of the middle and small-diameter timber of Populus cultured in the place with a status index of 14 was 12 -13 years .The rotation of large-diameter timber cultured in the place with a status index of 18 was 11 -12 years .
Nodal scar is the most important factor affecting timber quality of poplar .It is one of the key techniques of improving timber quality of poplar to effectively control the nodal scars of stem and decrease the numbers of insect hole .The results indicate that pruning (pruning in equal height and pruning in equal diamater), controlling insect hole and scientific forestation are important measures to enhance the non-nodal degree of stem.Strengthening prevention and control of long-horned beetles is a way of decreasing numbers of insect hole .Therefore , many plus clones with worm resistance should be introduced in forestation .Planting by suckers and planting by stock with twoyear- old root system and one-year-old stem should by popularized in order to increase the natural non-nodal proportion of poplars.
Regarding the parabola density effect model as presupposition , in accordance with the growing traits of the planted timber forests , the paper finds density control model by optimal control method and finds the solution with dynamic programming .The model has the characteristics with variable power times , stronger adaptability , mobile thinning interval and convenient use .The model is used in masson pine planted timber forests in Guizhou Province .The outcome shows that the computing results tall with the growing law of the planted timber forests , and accord with practical experiment .
The maximum loading capacity of soil can be estimated according to the water holding capacity of soil and the water consumption of trees during the drought period .The results showed the proper planting density of Acacia mangium , A .auriformis and A .holosericea was 5 000 trees per hectare (spacing of 2.0m 1.0m)and that of A .aulacocarpa , A .cunninghamii , Eucalyptus camaldulensis , E .exserta ,E .citriodora should be less than 2 000 trees per hectare .If planted over the proper density , the trees would decline and even die for the insufficient supply of water .The data did not against that the trees should be planted in high density in the beginning for increasing the vegetation coverage .However , the intermedium theinning , pruning and other practices should be taken in order to prevent forest degradation due to over loading of water .
The measurements of diurnal pattern of net photosynthetic rate of Acacia mangium , A .aulacocarpa , A .auriformis , A .holosericea , A .cunninghamii , Eucalyptus camaldulensis , E .exserta ,E .citriodora were carried out in three year old stands in Zulin twonship , Yuanmou County .The net photosynthesis rate in eight species showed the double-peak pattern during the drought period .The maximum of photosynthetic rate appeared at 9 :00 and 15 :00 respectively (A .aulacocarpa , A .auriformis and A .cunninghamii at 17 :00).The minimum appeared at 13 :00 (A .cunninghamii at 15 :00).The photosynthesis patterns in eight species showed significant midday depression caused by the closure of stomata .This midday depression must be one of the adaptation of the plant to the climate of dry-hot valley , regulating the moisture condition in the stand and saving the water for survival .
Under the different temperatures , solvent volumes and extracting hours , using water (pH =10)as solvent , the experiment how to more extract content of flavonoid in Camptotheca acuminata leaves was made by use of quadratic current spinning combination design metod .According to the experimental data , an ternary quadratic form regression equation was built and analyzed ;and a simulate test to different leaves of three factors was did with computer .The results showed that the optimum scheme of extracting flavonoid from Camptotheca acuminata leaves was extracting temperature of 90 -100 ℃, solvent volume of 50 -60 mL and extracting time of 25 -37 min .
The property of mixed solvent composed of 95 %ethanol and hexane (MSEH), the effect of oil-tea camellia seed oil (OCSO)on the mixing solubility of MSEH and the technique of extraction of defatted cake by MSEH were studied .The results showed that with the ratios form 7∶3 to 4∶6 , 95 % ethanol and hexane could be dissolved .Adding OCSO , the mixing soluble temperature was promoted .The maximum solubility of OCSO by MSEH was 14 % or so .The defatted cake was extracted under the following suitable conditions :the extracting temperature , 58 ℃;the MSEH-cake ratio , 2∶1 ;95 %ethanol-hexane ratio , 5∶5 ;the extracting time , 5 hours . The 3.6 g residual oils and 7.0 g thea saponins were retrieved from 100 g defatted cake .
Camphor tree seeds including green seeds and mature seeds were collected in Ningbo City of Zhejiang Province .Extraction and distillation were used .The results showed that taking acetone , petroleum ether and ethanol as solvents in extraction , camphor wood oil percent of green seeds was 2.70 %-3.10 %, and percent of mature seeds .0.70 % -0.93 %;using of stem distillation , camphor wood oil percent of green seeds was 2.80 %, and percent of mature seeds 0.90 %.It is better to extract camphor wood oil from green seeds of camphor tree than from mature seeds (purple baccae).
The study was made in Ningbo City of Zhejiang Province , China .An average of 665.3 adults of Monochamus alternatus in their emerge season was trapped by a set of trapping device built with pine branches and logs +attractant +insecticide .The number of adults trapped daily related to phases of the moon .When the phase was in bump , the number was more than half of the moon , i .e .at 11th or 21st of the lunar calendar , the number of adults trapped reached a peak of 55.9 % of all adults trapped .The number of adults trapped hourly had something to do with intensity of the sunlight .At dawn , the number of adults trapped accounted for 14 % , in the evening (18 :00 -22 :00)for 70 % of all day .The dead pine trees in the nematode-infected pine forests with trapping device decrased by 50 % comparing with checked pine forest without trapping device .A trap rack arranged in the nematode-infected pine forest is effective to predict Monochamus alternatus and control Bursaphelenchus xylophilus .
Sunshine time has some effects on the growth , survival and fecundity of Aponychus corpuzae Rimando . The mites cant complete all stages in darkness .The probability of completing all growth stages increases with the rising of sunshine time over 5 h .The growth terms from larva to reproduction of adult are 25.26 d , 14.41 d , 15.47 d respectively in 5 h , 8 h , 12 h sunshine conditions , and the average female aduit fecundity are 3.5 , 9.23 , 9.50 respectively .The best survival temperature condition is 20 -30 ℃, but the survival rate is higher in 2 ℃ conditinon , and the mites cant survive in -10 ℃condition and has high survivalrate in 40 ℃condition , so the mites have strong adaptability of temperature .
The effects of five fungicides on the hypha growth of Ganoderma lucidum and the growth of Trichderma viride were studied .The results showed that the different kinds and treatment concentrations of fungicides on the hypha growth of Ganoderma lucidum and the growth of Trichderma viride had significant difference .It was proved that cupper hydroxide at concentration of 0.538 ～ 0.359 g L-1 had almost no inhibitions on the growth ofGanoderma lucidum and had stronger effects on the growth of Trichderma viride .Therefore , cupper hydroxide could be used in Ganoderma lucidum cultivation .
In order to control the chomophyte in lawn and test the safety of herbicides on turfgrass , herbicides (Goal 23.5EC , Tiancaojing (Acetochlort Bensulfuron menthyl)18.2wp , Butachlor 50MG and Benziocarb 50EC) were applied with spraying or broadcasting on Dichondra repens , Zephyranthes candida and Ophiopogon japonicus turfgrass during the establishment of lawn .The results showed that Tiancaojing (Acetochlort Bensulfuronmenthyl) 0.039 6 gm-2 mixed with soil 45 g orGoal 0.12 mLm-2 mixed with soil 45 g had a good control result for weeds with efficiency of 92.19 % and 88.43 %, and made a reduction of 81.13 % and 78.80 % in the costs , respectively .For other two herbicides , weeding rate reached over 75.00 % too .After herbicide application , the lawn grew well.
Emulation of structure , morphology and growth in plant arouses peoples interest , especially researchers in agriculture and forestry .Based on the Lindenmayer system, application of fractal computer techniques in emulation of plant morphology and structure is discussed .Lindenmayer system is used to emulate tree , sapling , branch , fruit and leaf in shape , and object figures are made with computer by use of Turbo C ++ language .
This paper discusses characteristics of the new help system based on HTML , and puts forward unit file CallHHelp which can be used to call HTML help by Delphi that is developing tool of biological statistic analysis platform .The core method of this unit file is to map HTML help commands to corresponding Win help commands . Finally , the biological statistic analysis platform can correctly call HTML help system by the unit file .
By the theory and method of increase model , with statistical data in Fifty Years of Linan , the Gompertz increase model =6 exp[ -5.802 0 e-0.367 9 t] was established , which predicted the output value of forest products .The model corresponded more to practicality and attained high rigidity .The relative error was 0.008 2 % between prediction and actual value , correlative index was 0.999 2 .This predicting measure is simple and easy to use , and has practical significance , it can also be used in predicting the output of cash forests and the volume of forestry resource consumption etc .It offers decision warranty and raises the power of general control for forestry management .
The difference and de-difference of cell is a fundamental question in biology .The results of some studies show that the morphological and structural changes in vegetable cells cannot offer feasible feature .However , phyto-hormone makes function in regulation of difference and de-difference of vegetable cell , of which auxin and cytokinin are paid close attention to the effect .
Biology in half 20th century ago initiated the experiment science , as phsiology , genetics and biological chemistry that was establisned at the base or taxonomy and morpho-anatomy in zoology and botany , and which has made outstanding achievement research on structure-function and substance metabolism for various part of organism. Since the 1960s , as the development of molecular biology , leading to a great leap in biological science today , explosing the essence of life consistency with heredity code and a new features of gene engineering .At the same time , because of industrial advance and human population increment made ecological environment broken and biological resources lost , then the human race pay all attention to environment and biodiversity .This text should make brief review in the 20th century concerning some important topics for orgin of life , gene theory and gene engineering , photosynthesis , nitrogen fixation , respiratory metabolism and fermentation industry , and biodiversity .
In this paper 127 species of scale insects (Homoptera :Coccoidea)attacking bamboos in china until 1999 is listed .Among them 21 species ranges to 17 genera of pseudococcidae , 3 species to 3 generar of Coccidae , 3 speecies to 2 genera of Acleridae , 5 species to one genus of eriococcidae , 52 speices to 5 genera of A sterolecanidae and 42 species to 12 genera of Diaspididae .Data are given on their distriution , hosts and parasitic part on bamboo plant .Two new combinations and two new synonyms are established , Planococcus bambusicola (Takahashi) (comb .n .)is transferred from Planococcoides , and Saccharicoccus bambusus (Tang) (comb . n .)from Palmicultor , and Nipponalerda triumpha Zhang , 1998 (syn .n .) and Bambusaspis nematosphaerica Zhang , 1992 (syn .n .)are considered as junior synonyms ofN .leptodemis Wang et Zhang , 1994 , and B . qingyuanensis Hu et Xie , 1988 , respecitvely .