2007 Vol. 24, No. 1

Photosynthetic differences between understory clonal rametsof Rhus typhina and Vitex negundo var. heterophyllain Taihang Mountain area of China
ZHANG Ming-ru, YUYi-wu, ZHAI Ming-pu, YAO Jun, WANG Xue-yong
2007, 24(1): 1-6.
[Abstract](1012) [PDF](180)
In the degraded habitat of the hilly Taihang Mountain area, non-native tree species of Staghorn sumac(Rhus typhina) have spread over time forming a number of monodominant communities. In order to understanddifferences in their ecological adaptation, the physio-ecological diurnal variations from clonal ramets of R. typhinaand and Vitex negundo var. heterophylla(negundo chastetree), growing in different light regimes as an understory of astaghorn sumac monodominantoverstory andwith no overstory, were studied. Based on a field experiment staghornsumac ramets growing under the staghorn sumac overstory more effectively captured low levels of photosyntheticallyactive radiation(PAR) than V. negundo var. heterophylla. So the net photosynthetic rate(Pn) of clonalramets of V. negundo var. heterophylla was significantly lowerthan R. typhina(P 0.05). Additionally, Pnof V. negundo var. heterophylla growing at the edge of the staghorn sumac monodominant community reached apeak of about 9.183molm- 2s- 1at 10: 00, while the same species growing beneath the overstory only attained1.396molm- 2s- 1. When grown under the overstory, the ratio of variable tomaximum chlorophyll fluorescenceemission(Fv/ Fm) from 13: 00- 17: 00 was stately higher(P 0.05) for R. typhina clonal ramets than V.negundo var. heterophylla, meaning that clonal ramets of R. typhina were better adapted to weak light. Thus,shading from an R. typhina overstory caused photosynthetic physio-ecological differences between clonal ramets of R. typhina and V. negundo var. heterophylla.[Ch, 4 fig. 1 tab. 33 ref.]
Drought stress on physiological and biochemical processes in four spiny plant species
XIANG Zuo-xiang, XUGui-fang, JIANG Wen-jun
2007, 24(1): 7-11.
[Abstract](1140) [PDF](221)
The effects of drought stress on the relative permeability of plasma, protective enzyme activity, and osmoregulatory molecules in leaves of four tested spiny species(Paliurus ramosissimus, Poncirus trifoliata, Rosa laevigata, and Pyracantha fortuneana)were studied. Results showed that the drought stress caused cell membrane damaged and membrane permeability of leaf cell increasing. Superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities increased with light drought stress and declined with severe drought stress. Praline and soluble sugar in the leaves increasedwith drought stress, but the range and process of changes among the four spiny species were different.Through a comprehensive analysis of physiological and biochemical characteristics, drought resistance in the four tested specieswere shown to decrease in the orderof Paliurus ramosissimus Poncirus trifoliata Rosa laevigata Pyracantha fortuneana.[Ch, 5 fig. 2 tab. 12 ref.]
Self-allelopathy from root solutions on chlorophyll and carbohydrate of Casuarina equisetifolia seedlings
2007, 24(1): 12-16.
[Abstract](1228) [PDF](152)
Self-allelopathy with Casuarina equisetifolia was studied using awaterculturewith extractsfrom15-year-old C. equisetifolia roots having concentration of 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 gkg- 1 to culture C. equisetifolia seedlings. The change of two chlorophyll and carbohydrate contents in the seedlings were measured. Results showed that with an increasing concentration of the water extract from C. equisetifolia roots, chlorophyll content from C. equisetifolia seedlings decreased stately, more with chlorophyll a than chlorophyll b. Also, with increasing concentrations, carbohydrate accumulation in C. equisetifolia seedlings gradually declined; whereas in the roots, leaves and stems, the content of soluble sugars, reducing sugars, and sucrose increased. For leaves, when concentrationswere less than 50 gkg- 1, these three sugars increased with an increasing concentration of the water extract; however, when greater than 50 gkg- 1, they gradually decreased.[Ch, 6 tab. 20 ref.]
Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences with Gingko biloba populations
GUI Ren-yi, JINAi-wu, GAO Pei-jun, CAO Fu-liang
2007, 24(1): 17-21.
[Abstract](1201) [PDF](143)
The diversity of nuclear ribosomal DNA(rDNA) internal transcribed spacer(ITS) sequences of Ginkgo biloba was determined by analyzing 10 leaf samples resenting different populations. Results showed that the total length of the ITS sequences, including 5.8 S, was 1 224- 1 226 base pairs(bp)with ITS-1 being 821-823 bp long, 5.8 S having 162 bp, and ITS-2 consisting of 241 bp. Among the sequences, there were 28 variable sites, or 2.3% of the total, but only 6 parsim-informative sites, or 0.5% of the total. The ITS sequences among the different populationswere very similar.[Ch, 2 fig. 13 ref.]
Forest nutrient input from rainfall in southern Sichuan
JIANG Jun-ming, FEI Shi-min, WEI Shi-jun, ZHUWei-shuang, WANG Shuai
2007, 24(1): 22-27.
[Abstract](1295) [PDF](153)
In silviculture, timber cutting(nutrient output) has been studied extensively, whereas nutrient input (fertilization) has been ignored. This has led to unbalanced nutrient concentrations in soil ecosystems as well as acidic and barren soils. In southern Sichuan, an important tree plantation base in China, rainfall is the main nutrientinput source for the forest system. Results of a rainfall input analysis indicated that pH increased with rainfall, was slightly acidic with light rain, and was neutral with medium and heavy rain. Also, N, P, K, Mg and Si decreased with rainfall in the order of: Ca N K Mg P Si. The 52.26 kghm- 2a- 1 of nutrient input from rainfall in the forestsof southernSichuanwas partitioned as: N12.39 kghm- 2a- 1, P0.84 kghm- 2a- 1, K 12.27 kghm- 2a- 1, Ca 23.90 kghm- 2a- 1, Mg 2.53 kghm- 2a- 1, and Si 0.33 kghm- 2a- 1 with nutrients higher than average. In addition, the annual Si input from rainwas 1.2%- 5.5% of the Si output of timber.[Ch, 4 tab. 16 ref.]
Role of low molecular weight organic acids in mobilization of forest soil phosphorus
FANG Li, YUYuan-chun, YUJian, ZHANG Ping-jiu, ZHUQiang-gen
2007, 24(1): 28-32.
[Abstract](1045) [PDF](201)
Lowmolecularweight(LMW)organic acids can release insoluble phosphorus in the soils. The function of four LMW organic acids to mobilize inert phosphorus in acidic soils of mason pine(Pinus massoniana) plantation and Chinese fir(Cunninghamia lanceoata)plantationwere studied by chemical extractionmethods. The main results indicate that the effets of LMW organic acids on the release of inert phosphorus is significant in all tested forest soils, especially in dark red soils. The ability of the four LMW organic acids in this mobilization is ranked in the following order: citric acid oxalic acid ormixed acid(including the three acids) tartaric acid.This agreeswith the order of the logKAlvalues of the acids. Moreover, with an increase in the acid concentration within a certain range, the activation of organic acid becomes moew potent. Compared with previous studies,LMWorganic acids have a stronger mobilization effect on soil phosphorus in agrosystem soils than in forest soils.[Ch, 2 fig. 2 tab. 11 ref.]
Dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorus standing stocks in fine roots of Fokienia hodginsii and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations
JIANG Zong-kai
2007, 24(1): 33-38.
[Abstract](1088) [PDF](175)
Levels of nitrogen(N)and phosphorus(P)in fine roots of two coniferous plantations(Fokienia hodginsii and Cunninghamia lanceolata were studied in 1999 in Sanming, Fujian, China. The results indicated that in fine living roots of F. hodginsii, the meanN level was 12.948 kghm- 2 and Pwas 1.692 kghm- 2, for an N of 1.8 timesmore and P of 1.9 timesmore than C. lanceolata. For dead fine roots of F. hodginsii, mean Nwas 10.410 kghm- 2 and P was 1.192 kghm- 2 with N 1.6 times higher and P 1.5 times higher than C.lanceolata. For both F. hodginsii and C. lanceolata, rootswith a diameter 0.5 mmwere the main source for root nutrient recycling. Like C. lanceolata, the curve of N and P levels changing in the fine living roots of F.hodginsii over study periodwere double-peaked. In the fine dead roots of F. hodginsii over time, the curve of N level dynamic was single-peaked and that of Pwas reverse-S shaped, whereas both of N and P for C. lanceolata were reverse-S shaped.[Ch, 2 fig. 4 tab. 24 ref.]
Foliar nutrient analysis of Pyrus pyrifolia`Whangkeumbae and recommended fertilizer rates
ZHOUJian, YUAN De-yi, ZHANG Lin, LI You-wu
2007, 24(1): 39-43.
[Abstract](998) [PDF](194)
To determine nutrient uptake patterns of Pyrus pyrifolia`Whangkeumbae(pear) and recommend fertilization, a foliar nutrient analysiswas conducted on trees with different fertilizer treatments using the Kjeldahl and Vanadomolybdate yellow colorimetric methods aswell as atomic absorption spectrometry. The results show that with an increase of foliar nutrients: (1)fruit yield increased when nitrogen(N)is 18.15- 26.85 mgg- 1,phosphorus(P)is 1.11- 2.59 mgg- 1, and kalium(K)is 7.18- 16.70 mgg- 1, and(2) soluble solids significantly increase whenN ranged from18.15- 24.43 mgg- 1, Pfrom1.07- 2.75 mgg- 1, and K from 6.88- 17.26 mgg- 1. The critical values from the foliar nutrient analysiswere N, 18.31- 26.85 mgg- 1; P, 1.11- 2.59 mgg- 1; and K, 7.29- 19.62 mgg- 1. Thus, the appropriate fertilization rate for this tree is 225.31 gm- 2 of urea, 99.06 gm- 2 of superphosphate, and 220.97 gm- 2 of potassium sulphate.[Ch, 2 fig. 3 tab.10 ref.]
Anti-deviation experiments on systematic sampling for continuous forest inventory of Zhejiang Province
FUBin-ling, NIE Xiang-yong, YAO Shun-bin
2007, 24(1): 44-49.
[Abstract](1357) [PDF](139)
Data accuracy and reliability are key factors forinventory results to objectively and factually reflectforest resource situations.Sampling scheme design, inventory technology and methodology, operational process and many other factors influences the continuous forest inventory(CFI)data accuracy and reliability.Among them, sampling scheme design is the key factorof effecting CFI data quality. In order to optimize CFI system, and prevent the side effects to CFI data quality by periodical alterations of systematic sampling and special artificial treatment issues, Zhejiang Province started experiments and researches on anti-deviation technology adopting sampling scheme of permanentplots plus substitute(temporary) plots in 1994. This paper calculates and analyzes three periods of Zhejiang Province CFI data since 1989 by groups, using methods of the Difference Test for Population Average and the Variance Analysis. Every combination of the three periods of data passes the Difference Test for Population Average and the Single Factor Variance Analysis, and there are no noticeable differences. Tentative experimental results demonstrate that the CFI sample plots are well representative of Zhejiang forest resources, and obvious systematic deviation does not exist.[Ch, 3 fig. 9 tab. 13 ref.]
Resources characteristics and construction trend for ecological public welfare forests in Zhejiang Province
LOUChong, LIUAn-xing, ZHUGuo-min
2007, 24(1): 50-54.
[Abstract](1292) [PDF](171)
The ecological public welfare forest resources current situation and characteristics in Zhejiang Province were analysed by investigating and monitoring. The results show that main forest type is protection forest, the conifers are chiefly forest in the constitution stand, the middle-junenile forest are the main component in the age group, shade density is not high, scoring level is low and the difference of regional distribution is obvious. There exists the forest type unreasonable, the middle-junenile forest and the area of protection forest are relatively large and the poor quality of the stand and so on. In the future the ecological public welfare forest construction is based on enhancing the managementof the forest land, transforming the loweffective public welfare forest, improving the protective quality of the protection forest, implementing public welfare forestmulti-benefits use, consummating the main body of public welfare forestmanagement and making bestuse of theirpotentialities and benefits[Ch, 4 tab.15 ref.]
Resources of wild woody ornamental plants in Zhoushan Archipelago
WANG Guo-ming, XUBin-fen, WANG Mei-qin, CHEN Bin
2007, 24(1): 55-59.
[Abstract](1705) [PDF](250)
Based on the wild plants investigation in Zhoushan Archipelago, 350 species of the wild woody ornamental plants,belonging to 75 families and 183 genera,were chosen.Amongof them,14 species communities covermore than 50 hm2areas. There are 12 endemic species to island and 16 endemic species to oceanfront, 4 national rare and endangered species and 11 rare and endangered sepecies forZhejiang.The distribution of the wild woody ornamental plants is decreasing from the south to the north gradually in ZhoushanArchipelago.There are 92 species distributed in the whole ofZhoushan district,50 species in Daishan island,Changtu island and the southern islands, 94 species in Zhoushan island, and the southern and eastern islands, and more than 160 species only restricted to one island of the area. They are distributed mainly in hillside and rock coast, few in sandy coast and liman coast.[Ch, 11 ref.]
Wild fruit tree resources in Wenling City of Zhejiang Province
ZHANG Lei-fan, JI Meng-cheng, YAN Fu-bin, LI Jun, LIN Xue-feng
2007, 24(1): 60-64.
[Abstract](1241) [PDF](198)
A total of 23 families, 37 genera and 109 species of wild fruit trees are accounted for Wenling City of Zhejiang Province besed on past data and present investigation made in 2005. According to the economic effect of wild fruit trees, they are divided into directeating, indirecteating and breedingmaterial fruit trees. By fruit trees classification, it includs kernel fruits 9 species, stone fruits 19 species, nut fruits 9 species, berry fruits 52 species, polygynaecial and compound fruits 7 species, citrus fruits 2 species and the others 1 species. The distribution, fructification and utilization value of some important species in this area are described. The strategies for exploiting and protecting of resources also are given.[Ch, 18 ref.]
Population density of Moschus berezovskii in Zibaishan Nature Reserve of Feng County, Shaanxi
HUZhong-jun, WANG Yu, XUEWen-jie, JIANG Hai-rui, XUHong-fa
2007, 24(1): 65-71.
[Abstract](1183) [PDF](176)
During November and December in both 2003 and 2004, in Zibaishan Nature Reserve of Feng County,Shaanxi, China, the population density of Moschus berezovskii(forest musk deer)was surveyed using the pellet group countmethod. In this reserve the total population density of M. berezovskii was estimated at 0.48 0.75 individualskm- 2(mean SD). The population density[in individualskm- 2(mean SE)] of forest musk deer in a conifer broadleaf mixed-forest was 0.94 0.05, whereas in a broadleaf forest it was 0.28 0.02, and in shrubs itwas 0.13 0.02(mean SE).No pelletswere found in grass plots(including abandoned tilled land)or nested landscapes with low trees, shrubs, and grass on mountaintops. On the north slope of this reserve, M.berezovskii were mainly distributed in the forestbetween 1 700 and 2 100 melevation.However,on the south slope, the relatively high population density occurred in woodlands between 2 100 and 2 450 m. Slope exposure and anthropogenic disturbance mostly explained the distribution differences. Because of the extremely low density,urgent action is needed to count the forest musk deer so as to protect and restore the population.[Ch, 2 fig. 3 tab. 27 ref.]
Behavior characteristies of captive-bred female alpine musk deer(Moschus sifanicus)
MENG Xiu-xiang, ZHANG Dong-jin, PANShi-xiu, HUI Cen-yi, FENG Jin-chao, ZHOUYi-jun
2007, 24(1): 72-76.
[Abstract](1306) [PDF](124)
To quantify the behavior of 23 captive-bred female alpine musk deer(Moschus sifanicus) in the non-mating season(fromAugust to October)and the mating season(from November to January), and to record the behaviorfrequency of 12 behavior patterns, such as standing-gazing and moving, an integrated method of focal sampling, scanning sampling, and all occurrence recording were used on a musk deer farm in the Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve of Gansu Province, China. The results show that there are behavioral differences between mating season and nonmating season,which caused by the different reproduction strategies and energy budgetwhen female musk deer enter the estrous season. The female musk deer in the mating season significantly had more standing-gazing surrounding-exploring conflict behavior and moving but stately had less ingestion, rumination and intimate behavior.[Ch, 2 fig. 1 tab. 23 ref.]
A vifauna in Mount Longwang Nature Reserve of Zhejiang
ZHUXi, XUMin-yu, GE Ying-chuan, CHENZhong-yi, LI Chun-yao
2007, 24(1): 77-85.
[Abstract](1705) [PDF](153)
An avian survey was conducted from March 1999 to September 2000 in the Mount Longwang Nature eserve ofZhejiangProvince. There are 165 species 109 genera 42 families and 17 orderswhich include 86 species f resident, 33 of summer types, 37 ofwinter types and 9 of traveling types. The avian fauna are composed of 68 alaearctic realm species(41.21%), 90 Oriental realm species(54.54%) and 7 Eurytopic species(4.24%).Among breeding birds, the rate of the Palaearctic species and Oriental species is 1: 3.87, which showes more haracseristics of Oriental realm[Ch, 1 fig. 4 tab. 19 ref.]
Filter experiment on weeding activity with eleven glyphosate adjuvants
SHI Chun-hua
2007, 24(1): 86-90.
[Abstract](1453) [PDF](132)
The biological activity and active speed of 11 glyphosateswith differentadjuvants atlowtemperaturewere evaluated to select the best adjuvants through biological screening. The experimentwas conducted on wheat at two different growing stages.Wheatwas treatedwith the glyphosates froman auto-spray towerwith a gradientdose,then cultured at 9.9- 19.8 ℃ and 50%- 70% relative humidity in a phytotron for 15 d. The treated wheat were analyzed visually aswell asby the lethal rate of freshweight.Results indicated thatthe JB-7 and JB-4were the best glyphosate adjuvantswith JB-6 and JB-11 the next best. However, this result should be verified with field tests.This method was simple and feasible and could be used to screen out other herbicideswith similar results.[Ch, 6 tab. 15 ref.]
Antagonistic activity of biocontrol bacterium ZJY-1 Brevibacillus brevis
ZHANG Xin, ZHANG Li-qin, MA Liang-jin, LINHai-ping, MAO Sheng-feng, ZHANG Bing-xin
2007, 24(1): 91-95.
[Abstract](1201) [PDF](1558)
Preliminary study on antagonistic activity of biocontrol bacterium Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 wasmade by analyzing the inhibitory effect of cellular extraction and cell-free supernatant to mycelium growth and conidial spore germination of Fusarium oxysporium f. cucumerinum. The results showed that the growth of Fusarium oxysporium f. cucumerinum was inhibited mainly by metabolites excreted outside by the strain. In medium contained with cell-free supernatant,Mycelium growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. cucumerinum was obviously affected compared with that cultured in check and cellular extraction-contained medium. The metabolites derived from supernatant could evidently inhibit germination and tube growth of conidia, the inhibit rate was up to 96.0% and 82.0% respectively.[Ch, 3 fig. 2 tab. 16 ref.]
Simple method for producing strand used in laboratory
MA Ling-fei, JI Wei-bing
2007, 24(1): 96-99.
[Abstract](1141) [PDF](150)
In terms of the equipment to produce strand is extremely expensive, this paper presented a simple method for producing strand used in lab. The strands were made by planning slicing and pressure slicing with Cunninghamia lanceolata asmaterial and theirdimension and shapewere analyzed.The resultswere asfollows:the lengthof strand between 60 mm and 80 mm, made by planning slicing method from round wood 70 mm long,accounted for 70% or sowhile the length of strand between 80 mm and 100 mm,made by pressure slicing method from cantwood 90 mmlong,accounted forabout55%.The shape coefficientof abouthalfof the strand 70 mmlong was between 100- 150 and thatof about half of the strand 90 mm longwas between 200- 300. In conclusion, the dimension and shape coefficient of the strands produced by this simple method were suitable for use in lab.Moreover, strand of different dimension and shape can be produced by using wood cant with certain size and adjusting the length of the blade.[Ch, 7 fig. 8 ref.]
Comparison of mechanical properties for glued laminated bamboo wood and common structural timbers
ZHANG Ye-tian, HE Li-ping
2007, 24(1): 100-104.
[Abstract](1425) [PDF](235)
The physical and mechanical parameters of glued laminated bamboo wood was obtained by test research for providing a useful guidelines in safe design and construction. Besides, by comparing with those of other materials such as Larix gmeini, Fraxinus mandshurica, Cunningharnia lanceolata, Phyllostachys pubescens, fired perforated brick and concrete, conclusions could be made thatglued laminated bamboowoodwas a kind ofmaterial with excellent physical and mechanical performances including comparatively higherultimate tensile and compressive strength and betterplastic performance in shear resistance,etc.So,glued laminated bamboowood could be used as column or beam not only in common structures but also in complicated ones such as tress and I-beam. The study also showed that glued laminated bamboo wood with finger joint, with lower value of mechanical parameters than glued laminated bamboo wood, could still be used as a common load-carrying buildingmaterial.[Ch,5 fig.2 tab.10 ref.]
Pooling designs based on clone library screenings
2007, 24(1): 105-109.
[Abstract](1571) [PDF](127)
A pooling design based on clone library screenings is an experimental strategy to find cloneswith special nucleotide strings; it is also an algorithm of combinatorial group testing.A binary conjunctional matrix, sometimes called a disjunctmatrix, with a row corresponding to an experiment and a column to a clone, is usually used to represent the pooling design. Since errors exist during biological experiments, a disjunct matrix should have detecting and correcting capabilities.Utilizing the inclusion relationship between two subsets or subspaces, disjunct matrices with the same numberof elements 1 in each rowand columnwere constructed.However, the experimental number of elementswas greater than the lower bound of information.[Ch, 13 ref.]
Scientific notes
Investigation of freezing injury on seven introduced palm species in Shanghai
ZHANG Qing-fei, WUHai-ping, XUDong-xin
2007, 24(1): 110-114.
[Abstract](1443) [PDF](233)
The freezing injury of seven introduced palm species in Shanghai were investigated and analyzed in the winterof 2004. The result indicated that all of palm plants had obvious freezing injury, but there were some differences in different species.According to the grades of freezing injury drawn up, Butia capitata and Livistona chinensis were relatively high endurance to cold stress, Phoenix canariensis, P. dactylifera, P sylvestris and Washingtonia filifera were low resistant to cold stress, and P. roebelenii is the weakest. The effects of correlated environmental factors, such as planting position, plant community structure and cold resistant measures on cold resistance of the specieswere analyzed. So it is resulted that the introduction of palm plants on a large scale into Shanghai is not suitable.[Ch, 5 tab. 9 ref.]
Comparative study of physiological indices of four palm species during winter in Xiamen
RUANZhi-ping, LIAO Qi-liao, DING Yin-long
2007, 24(1): 115-118.
[Abstract](1429) [PDF](181)
To study the lowtemperature tolerance of four palm species, the electrical conductivity, the ratio of free water bound water, the chlorophyll contents and the ratio of chlorophyll a b of their leaves were measured during winter(from 2004 Oct. to 2005 Jan.) in Xiamen City.The results showed that the lowtemperature tolerance from high to low are as follows: Phoenix canariensis Chrysalidocarpus lucubensis Trachycarpus martianus Elaeis guineensis.[Ch, 3 tab. 14 tab.]
Lillium concolor var. pulchellum: a new geographical distribution plant in Zhejiang
MA Dan-dan, LI Gen-you, SHI Bai-lin, YE Xi-yang
2007, 24(1): 119-120.
[Abstract](1322) [PDF](170)
A new liliaceous geographical distribution plant in Zhejiang provice, which discovered in Qingliangfeng Nature Reserve in Lin an is reported, it is Lilium concolor var. pulchellum, and its morphological character,habitat, purpose and company plants are introduced[Ch, 9 ref.]