2002 Vol. 19, No. 2
In view of such questions as small size , poor quality and low commodity rate in the production of Citrus ponki in Quxian County area , practices including seedling , branch and fruit pruning , soil improvement by adding organic fertilizers (three prunings plus one improvement) and fruit preservation , were popularized in large area . Though acceptance check and evaluation , the results were shown as follows :when the key practices of three prunings plus one improvement were put into practice , average fruit yield in the base exceeded 45 t per hectare , ratio of special-grade and first-grade fruit rose up to 78 percent from 30 percent before the practice , with an increase of 160 percent , and ratio of second-grade and third-grade fruit decreased apparently .As a result , yearly income per hectare increased by 2 600 to 188 00 RMB and input-output ratio was about 1 to 4 ～ 6 .When the technique of fruit preservation by using Magnate medicine was applied , the length for preservation could reach as long as 3 ～ 4 months and ratio of good fruit increased by 3.4 percent .Therefore , remarkable economic effects could be attained by popularizing the practices of three prunings plus one improvement and fruit preservation .
How hot pressing temperature , hot pressing time and the additive level of sodium silicate acted the properties of cement particle board were made by fast-curing hot pressing , using ternary quadratic orthogonal rotation design when cement/wood was 2.6 , water/cement 0.6 , hot pressing pressure 2.8 MPa , the designed density 1.2 gcm -3 , and the thickness 9 mm .The results showed that hot pressing temperature notably acted modulus of rupture (MOR), internal bowding (IB), thichness spread (TS), density , and the relationship was parabola , but it did not act modulus of elasti city (MOE);that hot pressing time notably acted MOE , IB , TS and density , and the relationship was linear ;that the additive level of sodium silicate notably acted MOR , IB and density , and the relationshp was parabola ;that the optimum hot pressing technology was that temperature was 100 ℃, time 12 min , the additive level of sodium silicate 100 gkg-1 .
In order to prepare low toxic UF resin for making plywood , the article adopts different modifier and advanced technological design .The results show that a urea formaldehyde resin which has low content of free formaldehyde (3 g kg-1) is developed on the basis of using melamine , polyvinyl alcohol and advanced technologicl design .Three layer plywood release 1.36 mg L-1 of free formaldehyde .The influence of diverse reaction condition on free formaldehyde content have been discussed in details .In the during of making the resin , some questions have been discussed and answered :the mole ratio of resin is about 1.3 , the amount of melamine ,polyvinyl alcohol is 1.6 % and 2.5 % of the total amount of urea .In addition reaction stage , the pH of resin can not below 7.0 ;In condensation stage , the temperation is 80 ～ 85 ℃, and the pH is 4.0 ～ 4.2 。
Based on the investigation and textual reseach , it is affirmed that there is wild Chimonanthus pracox on the common boundary of Lin'an City and Fuyan City .There are 511 species of tracheophyta belonging to 332 genura and 117 families .In this paper , by analysing flora of Chimonanthus praecox community , it is thounght that the composition of the flora is complicated , diversify and ancient , and main composition is temperate one .The flora of Chimonanthus praecox community in Zhejiang is obvousely similar to northwest Hunan province's .It is found that wild Chimonanthus praecox is a like-calcium tree , and that like-calcium-plants , thorny plants and lian are very flourish in the community .
Studies of the secondary successional species diversity of the evergreen broad-leaved forests at Mount Taintai of Zhejiang Province were conducted by using such index as species richness , species diversity and community evenness .The result shows that the species diversity of the secondary forests at Mount Tiantai has the tendency of developing from big to small in the course of succession from the needle-leaved forest , needle-leaved and broad-leaf mixed forest to the evergreen broad-leaved forest .In the community's vertical structure , the order according to the bigness of the species richness and the species diversity index of the 3 secondary successional communities is the shrub layer (including seedlings) tree layer herb layer .All the species diversity of the woody plant is bigger than that of the herb layer among the 3 communities .
The community types in Qiandao Lake were classified into warm coniferous forest , conifer and broadleaved mixed forest , deciduous broad-leaved forest , evergreen broad-leaved forest by the two-dimention polar ordination .The species diversity index , community evenness index and the ecological dominance were compared for different community type .The diversity and evenness indices increased with the plant community succession , the order of the diversity index of the four types of vegetations is 2.33 , 2.82 , 2.67 and 2.75 , and the order of evenness index is 69.6 , 81.6 , 82.8 and 89.6 .But the indices of mature forest were not the highest , while the ecological dominance index dicreased from 0.307 to 0.158 .In addition , the community physiognomy , structure and the important value of the dominant trees were analyzed .The result showed that forest reservation was an effective measure for vegetation restoration and rehabilitation .Meanwile , the different site quality caused the different successional series in the same space .
The stand growth , biomass , structure and soil fertility of the mixed model of Betula luminifera and Cunninghamia lanceolata and their pure stands at fifth year in Nanping of Fujian were studied .The results showed that the productivity of pure stands of Betula luminifera and mixed forest with Cunninghamia lanceolata were higher .The biomass of pure Betula luminifera stand and the mixed forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Betula luminifera increased by 86.44 %and 30.87 % than pure Cunninghamia lanceolata stand respectively .The mixed forest of Betula luminifera with Cunninghamia lanceolata not only couldmaintain soil fertility and promote growth of Cunninghamia lanceolata , but also form better stand structure .The mixed forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Betula luminifera was a practicable plantation model .
The spatial distribution pattern of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir)and its associated tree species in Mount Hutou were analyzed using different indices of aggregated intensity .The result showed that spatial distribution pattern of different tree class of Chinese fir and its associated tree species were aggregation distribution basically , the more large of tree class , the more apparent the dispersion of different populations .The aggregated intensity of Cunninghamia lanceolata , Castanopsis carlesii and Engelhardtia fenzelii were presented from bigness to smallness , Alniphyllum fortunei and Schima superba presented from bigness , smallness , bigness and to smallness , Daphniphyllum oldhamii and Castanopsis fargesii presented from smallness , bigness and to smallness .The main reason of aggregation distribution in low tree class was environment , the main reason of aggregation distribution in high tree class was environment or aggregation nature of itself .
Chemical elements of litter under various types of forests in Huzhou , Zhejiang were analyzed .It was shown that the amount of elements had evident discrepancy among five kinds of litter .Litter Cunninghamia lanceolata contained relative higher content of Ca and Mg , but lower Fe and Cu .Litter of Phyllostaachy pubescens had more K , Mg and Fe .It was the general case that litter of bush , broad-leaved forest andmixed forest of needle and broad-leaved trees were richer of variety nutrient elements .Total storage of 10 elements appeared the following order :mixture broad-leaved Pinus massoniana Phyllostaachy pubescens bush with the amount of 123.78 ,97.02 , 74.71 , 73.62 , 66.66 and 62.85 kghm-2 respectively .
The absorbing curve of hypocrellin A and effect of alcohol concentrations , immersed time , stomata granularities , alcohol dosages on the extraetion of hypocrellin A were studied in the paper .The results showed that the best scheme of determining the content of hypocrellin A in Shiraia bambusicola stomata was 1 g of air-dried stomata of Shiraia bambusicola (each pellet weights 0.1 g , amount to 10 pellets were saturated by 100 mL of Et-OH .Then we dilute the extract by 10 times and determine the absorption at the wavelength of 465 nm after 8 days .
The culture medium for Beauveria bassiana which parastied in Strobilomyla spp .was selected based on Doberski culture medium .This media had high selection for Beauveria bassiana .Use of this media could collect back 79.5 % of the conidia of Beauveria bassiana which added in to surface layer of humus .The collected rate of live conidia was 0.9 %～ 2.8 %after two years in soil.It showed that the fungi has a certain sustained effect in the soil for control Strobilomyla ssp .
Field survey and indoor observation indicate Pleonomus canaliculatus has one generation two or three years , and its larva or adults hibernates in soil .Two solution concentrations of Metarhizium anisopliae Mf2 spores , i .e .1.0 108 sporesmL-1 and 1.0 107 sporesmL-1 , result in obvious pathogenicity on pleonomus canaliculatus .
The most profound characteristic of the city is its culture character , while culture is based on the tradition profoundly .Contemporary , the traditional urban pattern is not adapted to the modern development of the city any longer .Exemplified by Shanghai and Suzhou , this paper discusses the relation of tradition and modern , and points out that they should be pervasive and dependent each other .Architecture and city are not called historic because of their age , but because of the maturity and genetic power of their organizing principle and these principles are transcendent and timeless , which is called tradition .As to design process, we should seek the dialectic coherence of the tradition and modern , the strategy including ①tradition combine modern in manipulation ;②green and containable concept ;③the conception of historic conservation ;④human living with environments harmonious .
The environmental problem has become more severe in China today , which is partly due to the weakening of function of local governments in protecting the environment and the lack of the public participation system.Therefore , the paper focuses on the emergency and inevitability of the construction of the publicparticipated mechanism .Based on international practice , the paper points out that enlargement of the public's environmental right is to ensure the public's right of knowing , participation and self-defense in environmental issues ;perfection the public's right of claim and litigation is to provide legal protection for the public's participation .Encouragement of green consumption and operation is to make the environmental protection an integrated part of the public's daily behavior .
By the theory and method of GM (1 , 1)model , the grey remnant equation x (t +1) =-0.107 432e-0.095 872 t +0.123 917 was established to predict SO2 content of atmosphere in Lin'an City .Absolute value of relative error between prediction and observant values was about 0.56 %to 14.51 %, testifying ratio after prediction was 0.280 2 , and small error probability was 1.0 .The results show that the model corresponds more to practicality and attains high precision .Grey model prediction method is easy to use and have common and conductive significance to construct ecological environment in future .
Town and township enterprises joining in agricultural industrilization is objective needs of the development of agricultural industriluzation and is realistic demands of the development of town and township enterprises themselves and is an important way to achieve modernization of agriculture and village .Lin'an has had foundation and condition in town and township enterprises joining in agricultural industrilization , however , there are some problems .So four measures are as follows :(1)Town and township enterprises may extend into the first and the third industry of agricultural industrilization to increase content .(2)Leading industries should be correctly selected to define direction .(3)Leading enterprises should be expand in scale and be gethered together to raise standard .(4)Closed or half-closed organizing forms should be established to improve forms .
Farmer-managed forest is the main body of rural forest resources in China .According to the investigating and analyzing on the characteristics and problems of farmer household forest management in rural area , the author thought that farmer-forests had the characteristics of scattered forest land with small-scale , unsufficient investment and careful managing behaviour , and that there were problems of the unknow forest resource data , low-grade management and non-flexible system in the management of farmer-managed forest resouces .Then , the authors suggested the participant way , probed the process and basic requisition in its application .
Data Norm for Retrieval and Evaluation of Chinese Academic Journal (CD) regards abstracts as a necessity in sci-tech academic periodicals .In order to understand status quo of different type of abstracts , statistics was carried out concerning the number of abstracts and words in 9 forestry periodicals published in 2000 .80 % of articles in four periodicals had abstract of their own , but in some periodicals , above 60 % of articles didn't have any .In A-category articles , the range of the number of different type abstracts belonged to reported abstract reproted-indicated abstract indicated abstract ;In B-category articles , reported-indicated abstract indicated abstract reported abstract ;In C-category articles , indicated abstract reported-indicated abstract reported abstract .Average words of reported abstracts , reported-indicated abstract and indicated abstract were 190.2 ,117.5 and 77.7 , respectively .Multiple comparisons showed that there were obvious differences among words of different types of abstracts .The words of abstracts were not only related to the abstract types , but also to information content in original documents and complex degree of researched objects .For an article , the reported abstract should have its uniqueness .
The nonparaxial propagation factors of two typical polarized light beams are analyzed and calculated by using nonparaxial vetorial moment thory in this paper .It is shown that under proper conditions , the beam propagation factors can be smaller than 1 .If their second-order moment beam waists are identical and smaller than 0.54 times of wavelength , the beam propagation factors are identical .This research is useful to understand propagating characteristics of semiconductor laser beams .
Micromectin is a new type of super-high-effective bio-insecticides .The contact toxicity of mecromectin to termite (Coptotermees formosanus Shiraki)was tested by the topical application , and analyzed by method of least squares and method of probit analysis .The results showed that micromectin with no environment pollution had higher contact poisoning effect on termite , its median lethal dosage (LD50)was 0.031 2 per head , quietly lower than LD50 of chlordane .So it was a wonderful insecticide of preventing termite .
Kuwanaspis phyllostachydis , damaged on shoot bamboo (such as Phyllostachys praecox and Ph . prominens)used as vegetable in Lin'an City , Zhejiang Province , P .R .China , overwinters in the female adults with fertile eggs in shell on bamboo culms , depositing and hatching in the last ten days of March to the first days of April of the following year .It has 8 generations a year in Lin'an City .Control could be made at the hatching peak of nymphae by spraying bamboo culms with 1 000-fold solution Jubama EC (a species of green pesticide), resulting in more than 94.0 % of the nymphae being killed .
A single-factor experiment was carried to get appropriate production technology of bloockboard with Chinese fir core .The results showed that hot-pressing temperature , core strip resin content and core strip moisture content had effects on blockboard properties .The proper technology parameters for bowd join Chinese fir-core blockboard were hot-pressing temperature of 140 ℃, core strip resin content of 80 gm-2 , and core strip moisture content of 8 %～ 12 %.
Wuxie scenic spot in Zhuji City of Zhejiang Province , is famous for its waterfall , mountain peak and forest .Its vegetation grows very well , but its season appearance varies a little .The paper links with the condition of plant landscape and the principal of bio-diversity protection in Wuxie scenic spot , approaches some methods of plant landscape building in different sites from its character , greening pattern , greening tree selection and so on .
The states quo of water resource in China is discussed , the causes of shortage and pollution in water resource are given , and the importance to cherish and protect the fresh water resource is made in the view of relationship between humanity civilization and utilization of water resource .It is a pressing target to raise the entire people's consciousness of suitably developing and utilizing water resource .
Studies on the characteristics of the female and male plants and sex identification of dioecism in Ginkgo biloba were summarized and classified into 7 approaches in light of measures taken .The way of sex identification was comparitively hander by morphological characteristics in Ginkgo biloba , and the analysis of physiology revealed that difference existed certainly amang adult plants of known sex , and chemical methods could distinguish the sex too .But above-mentioned methods were all short of accuracy .Then sex identification by karyotype of chromosomes of Ginkgo biloba was a piece of important method and was also directest genetic proof , samely the way of isoenzyme was able to identify sex of it too .But these methods were complex and hard .Whereas new skills and methods of sex identification of plants were specific protein and molecular biology and were comparitively accurate .So these could be applied to test about sex identification of dioecism in Ginkgo biloba .
The goal of digital earth is to realize the sustainable development of global economy , society , recourses and environment .It emphasizes the digital standards of information and the utilization and development of information resources .Based on the idea of digital earth , the paper mainly analyzes the current problem and infrastructure of forestry information management in china , and brings forward the basic model , system and configuration of China's Digital Forestry , and expatiates on the content and object at every stage .