## 2003 Vol. 20, No. 4

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2003, 20(4): 331-335.
[Abstract](1080) [PDF](169)
Abstract:
As a precious traditional Chinese medicine , Cornus officinalis has been in wild or semi-wild conditions for a long time and the genetic variations within its species are very complicated .Through breeding procedures including preliminary selection , reselection and clonal tests of superior individual trees from natural resources , 10 superior clones , which are large in fruit size , thick in sarcocarp and high in the percentage of dry sarcocarp and good in processing properties , have been selected .Their yields (of dry sarcocarp)at early stage (4 ～ 7 years) are 24.66 %～ 82.44 %higher than the average value of 71 tested clones .In addition , a specially early-maturing clone and a clone containing more sugars have been singled out .Eleven clones out of these clones pass the examination and appraisal conducted by the Examination and Appraisal Committee of Zhejiang Province for Superior Forest Species and Varieties in 2002 and are denominated .[ Ch , 2 tab .7 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 336-341.
[Abstract](1080) [PDF](176)
Abstract:
19 poplar clones of both domestic and foreign origin were introduced into Shandong Province and field test had been conducted .Following a randomized complete block design , seedling test at nursery stage and controlled afforestation trails had been held at Juxian County , Heze City , Laixi City , Laiyang City and Caoxian County respectively .The results show poplar clone 102/74 (Populus euramericana 102/74' )performs well both in terms of adaptability and growth characteristics .The growth volume per tree is 0.190 8 m3 , which is 55.1 % larger than that of 5-year-old I-69 (P .deltoids Lux' I-69/55) (ck) in Juxian County .Results of variance analysis and t test (LSD0.05) for variables show the clones are significantly different from I-69 (ck). Furthermore , the clones can be cultivated easily and show high resistance to poplar disease infection , pest attack salinity and have long growing period .Specific gravity of wood of the clones is higher than that of I-69 (ck)and fiber length is equal to that of I-69 (ck).They are ideal for the establishment of fast-growing poplar plantations , especially for the establishment of the wood pulp forest plantation in the region .[ Ch , 1 fig .9 tab .9 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 342-345.
[Abstract](1106) [PDF](199)
Abstract:
The number , basal diameter and height of new plantlets of survived test-tube plantlets of Bambusa oldhami are measured every month with the method of random sampling to study the annual growth rules of it .The results show that the average monthly basal diameter of new plantlets increases from month to month and the average height shows normal distribution .Transplanted test-tube plantlets can produce new plantlets during a period of 8 months , with a growth peak occurring in August when 23.8 % of the annual total quantity are produced .The height growth of new plantlets lasts for 47 days and plantlet can reach a height of 114.4 cm on average .The average daily growth height is 2.43 cm and the maxium is 6.86 cm .On the average , each test-tube plantlet produces 42.5 new plantlets annually .The above-mentioned shows that test-tube plantlets of Bambusa oldhami are good materials for the establishment of stool gardens or cutting-producing gardens .[ Ch , 4 tab .9 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 346-352.
[Abstract](1023) [PDF](234)
Abstract:
On the basis of the comprehensive evaluation of natural environmental conditions in island areas of Zhejiang and the division of island tree species resources and site conditions , the foundation and precondition work for the study of watching species with the site in island areas have been prepared .According to the adaptability of different tree species and different site conditions , a list of watching species with different site conditions is made . And some important technical issues concerning list application are put forward .[ Ch , 3 tab .15 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 353-356.
[Abstract](1290) [PDF](219)
Abstract:
The pollenmorphology characteristics of 9 species of Magnoliaceae (Sinomanglietia glauca , Manlietia patungensis , Magnolia denudata , Magnolia biondii , Magnolia amoena , Michelia caloptila , Michelia chapensis , Michelia maudiae , Magnolia zenii )were observed by both optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM), the result showed that the shape and germination aperture of 9 speices are similar , but their size and exine sculpture are different , and so are the different population of one species .Therefore , pollen morphology can be applied for taxonomy of Magnoliaceae to some extent , and it is important to adopt these evidence carefully combined with other evidence .[ Ch , 1 fig .1 tab .8 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 357-359.
[Abstract](1042) [PDF](188)
Abstract:
The contents of flavonoids in the different nutritious organs of Heptacodium miconioides are determined and the components of flavonoid compounds are analyzed with the method of polyacrylamides membrane chromatography .The results are as follows :(1)The content of flavonoid in the leaves of Heptacodium miconioide is the highest , and the contents of flavonoids in root and stalk are ranked afterwards .(2)There are 8 kinds of different flavonoids in the leaves and 4 kinds in root and stalk .Therefore , the leaves of Heptacodium miconioides are worth developing .[ Ch , 2 tab .12 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 360-363.
[Abstract](1157) [PDF](196)
Abstract:
The effects of the abhesive on the absorptive properties of the activated carbon were studied .The rate of adsorption to benzene of the adhesive and activated carbon mixture decreases as the rate increases , the decrease degree depending on different kinds of adhesive .The activated carbon , adhesive and adhesive bonded fabric that were suitable for making activated carbon-adhesive bonded fabric were selected , and the suitable conditions of the technology were determined .The composite of activated carbon-adhesive bonded fabricwere activated carbon 60 %, adhesive 37 %, adhesive bonded fabric 3 %.The results showed that the rate of absorption to benzene , formaldehyde , ammonia , methenyl chloride of the activated carbon-adhesive bonded fabric were 32.5 %, 24.3 %, 26.7 %, 30.6 %, respectively .[ Ch , 2 fig .1 tab .6 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 364-368.
[Abstract](950) [PDF](209)
Abstract:
By means of commercial analysis of the relation of commodity supply and demand , the paper studies the working state of three links of forestry technology with the segregation of the main part research and development , popularization and application .It holds that the objectively existing relation and connection of technology supply and demand should follow the principle of commodity exchange .It lays stress on the following problems caused by rarely attaching importance to the exchange principle of forestry technology supply and demand : (1) the blind development in the link of research and development , and the insufficient supply of effective technology ;(2) the break of popularization fund circle in the link of application , resulting in the low forestry industrialization promoted by technology , and in turn restricting the increase of technology demand ;(3)the dislocation of stimulation and the low efficiency of intermediary technology .Hence , the indefinite commodity property of forestry technology is the real cause of the insufficient technology supply and demand .[ Ch , 10 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 369-373.
[Abstract](1284) [PDF](191)
Abstract:
An investigation made on technical extension and operation systems for bamboo industry in the mountain area of southern Zhejiang showed that technical extension for bamboo was implemented from upper to bottom around the core of base construction .The operation system was shown as (1) the main body was technique-oriented technicians .(2)Selection of techniques and decision making were from upper to bottom.(3)There was a gap between technique researchers and technical extenders at different levels , which was influenced by the avenue and conditions of technical sources , had caused that the technical supporting system couldnt embody the characteristics of new techniques and further the technical extension result .[ Ch , 1 tab .8 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 374-379.
[Abstract](1037) [PDF](168)
Abstract:
Carbon accumulation and distribution were studied in 16-year-old experimental slash pine plantations with four kinds of different densities at Lufeng Forest Farm in Guangxi Autonomous Region .The results indicated that the spatial distribution sequence of carbon storage ranked as soil layer vegetation stratum litter floor , the total carbon storage ranged from 264.834 thm-2 to 323.978 thm-2 , with an average value of 291.663 thm-2 , and increased along with enlarging of density in 4 kinds of different densities of slash pine plantation ecosystem. Carbon storage of vegetation stratum ranged from 96.641 thm-2 to 110.717 thm-2 , amounted for 35.40 %of the total carbon storage .Carbon storage of different components all was in the order as trunk root branch leaf , and the carbon storage ratio of the over ground and the under ground ranged from 7.185 to 7.922 and descended along with enlarging of density in the vegetation stratum .Carbon storage of litter floor increased from 5.746 thm-2 to 9.181 thm-2 along with enlarging of stand densities , occupied 2.17 % to 2.83 % of the total carbon storage . Carbon storage of forest land soil (0 ～ 60 cm)averaged 180.94 thm-2 , occupied more than 60.32 % of the total carbon storage .Annual net fixing carbon amounts of density Ⅰ , Ⅱ , Ⅲ , Ⅳ were 9.729 , 9.882 , 11.239 and 11.946 thm-2 , respectively , with an average value of 10.699 thm-2 .These results could provide some basic data for the carbon budget estimation of a forest ecosystem and dynamic simulation .[ Ch , 7 tab .16 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 380-384.
[Abstract](1165) [PDF](162)
Abstract:
From 1984 to 2000 , comparative observation of small climates of 8 forest tourist spots in sub-tropical zones was conducted .According to air temperature and relative air humidity observed every hour , the durations of comfortable air temperatures inside and outside of the forest and the forest tourist spots at different altitudes are compared .The results show that in the forest tourist spots , the duration that people feel comfortalbe temperature is 14 ～ 24 h , that feel sultry is 0 ～ 10 h and that feel uncomfortalbe is 0 h .While in the neigboring towns , medium and small cities , the duration that people feel comfortable is only 0 ～ 11 h , that feel sultry is 10 ～ 24 h and that feel uncomfortalbe is 5 ～ 9 h .Within a certain range of altitudes , with the increase in altutude , the duration that people feel comfortable increases to 24 h from 12 h , that feel sultry decreases to 0 h and 12 h .It shows that in the sub-tropical zone with hot summer , forest and mountain areas are good places for passing the summer leisurely . [ Ch , 8 tab .5 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 385-388.
[Abstract](996) [PDF](168)
Abstract:
The development durations of Takecallis taiwanus (Homoptera :Callaphididae)are measured under 5 constant temperatures ranging from 10 ℃ to 30 ℃.The low-development temperature are 12.76 ℃, 9.24 ℃, 7.28 ℃, 6.45 ℃, 8.10 ℃ and the effective thermal constants are 19.66 ℃, 19.88 ℃, 28.52 ℃, 36.49 ℃ and 115.82 ℃for the development of the 1st , 2nd , 3rd , 4th instar nymphs and whole nymph stage respectively . All these data can be used as reference when the number of generations and time of occurrence need to be forecast at a particular place .[ Ch , 2 tab .6 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 389-393.
[Abstract](1119) [PDF](283)
Abstract:
Geographic distribution of 70 species of Orius in the world is studied .All species are arranged in 14 zoogeographic categories :Afrotropical endemic , Australian endemic , Holarctic endemic ,Nearctic endemic , Neotropical endemic , Oriental endemic , Palaeartic endemic , Afrotropical palaearctic , Australia Oriental , Holarctic Oriental , Nearctic Neotropical , Nearctic Oriental , Nearctic Palaearctic Oriental Palaearctic , and so on .The result suggests the Oriental region is the origin center of Orius .[ En , 2 fig .1 tab .27 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 394-397.
[Abstract](1348) [PDF](174)
Abstract:
The last-instar larval external morphologies of Thyatira batis (Linnaeus) and Kurama mirabilis (Butler) of Thyatiridae are described and illustrated .All specimens are deposited in the Insect Collection of Department of Forest Resources Protection , Kangwon National University , Korea .[ En , 2 fig .6 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 398-402.
[Abstract](1179) [PDF](154)
Abstract:
Ceratosphaeria phyllostachydis is an important plague under quarantine in China , and it is significant and practical to classify its plague areas .With the application of classification theores , modern mathematic methods and computer techniques , the areas of Ceratosphearia phyllostachydis in Fujian can be classified as serious , light and basically none-plague areas and three dangerous degrees including class Ⅰ , class Ⅱ and class Ⅲ .Model of forecasting plague areas is established according to different classes .The model is tested to be precise and can be popularized .[ Ch , 2 tab .9 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 403-407.
[Abstract](1168) [PDF](227)
Abstract:
Large amount of heterogeneous data have been accumulated along with the development of the forest resources management information systems .The result of this is that data are not effective shared among various systems and the operators repeat work with high error rate .Therefore , the decision-making is difficult made by the manager through the existing data .The emergent issue is how we integrate the heterogeneous data .First , this paper analyzes the demand of data integration of the current forest resources management information system and compares the various middleware technology .Secondly , this paper proposes the model with layer structure , which servers for the integration of the heterogeneous data of forest resources management systems .This model consists of :(1)information source layer ;(2)XML middleware layer ;(3)XML interface layer ;(4)XML presentation layer .Finally , the paper discusses the implementation of data integration system based on XML, using XML middleware layer .[ Ch , 1 fig .9 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 408-412.
[Abstract](1308) [PDF](198)
Abstract:
Landscape garden is the main type of Chinese ancient garden .Based on the philosophical view of harmonizing relationship between nature and man , ancient Chinese people thought there was no boundary between man and nature and the harmonization of nature and man is the greatest achievement , which caused the production and prosperity of landscape culture .With the cultivation of landscape culture , adoration and appreciation of nature is the guideline of building Chinese gardens .The consciousness of simple beauty of nature makes Chinese people pursue natural morphological beauty , which leads to nature simulation and creation in building gardens .Therefore , landscape gardens originate from nature and are superior to nature , and the highest artistic state is achieved .[ Ch , 10 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 413-418.
[Abstract](1458) [PDF](171)
Abstract:
Utilizing computer to make a great scale of stochastic simulation experiments , this paper reveals that if the difference between levels of the primes exist noteworthily is mainly depended on the sum of its experiment effects and stochastic normal difference .An approximate calculation formula is derived : It is proved by stochastic simulation experiments .It is suggested that twice-experiments should be done at the orthogonal experiment .[ Ch , 3 fig.3 tab .10 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 419-423.
[Abstract](1255) [PDF](218)
Abstract:
Landscape cover plants are an important element of urban landscape engineering .Due to its particularity and huge economic and social benefits , more and more people attach importance to its research .At present , many achievements in its research have been made and applied in landscape engineering .From the perspectives of resource investigation , introduction , selection , adaptability , endurance and breeding , the research actuality of landscape cover plants at home and abroad is summarized .It is put forward that in the futrue research of cover plants in China , the research work including biological and ecological characteristics , landscape effects , germplasm resources accumulation , basic theories , new species breeding , wild landscape cover plants protection and industrialization level shall be strengthened .[ Ch , 56 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 424-428.
[Abstract](1419) [PDF](448)
Abstract:
Bamboo molecular breeding was reviewed .Tissue culture cultivation is an essential way for bamboo breeding .During 80s , the reseaarch workers many countries or districts began research on bamboo tissue , and successed in 70 species 20 bamboo genus such as Phyllostachys ,Dendrocalamus Nees , Subgen .Sinocalamus (McClure)Hsueh et D .Z .Li , Sasa Makino et Shibata , Thysostachys Gamble .The researches revealed the effects of explant genotype , phytohormone , media components and culture condition on its tissue cultivation and established a bamboo cultivation system.The research about genetic marker on bamboo was also reviewed .Using biochemical markers , isozymes , molecular markers can easy distinguish different bamboo species .The author also discussed bamboo molecular breeding in the future .[ Ch , 44 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 429-433.
[Abstract](1870) [PDF](166)
Abstract:
The optimized system used in RAPD reaction of Carya cathayensis must be established before analying the genetic diversity ofCarya cathayensis .It is necessary to explore the reaction conditions and system .The optimal reaction mixture and amplification procedure of RAPD in Carya cathayensis were studied .The result showed that each 20 L amplification reaction solution was consisted of 2.5mgL-1 (50 ng)template DNA , 2.0L 10 Buffer , 16.67 pmols-1Taq DNA polymerase , each 0.2mmolL-1dNTPs , 2.4 mmolL-1MgCl2 , 0.15 10-3 mmolL-1 primer .The PCR amplification program is predenature at 94 ℃for 300 s , followed by denature at 94 ℃ 30 s , annealing 38 ℃for 30 s , extension 72 ℃ for 90 s , cycling 38 times , last extension 72 ℃ 420 s . [ Ch , 5 fig .2 tab .6 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 434-437.
[Abstract](1295) [PDF](198)
Abstract:
An orthogonal test of the chemical herbicides in the nurseries of Pinus massoniana , Michelia macclurei and Manglietia yuyuanensis is conducted to study the weeding effects of oxyfluorfen , acetochlor and haloxyfop . The results show that the weeding effects of oxyfluorfen , acetochlor before emergence and oxyfluorfen , acetochlor and haloxyfop during seeding stage are over 90 %.The effective duration is 45 ～ 63 days .These chemical herbicides are safe for seed germination and seedling growth .The labor use of applying 0.105 mLm-2 herbicide consisting of 20 %oxyfluorfen , 90 %acetochlor and 10.8 %haloxyfop is 59.1 %～ 66.7 % less than that of manual weeding and the cost of the former is 46.8 %～ 62.9 % less than the latter .[ Ch , 3 tab .4 ref .]
2003, 20(4): 438-441.
[Abstract](1154) [PDF](192)
Abstract:
The comparative studies were conducted by methods of field tests andmuti-line regression analysis .The results showed that the diameter increments of one-year-old seedling of Pinus nigra var. austriaca was bigger than that of Pinus tabuleaformis , and its tap and lateral roots were more developed , while the height growth ofPinus tabuleaformis was bigger .Multi-line regression analysis showed that the correlation between the seedlings' height and fresh weight of lateral roots , and between diameter growth and fresh weight of roots were all very significant . [ Ch , 2 tab .5 ref .]