2001 Vol. 18, No. 2
The geraft union of Carya cathayensis had these progresses range from callus formation , callus contract with each other , vascular bridges formation , to vascular difference .The cambium , composed of only three layer cells in its dormant , was the first location to form callus after 9 days grafting .After that , callus generated at cortex and phloem.Two weeks later after grafting , the callus contacted with each other and the isolated layer was absorbed gradually .In 24 days , vascular bridge formed , which further divided and gave difference to form vascular tissue , then to cause success of grafting .It also gave an analysis to the anatomical reason for lower percent of grafting in this species , and provided an anatomical basis on in-compatibility in grafting of C .cathayensis (scion)with Platycarya strobilacea (stock).
Effects of such factors as ratios of different plant hormones , mass concentrations of surose , the part from which explants were obtained and the content of tannins on the formation of callus in the tissue culture of Carya cathayensis were studied by means of an orthogonal design .Its showed that WPM+BA 8.0 mgL-1 +IBA 2.0 mgL-1 +GA 1.0 mgL-1 +sucrose 30 mgL-1 was an optimal medium ;the portion between apical buds and the 4th bud was suitable to induce callus in Carya cathayensis ;and the formation rate of callus for loci of the buds was not correlated with the content of tannins , but in correlation with the loci where callus was formed .In addition , the smaller the content of tannins , the farther the locus where callus formed was from the cut .The key of raising survival rate of grafting was the selection of scions and the proportions of hormones to be used in grafting .
The effect of aluminum in the soil on the root system growth of Chinese fir and slash pine (Pinus elliottii)was studied by the hole root system growth method .The result revealed that the content of exchangeable aluminum in soil increased greatly and soil pH value decreased when aluminum was added into soil .There was little difference on the root biomass between different aluminum treatments , but aluminum influenced the root growth clearly .If aluminum was added associate with calcium , soil pH value and the content of exchangeable aluminum in the soil decreased greatly .Root growth was also improved .The amount of aluminum and calcium absorbed by tree roots increased with increasing of the amount of aluminum added to soil .
Effects of soil on growth and fruiting of trees and biochemical characteristics of the soil were studied by planting non-timber species on both Chinese-fir-clear-cutting land and non-Chinese-fir-clear-cutting land .Its shown that organic matter , total nitrogen , hydrolysable nitrogen , available phosphate and contents of urease , proteinase , hydrogen peroxidase , etc .decreased to different extents , thus soil fortility declining .As a result , early growth of trees was suppressed to some extent , which was particularly obvious in such fast growing species as Vatica astrotricha and Phyllostachys pubescens .When Chinese-fir-clear-cutting land was reutilized , measures such as deep scarification and improvement of soil and application of basal manure were taken , with early fruiting , high yield and good quality obtained inVatica astrotricha ,Castanea mollissima , Ginkgo biloba , etc .Thus the sustainable utilization of Chinese-fir-clear-cutting land could be realized .
Soil pore space composition and nutrient status under natural formation of Castanopsis carlesii community , artificial forcing regeneration Castanopsis carlesii community , young Chinese fir plantation and halfmature Chinese fir plantation were studied .The results indicated that , compared to natural formation of Castanopsis carlesii community , the soil total porosity , non-capillary porosity , natural water percentage and air permeability of artificial forcing regeneration Castanopsis carlesii community , Chinese fir plantation and halfmature Chinese fir plantation were decreasing , but soil volume weight was increasing , soil structural property was weak , air permeability and water permeability were decreasing , soil water-storage ability was weak , soil organic matter , total nutrient , available nutrient and soil pH were decreasing , and soil capacity of nutrient supplying and storage was decreasing .It concluded that natural formation of Castanopsis carlesii community was worse influenced by human being , and the quantity and quality of treelitter were better than other forest stands , which benefits storage and convertion of nutrient .It was obvious that Castanopsis carlesii community maintained greatly soil fertility .
The effects of different harness measures on lateritic red soil fertility in Fujian in south subropical zone were studied .Each index of soil fertility of erosive lateritic red soil were so poor that can support few plant . Biological control measures and supplementary mechanical measures can improve the soil structure and humidity status , increase the level of soil nutrient stock , supply and conserve , and alleviate the strong soil acidity .The soil fertility under different control models is recovered to some extent .Dalbergia balansae is proved to be an effective tree species at water and soil conserving and fertility ameliorating .Exploitative measures such as planting fruit trees can gain a relative high economic profit , however , to attained optimized economical and ecological profit .
The absorbing ability of root and rhizome system of Phyllostachys pubescens shoot forest under the earth is the main factor affecting shoot output .To discover the change rules of the absorbing ability and achieve a high shoot output , the study took the samples of root and rhizome system of Phylloslachys pubescens collected from 3 typical shoot forests in Zhejiang , and measured their absorbing abilities using method of absorbing methylidynel blue .The results show that the absorbing ability of roots aged from 2 to 4 years is the highest , and with the increasing of age , it gets lower .2-year-old rhizomes are at the stage of growth and have the low absorbing ability . 3-and 4-year-old rhizomes are very strong and have the highest absorbing ability .Absorbing ability of 5-and 6-yearold rhizomes decreases .
The cluster analysis of the genetic distance of principal components was adopted to comprehensively evaluate the main growth traits of 229 13-year-old plus tree progenies of masson pine .Among which 19 high-yield and stable-yield excellent families were selected , their average stem volume genetic gains reached 28.30 %, and they could be popularized in the whole Fujian Proveince .Other 13 high-yield fine families were suitable for northwestern Fujian and their average stem volume genetic gains reached 21.07 %, and high-yield fine families were suitable for southeastern Fujian whose volume genetic gains reached 25.5 %.
Scientifically managing collective forest is very important in forest resouce protection and development and ecological environment construction .System of organizing forest management is a main technology to increase the management grade of collective forests .Different method of organizing management should be selected to different management body .Working group method would be adopted for forest management in village unity management body and community stock cooperation body .Stand method would be adopted in contract management body , auction management body , family management body , and multi-union stock cooperation management body . In the process , it is the management body who do the main work , it is the management agency of country who adjust , control and manage the work , and it is the institute who technologically help the work .
Utilization of Myrica rubra resources was studied from different aspects .Myrica rubra in Zhejiang occupies an area of 38 000 hm2 , with an approximate annual yield of 130 000 .Ningbo , Taizhou andWenzhou are the main producing homes , which account for 74.76 %of the total in area and 78.39 % of the total in yield of the whole province , respectively .In these main producing homes , most of the groves have an average yield of 7.5 ～ 9.75 thm-2 , with some small groves producing 45.00 thm-2 red bayberries .There are big differences in yield between alternate years .The yield reduced by 65.95 % every other year .The canopy of the species is strong in obstructing storms and reducing soil surface erosion and the water-holding capacity .As a result , the surface erosion is less than that on the grassed slope by 11 %;the litter under the canopy has a depth of 5.5 cm on the average ; and each adult tree can hold 0.3 ～ 0.69 m3 of rainfall .Actinomyces were found in the root system, which has markedly increased soil fertility , yield and the economic effect of the non-timeber species that were mixedly planted with Myrica rubra .Myrica cubra has a strong adaptability .Its young trees are tolerant of shade and can be planted on soil with severe water-cum-soil losses , thin stony loam and soil-forming parent rock .If reforestation is conducted in surviving pine groves , a grove of seed trees or miscellaneous shrubs , it wouldnt be necessary to destroy the original vegetation .In addition , superior cultivars with some characteristics , their nutrients , processing and utilization are also introduced here in this paper .
The experiment was made in Fanshi Town of Cixi City from 1995 to 1998 .The results showed that the planting density of Toona sinensis used as picking tender shoot and chit fall well in to 19 500 to 24 000 plants per hectare .Adapting diamond double-line planting benefited tree growth and increase production .Pruning and cutting with girdling , chit plucking , reproducing branch raising were main ways in dwarf culture , with increasing the yield of tender shoot and chit of Toona sinensis .Table Toona sinensis should have a tree form of bush or broom or storied branch , by pruhing with a tree height of 2meters or so .After several times of plucking , branch sprouting begin to reduce year by year , and could be renovated by root sprouting .
A survey of birds was conducted inMount Dongming , Zhejiang Province .Twenty-serven species of bird community were found in this area , of which 5 species (18.52 %)were dominant species .According to the distributime coefficient of birds , 4 species (14.81 %) fell to eurylope distribution pattern , and 23 species (85.19 %)were middling distribution pattern .There were differences on the number of species and density of bird community in the different babitats .The proportion of the avian distribution groups in bird community was changeable as a result of the variation of the habitat structure .The variation of the habitat structure also brought about the changes of the bird community parameters .
By means of several sorts of indexes of aggregation , the spatial distribution pattern of Aponychus corpuzaewas measured .The results indicated :the eggs and their crusts spatial pattern were of an aggregation distribution in the bamboo forest , and they distributed mainly on the leaves of over 3-age bamboos and only 0.857 1 % on the leaves of under 2-age bamboos ;it showed that the mites harmed mainly over 3-age bamboos ;the eggs and larvae mere of an aggregation distribution in a year but had different degree of aggregation which followed the nymphs and adults ;The nymphs and adults had clear aggregation-spread circulation in year .which were of an aggregation distribution in long term and of an ayerage or Poisson distribution in short term ;it was relationship with the biology of the mites , climate and food ;in the last , the applications of study results on the control of the mites were discussed .
The biological characteristics of Setora postornata was systematically described by means of observation in nature and laboratory .The research shows that Setora postornata occurs two generations per year at Mt .Mogan in Zhejiang Provice and overwinters with elder larva in the soil .Its pupae hatch at the beginning of May , and adults appear at the end of May .The method of injection pesticides in bored holes on trunks was firstly applied to controlling Setora postornata on Platanus acerifolia , P .orientalis , and P .occidentalis .Omethoate 40EC , methamidophos 50EC and monocrotophos 50 aqueous solution were injected into the main brances of three Platanus species before larva , appearing two weeks , and the average corrected mortality of larva could reach 84.8 %, 82.6 % and 85.5 %.
Balansia take damages seriously shoot bamboo forests in a large scale in China , and threatens their development .At the end of March to the middle of April or September clearing the damaged branches out of the forest lands could make a control effect of 92 %.The control percentage clearing branches plus spraying 500-fold cardendazim 50 dust or plus spraying 500-fold triazolone 25 dust is 99 %and 97 % respectively .Only spraying 500- fold cardendazim 50 EC or 500-fold triazolone 25 EC three times at 7-days intervas has a control effect of 100 % respectively .The techniques could be applied to the management of shoot bamboo forests .
With the development of economy and society , environment quality , ecology function , resources quantity and quality have taken place a series of disadvantage change to the human existence and development . These changes have blocked the sustainable development of economy and society .By using the unity method of history with logic and combination of history with reality , the paper analyzes the serious problems of resources waste and environmental pollution in the mountainous districts of Zhejiang Province , and analyzes the human factors of local government , economiy and society .It suggests we heighten the consiciousness of exploitingthe natural resources reasonably , pay attention to the ecology system protection , the natural and scenery protection , ect .The consiciousness will have a far greater significance to the sustainable development of economy and society in the mountain areas and to realizing the four modernizations ahead of time in Zhejiang Province .
Quartile division and regular-falsi-iteration algorithm of solving the equation f(x)= 0 is given out . Whatever repeated root is , a good approximate real root is quickly got by it if f(x)=0 has a continuous real root and reasonable initial value .
The interrelation among the rooting and growth ability of Cunninghamia konishii and the type of cuttings, the types and concentration of root growth helping matters , cutting length , cutting place , cutting foliage , and cutting medium were studied .The results showed that cuttings , belonging to bark rooting tree species , sprouted roots at 84 d after cuttage .The following cuttage measures could promote rooting and growing of cutting woods :1-year lignified first king shoots with 12 cm , pruned away foliage under two third of height of coppice shoots and infused with 100 mgkg-1 concentration of ABT for 4 h before cuttage , wereplanted on yellow soil .
Some problems in lawn plant seed , turf introduction , lawn market , turf science and teaching are discussed.Only by forming industrialisation can lawn industry make huge social , economical and ecological benefits .It is suggests that the education progress in lawn industry should be strengthened , the lawn industry market system be normaized , and the smooth development of the system be guided .
In order to performance capitalized management to forest resources and utilize them more effectively , the question of counting the value of forest lands must be concerned .The value of forest lands is a special kind of the value of lands .And therefore , the authors recall theories about value of lands and point out characters of the value of forest lands at the angle of its mobility , forest lands have been categorized and several different ways to count the valuef of forest lands have been pointed out originally .As far as the strong-mobility forest land is concerned , two ways including the mode of opportunity cost and the modle of Cobu-Douglas are introduced here .
This essay takes Yuqian town (Linan City , Zhejiang Province) for example .It illustrates limited factors in the first phase of country that trend toward cities and towns influenced by society vicissitudes , analyses theory background and points out in the process of country modernization and a growing trends cities and towns . Countries' development should be under the guidance of the sustainable development strategy , and in addition we should enact and implement the regional socioeconomic development strategy which contains definite strategy aim, general demands , strategy stress and strategy principle to accomplish this process .
The teaching management at the department level is a very important administrative level in college educational management with the enlarging of the scales of colleges and universities and the deepening of educational reform , and establishment of a teaching assessment system at department level has become one important part of the college teaching management reform.From the aspects of content and orientation of the system, the principles of setting up the system, the construction of supporting roles and the founding of the supervising system , this paper makes a constructive approach into the problem of setting up such a teaching assessment system .It is held that the content of the teaching assessment at the department level should include speciality development objective , speciality construction , subject construction , teachers training , teaching management , teaching research and teaching effect .The qualification of the assessment is stressed first while aiming at excellence .The building of the system should be based on instructive and workable with a combination of ration and quality .In order to put the assessment into effect , the detailed rules and standard of carrying out the teacing management should be formulated and a teaching supervising system at the department level should be set up on the basis of building and perfecting the teaching management system.
Taking the stems of 0.5 cm with single bud as the explants to the different culturemediums , the results showed that the rates of differentiation of buds that were the highest in all treatments were 100 % for cv . Wuhebaijixin , and cv .Meirenzhi and 86 % for cv .Yongyou F1 on the GS medium containing 6-BA 1.0 mgL-1 or 6-BA 2.0 mgL-1 .When the buds grew 1.0 ～ 1.5cm , they were transferred to the MS medium supplemented with IAA 0.05 mgL-1 or 6-BA 1.0mgL-1 orGA 2.0 mgL-1 with the differentiation rate of 80 % ～ 86 % and the proliferation multiple of 4 for this three varieties and the shoots grew vigor , which were the most favourite medium for the induction and differention of buds in this test .If the grape of Wuhebaijixin was changed into the 1/2 MS medium containing IBA 1.0 mgL-1 and Meirenzhi and Yongyou F1 were changed into 1/2 MS medium containing IBA 2.0 mgL-1 , the shoots developed nice roots with rooting rate of 84 %～ 96 % and rooting number of 5 ～ 7 .These media were the most significant for roting in all treatments .
Given Sophora japonica var .penclula with the diameter 4 cm to 5 cm long selected as the stock , improved bark graftage applied to it 15 days before to 10 days after Clear and Bright Festival (21 March to 15 April), its survival rate may reach above 90 %.Compared to cut-in graftage , this way is more convenient and effective , and also can be applied to other tress with thick stem (3 cm), thick bark easily separated from xylen .
The increasingly deterioration such as reducing growth potential and flower number of Rhododendron fortunei of Mount Huading , an ancient tree , was observed by investigating .The reasons are the continuing invasion of upper trees Pinus taiwnensis and Cryptomeria fortunei and of low shrubs Indocalamus tessellatus .If suitable measures such as trimming , thinning forest and cleaning the Indocalamus tessellatus are adopted , the deterioration of the trees could be prevented and the renovation of the forest could be expected .
Some problems in construction of the lab LAN are discussed .First of all , it supplies some know-how to install hardware and software of the server set and the client set .Secondly , it wants the readers to know how to configure the system in the lab LAN .Thirdly , it represents the assigned routes in the lab LAN .Fourthly , it researches some ways to raise the security of the lab LAN .Finally , it finds some ways to solve the problems , to which it should pay attention in the lab LAN .In this way , it may make the system work more efficiently .