2002 Vol. 19, No. 3
The factors that effected survival rate in Carya cathayensis grafting have been analysed by field test and methods of rnathematical analysis .The results showed that ①aifferent scion and different buds in grafting are notably effected the survival rate .One-year seedling stem as scion is the best , the growing branch is the second , and bearing branch gave lowest survival rate .The different buds of growing branch showed that the 4 to 7 lateral buds are suitable for grafting .②The graft survival rate of stock on the spot is better than that of stock moved , however , the span of time suitable for grafting was shorter .③The auxin showed notable effect on survival rate after exogenous phytohormone used .④The grafting time and temperature also effected the survival rate .
Survival rate kept under 41 % in Carya cathayensis as stock when scion of bearing tree were used in grafting , then it could reach 90 % ～ 93 %with branch of nursery stock as scion , but all no practical value . Although it obtained 84 %～ 88 %with scion of bearing tree in Platycarya strobilacea as stock , the preservative rate was lower and between stocks and scions were in compatible .The analysis indicated that survival rate of grafting would be caused by thing cambium , large pith and high tannin contents , but not leading factor .With age of stock plant and ramification series of scion increased , it were main reasons that the vital force of scion be declined , the essential endogenous hormone contents of callus formation be decreased and the speed and the amount of callus be retarded , which resulted in descending survival rate .So in the light of above-mentioned problems, in order to enhance vigor of scion and improve coalescent surroundings , the methods about strengthening regeneration pruning , circumcising on stock plant , raising seedlings with large shed and dealing with scion in hormones in grafting were be used , then to raise survival rate of grafting .
A 6-year trial and production practice showed that budding with an oblong-shaped scion cut from a length of bud stick and budding with a length of bud stick whittled on the back side of the grafted bud as a scion were 2 of best ways for grafting in Ginkgo biloba .They were easily operated with a high utilization rate for scions .Seedlings could be grafted during a relatively long period of time with a survival rate of more than 90 % and grafted seedlings grow well .For commonly used shoot grafting , the basal diameter of the one-year stock should be above 0.50 cm and for budding with a scion either cut f rom a length of bud stick or got by cutting a length of bud stick on the back side of the grafted bud , the stock should have a basal diameter of more than 0.35 cm .The position effect of scions was obvious .One-year-old extending shoots on the outside of the canopy of abig fruiting tree can be used as scions . Those in the centre of the canopy , thin shoots and water sprouts couldn't be used as scions in grafting .The best time for grafting one-year-old stock during growing season was between late August and mid-October .If grafting was done before mid-August , shooting of the grafted seedling was not good on account of bad development of the bud of the scion and the stock couldn't be cut immediately after grafting .Otherwise , the grafted seedling would die of starvation .The key for growing vigorous seedlings was to apply fertilizers several times from April to June to postpone the formation of the terminal bud of the grafted seedling .Seedlings grafted with scions from suckers , young trees and shoots of youny seedlings could be distinguished in terms of vogor of seedling growth , uniformity of shooting , the degree to which new growth whittles down from the base to terminal , pistil and fruiting .
The genetic distance of 10 Castanea henryi variances is studies by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA)markers in the paper .The RAPD standard procedure is established , too .The length of amplified fragment is between 500 ～ 2 000 bp after PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction);and similar coefficient on the level of DNA molecule is carried out , when the coefficient is 0.74 , 10 variances is divided into four classes , that is , You Lizi , Man Zhen , Zhong Jianzui , Hou Zuizhen , Hong Zizhen , Da Jianzui , Cai Zhen , Ren Zuili , Wu Zhen , and Jiajie Maozhen .
In order to understand the development and nutrition change characterlstics of Actinidia deliciosa cv . Qinmei fruits in the north region of Zhejiang , Actinidia deliciosa cv .Qinmei fruits in different development periods were collected .The result showes that the fruits growth pattern is of S curve .During the growth of fruits , the content of organic acid increases slowly , it achieves the highest about 110 days after pollination and decreases after that .At the same time , the contents of protein , total sugar , amylum , soluble sugar , reducing sugar and soluble solid behave increase trend .At the early stage of development , the content of Vc in fruits holds higher level , starts to decrease 50 days after pollination and increase again 110 day after polliation .All trial figure become good preferable of protein 477.4 gg-1 FW, Vc 1.29 mgg-1 FW, organic acid 16.3 gkg-1 , total sugar 93.1 g kg-1 , amylum 60.4 gkg-1 , soluble sugar 32.7 gkg-1 , reducing sugar 27.6 gkg-1 and soluble solid 75.0 gkg-1 respectively about 150 days after pollination , then Actinidia deliciosa cv .Qinmei fruit was in harvesting period .
The photosynthetic rate and diurnal changes of Pinus elliottii , Elaeocarpus sylvestris and Myrica rubra were measured by closed-circuit airflow method with carbon dioxide infrared analyzer in sunny days of July , 2000 . Photosynthetic active radiance , air temperature and relative humidity were determined .The results was as follows : Light compensation points of Pinus elliottii , Elaeocarpus sylvestris and Myrica rubra were 86 , 34 and 45 molm-2 s-1 , respectivey .Their light saturation points were 1 200 , 760 and 1 050 molm-2 s-1 , respectively . Their apparent quantum yields were 0.020 3 , 0.053 1 and 0.038 8 , respectively .Their maximum net photosynthetic rates were 7.15 , 12.50 and 7.85 molm-2 s-1 , respectively .By analysis on light compensation point and saturation point , Pinus elliottii , Elaeocarpus sylvestris , and Myrica rubra were thought of as heliophilous plant , of which , Pinus elliottii was the hightest in adaptability to strong light , and Elaeocarpus sylvestris was the highest in use efficiency for weak light .Their curves of diurnal changes in photosynthetic rate were double-peaked , and the photosynthetic depression at midday was caused by high temperature and low relative humidity .Path analysis showed that the most significant ecological factor directly affecting photosynthetic diurnal changes of Pinus elliottii and Myrica rubra was air temperature , followed by air relative humidity and photosynthetic active radiance .The more significant ecological factors affecting photosynthetic diurnal changes of Elaeocarpus syvestris were air relative humidity and air temperature .
In continuous forest inventory (CFI), according to normal calculating method of unmeasured cut , it is considered that the unmeasured cut is affected by different psecies of tress and classes cut , but which ignored that the beginning foest stock of cut distrbutes with gradient on per-year and does unevenly before and after the growing season in a certain year .As a result of study , authors thought that the four factors should be considered together , then guided corresponding calcuating formula .From the result of examples , we can see the calculated unmeasured cut in different conditions is higher between 9.9 % to 37.4 % than it in the condition based on the four factors .
The standing volume equation based on both DBH for Magnolia officinalis ssp .biloba was first studied . By actually surveying the DBH and the volume for the 239 samplings of Magnolia officinalis ssp .biloba , the one variable volume equation were established by the genetic algorithm , the three designs and the modified simplex , and were compared with the logarithm linearise minimization double multiplication method .The results indicated that the one variable volume equations established by the genetic algorithm , the three designs and the modified simplex were better than that by the logarithm linearise minimization double multiplication method , and the statistic F of volume equation established by the three designs and the logarithm linearise minimization double multiplication method didn't passes the F test ;and the theoretical values calculated by the genetic algorithm and the modified simplex were identical with the observed values of the 25 sampling of Magnolia officinalis ssp .biloba of out-model data .The standing volume table based on both DBH for Magnolia officinalis ssp .biloba was compiled .
Air-dried soil samples were measured for hydroscopic water by microwave radiation method (new method)and oven drying method (traditional method).It was showed that measuring time for air-dried soil was shortened from 8 ～ 10 h (traditional method)to 8 min (new method), but no apparent differences in results were observed by t-test .It took 4 , 7 , 10 , and 12min respectively for air-dried soil of 5 , 10 , 15 , and 20 g to reach a basic steady status of hydroscopic water loss .Therefore the safety time for hydroscopic water determination of 5 ,10 , 15 , 20 g air-dried soil should be 5 , 8 , 10 , and 12 min respectively .It can be concluded that the microwave radiation has the advantages of saving time and energy and heating uniformly , and is an effective way to measure soil hydroscopic water .
Based on the systemic analysis for the data collected from 8-year experiments of the new clones of Aigeiros section , nine traits were classified on the basis of the main industrial uses of the poplar wood .The aim of this research is to establish the index system for measuring the industrial usability of the new clones of Aigeiros section for our province and circumjacent regions .The key indexes which affected the specified industrial uses of the wood were selected , the lowest limit of the key indexes were established according to different sites in which the clones were planted , and the index system for measuring the industrial usability of the new clones of Aigeiros section was finally set up .The result provides the scientific basis for the generalization of new clones and the estimated standard for the predicting the effects of forest management .
The processes of producing purple salt oxidizing and borax , TMP componnd modificating with corn starch is described .The new starch adhesive has good water resistance , stability , and bonding strength .The quility of plywood couldmeet requirements specified in standard GB/T9846-1988 and GB/T17657-1999 plywood for poessing corn starch adhesive .The new starch adhesive makes the wet bond strength of plywood above 0.75MPa .
Based on the 3S technique , database technique , network technique and the forest fire protection technique , a GIS for preventing forest fire in Zhejiang was established successfully .The main functions of the system are :fire point intelligence location , fire point information retrieval , support to the decision of extinguishing fire plan , searching and analysing of the historical data .It would promote the technique innovation for preventing forest fire .
This article researched preliminarily the biological characteristics and relationship between forest factors and occurrence of D .punctatus tehchangensis .The results show that D .punctatus tehchangensis has two generation one year in Yuanmu County and spends its winter by the third and fourth stadia larave .The spatial distribution patterns of larvae and pupae are congregating distribution , and 2 , congregation is caused by the intrinsic behavior of insect ;2 , congregation is caused by the environment .By using the stepwise-regression method , direction of slope , forest structure , crown density , potential of growth are selected out as the four key factors which have affected occurrence of D .punctatus tehchangensis .The characteristics of the pest-resource stand and the stand with pests but without disaster have been summarized .
The sea-swallow 650 C plane carried with a set of HY-1model wind-power spraying machine could spray PEM , a new kind of pesticide which means the pine trees could be exempted from mortality , smoothly on pine forest by means of aerial ultra-low-volume spray , 3.00 ～ 3.75 Lhm-2 (v PEM ∶vwater =1∶2).The adults of Monochamus alternatus could be effectively killed by PEM, by the both way of stomach poison and contact kill.The rate of contact kill to the adults reached 100 %.The rate of stomach poison to feeding adults reached 100 %, with pine branches after 17 days spraying PEM .The absolute mortality rate of pine trees in the pine forest infected by the pine wilt disease , decreased by 37.7 %, comparing with that pine forest without praying PEM .The relative mortality rate of pine trees decrease by 153 %.The best spray dates were in the mid-June , during which the absolute mortality rate of pine trees decreased by 64.0 %.
Fifty-nine species of termites , which belong to 4 families , 17 genera , were found in Zhejiang Province through extensive investigation .Among them , 3 species are new records to Zhejiang Province , and 20 species are endemic species of the province .The research indicated that the termite fauna in Zhejiang Province could be divided into two groups .One is temperate zone group in northern area of Zhejiang Province , the other is subtropic zone group in southern area of the province .
Taking the Taihu Headwaters eco-tourism region in Lin'an City , Zhejiang Province , as a example , the authors investigated the ecotourism effects with the methods of second-handed information collection , observation andmeasurement on the spot , interview and conference with the local villagers , and questionnaires delivery in ecotourists, then analyzed the component and character of ecotourism effect .The results are that the ecotourism effects are consisted of economic effect , ecologic effect and social effect , which are the obvious income , conservatory natural resource , improved environment quality , jobs applied to local villagers , the broaden market of selling agricultural product , the increased cultural stuff of local villager , and the enhanced consciousness of environment protection .The character of ecotourism effect is synthesis , transferability , alternation and timeliness .
Forest bears social , economic and ecological benefits .The economic benefit and ecological benefit conflict each other .The authors have analyzed the limitations on the issues such as the theory of forest ecological benefit compensation , the method of measure forest ecological benefit and the standard of forest ecological benefit compensation and put out that the difference of various forest types and willingness to payment should be considered , when measuring and compensating the forest ecological benefits
The planting design between Prunus mume (plume)and stone is discussed .The varieties of plume are planted beside stones , rocks , rockeries for the puropse of making the plume more beautiful , expressing plume's best spirit , enriching the plume scenery
In this paper , iterating xn +1 =5c/2 - 2xn -5c /2 in [ 1 , 2 5 c -1 ] , the authors generated random number y n +1 =x n +1- [ x n +1 /5] (n =0 , 1 , 2 , , N -1).The authors proved that random number of period for 2 5 c -1 could be generated so long as 5 x0 (initial value).It gets through parameter test , Pearson 2 test ,Kolmogorov test , self-correlation test , contingency test and k-gravimetric method .
Higher education has been undergoing a profound change from elite to popularization .This paper explored some development principles for higher institutions in the new situation .It was believed that local higher institutions , if they wish to improve their capacities for running schools , should develop discipline superiorities coupled with regional ones , the core of attention should be shifted from knowledge to students and schools should participate in sci-tech and socio-economic development and provide service and sci-tech achievement to society .
This article studies the application of human resource accounting in the forestry industry on the basis of the concept of human resource accounting .It studiesthe capitalization the price and metrological model of human resource cost .It also looks at the relationship between human resource accounting and the talents in education accounting .
Besides its own subject , Chinese calligraphy deals with many areas such as philology , literature ,painting , music , dance , aesthetics , science and philosophy .These courses can not only nourish calligraphy knowledge but dense its connotation also , moreover can rise calligraphy's level , which enable Chinese calligraphy what seems be finished at one go to display profound historical inside information , intense individual character and bright flavour of the day .The paper tries to approach the intersecting relations between calligraphy and several other subjects in terse form of sketch .
A new variety of Pinus taiwanensis Hayata , Pinus taiwanensis var .brevifolia , from Zhejiang was released .
The zoned vegetation in subtropics is evergreen broadleaved forest .Because of human disturbance , most areas are now covered with secondary forest .The study of the theories , communities , and soil were reviewed in this paper , including ①physiological change of the species during succession , ②the change of population characteristic , structure and pressure and effects of competition on dynamic process , ③the formation , fluctuation , regeneration and succession of the community , ④the development of the soil quality , fertility , and organic matter during succession , ⑤the use of the secondary succession model .Some new ideas for vegetation restoration studies are suggested , such as increase the study of the permanent sample plots , further explore for the hereditary character of the species , optimizing the succession models .
In ancient China , the traditional forestry had no relevant historical monographs , with abundant historical materials .The study of China Forest History started with modern forestry in the early 20th century .In the following decades , some studies laid it's foundation .The study of China forest history revived and flourished since late 1970's , which could be illustrated in five ways .In the face of the global environmental ecologic crisis , we find that the study of China forest history has a broad space of development .