## 2006 Vol. 23, No. 6

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2006, 23(6): 599-603.
[Abstract](1149) [PDF](226)
Abstract:
Virulence of three isolates of Beauveria bassiana REBb01, B12and Bxs, on reproduction of the aphid,Takecallis taiwanus, was studied. Due to reduced survival, within 10 d of inoculation the pathoen reduced infection fecundity of T. taiwanus. However, for an individual aphid infected with the pathogen, the number of its progeny was similar to that of aphid without infection. After inoculation of B. bassiana at different doses, the rate of increment for T. taiwanus numberwas no scientific decrease.[Ch, 1 fig. 2 tab. 7 ref.]
2006, 23(6): 604-607.
[Abstract](1036) [PDF](263)
Abstract:
2006, 23(6): 608-613.
[Abstract](1089) [PDF](239)
Abstract:
Time budget and activity rhythm of Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis) during daytime had been studied in Hongxing Reservoir of Anhui Chinese Alligator National Reserve from May to June in 2004 .The results showed that the behaviors of Chinese alligators include swimming , basking , resting , bellowing , mating and so on . Among them, swimming , resting , basking and bellowing take up (34.30 26.27)%, (30.44 18.50)%, (21.0432.95)% and (14.1618.97)% of the diurnal activity percentages respectively .The percentages that swimming takes up in the different time period are close to each other , ranging between 26.47 % and 44.83 %(2=6.906 5 , P =0.227 7 , df =5), but Chinese alligators usually don't keep a sort of poses in the course of swimming .Two peaks are characteristic of resting behavior , ranging from 9 :00 to 11 :00 and from 17 :00 to 19 :00 respectively .Basking comes forth and has only a peak between 11 :00 and 13 :00 after 3 June .Two bellowing peaks observed are from 7 :00 to 9 :00 and from 21 :00 to 23 :00 . Bellowing is related to the difference of water temperature (DWT).Chinese alligators frequently bellow when DWT is between 1.5 ℃ and 3.5 ℃, and the biggest bellowing times take place at 3.5 ℃.It is suggested that the behaviors of Chinese alligators are mainly affected by their reproductive factor in the rutting season .[ Ch , 3 fig .36 ref .]
2006, 23(6): 614-624.
[Abstract](1443) [PDF](361)
Abstract:
Based on several years investigation , the list of 90 injurious plants which distributed in Zhejiang Province including the adventitious species and the indigene species was arranged in this paper .According to injurious degree , the injurious plants were classified .The seriously injuriouss pecies and potential injurious species were introduced .The characters of the injurious plants in Zhejiang Province were analysed .The results showed that Compositae plants , Gramineae plants , aquatic plants and herbaceous vine plants which came from America could cause injure easily .Finally , the prevention measures were suggested .The potential injurious species such as indigene injurious plants , Borreria latifolia and Solanum carolinense must be paid enough attention to .[ Ch , 1 tab .39 ref .]
2006, 23(6): 625-628.
[Abstract](1126) [PDF](211)
Abstract:
The investigation shows that there are 39 species of forest injurious plants in Lishui City of Zhejiang Province , including eight species of family Gramineae , eight species of family Loranthaceae , seven species of family Compositae , three species of family Chenopodiaceae , three species of family Convolvulaceae , two species of family Leguminosae , two species of family Plantaginaceae , one species of family Moraceae , one species of familyPolygonaceae , one species of family Amaranthaceae , one species of family Malvaceae , one species of family Labiatae ;one species of family Pontederiaceae .The authors put furward the methods of controlling these injurious plants , based on the practition of Lishui City .[ Ch , 1 tab .11 ref .]
2006, 23(6): 636-640.
[Abstract](1653) [PDF](330)
Abstract:
Heat tolerance of 15 Camellia cultivars was studied using physiological and biochemical mensuration as well as an SPSS statistical analysis .Results indicated that heat tolerance of different Camellia cultivars could be distinguished effectively under a heat stress between 36 -38 ℃ for one week and could be effectively evaluated using a main component analysis and cluster analysis from physiological and biochemical mensuration .Cultivars originating from C .reticulata and its hybrids had the worst heat tolerance , cultivars of C .sasanqua had better heat tolerance , and cultivars of C .japonica varied over a large range .Heat tolerance of Camellia cultivars had little correlation with flower types .[ Ch , 1 fig .4 tab .15 ref .]
2006, 23(6): 641-646.
[Abstract](1286) [PDF](259)
Abstract:
Diurnal changes of a chlorophyll fluorescence with low temperature stress at night were studied using the chlorophyll fluorescence technique to determine cold resistance in seven Indocalamus spp .Results indicated that diurnal changes of the actual photochemistry quantum yield for PS Ⅱ was approximately W-shaped .Also , parameters , such as the photochemistry efficiency of PS Ⅱ (Fv / Fm), latent activeness of PS Ⅱ (Fv /Fo ), and Yield of I .guangdongensis , were lower than other Indocalamus spp .I .pumilus had the largest initial fluorescence (F o)and fluorescence (Fm)with Fv / Fm and Fv / F o of I .barbatus being higher than several other Indocalamus spp .This indicated that I .guangdongensis more readily suffered from low temperature stress and therefore had weak cold resistance .However , the cold resistance of I .pumilus and I .barbatus was comparatively stronger .Thus , it is feasible to test cold resistance of different Indocalamus spp .with the chlorophyll fluorescence analysis technique .[ Ch , 4 fig .3 tab .15 ref .]
2006, 23(6): 651-655.
[Abstract](909) [PDF](231)
Abstract:
The standard of container seedling of Ormosia yunnanensis is studied by using the methods of gradual clustering analysis .Seedling height and basal diameter are proposed as the main indexes of quality for seedling classification of the species .The container seedlings are classified into three grades .First grade container seedlings are with the height greater than 15.4 cm, the basal diameter greater than 0.29 cm.Those , the height between 11.4 cm and 15.4 cm , the basal diameter between 0.24 cm and 0.29 cm are classified as second grade .Those , with height lower than 11.4 cm and basal diameter lower than 0.24 cm are sorted into third grade .[ Ch , 5 tab .5 ref .]
2006, 23(6): 656-659.
[Abstract](969) [PDF](186)
Abstract:
By comparing of the cluster and berry weight , the content of soluble solid and titratable acidity , the ratio of solid and acid , the fruit deformity and split among different treatments in the greenhouse , the effects of different numbers of leaves on fruiting woods on the qualities of Vitis vinifera Early Scarlet Seedless'was studied . The results showed that the average cluster and berry weight with the leaf number of 16 , 18 and 20 were lighter than those with the leaf number of 22 or 24 .And their content of soluble solid in fruit separately were 137 , 138 and 154gkg-1 , and the solid/acid ratio of fruit were 22.31 , 22.66 and 28.36 .While the content of soluble solid in fruit with the leaf number of 22 or 24 was 162 or 160 gkg-1 , and the solid/acid ratio of fruit was 36.65 or 33.19 .With the increasing of the number of leaves on fruiting wood , Vitis vinifera 'Early Scarlet Seedless' bore early fine fruits .In consideration of all the targets , with the leave number of 22 , the characters of fruit is the best .[ Ch , 5 tab .9 ref .]
2006, 23(6): 660-663.
[Abstract](1075) [PDF](212)
Abstract:
The classifying criteria for selecting cut-flower cultivars of Osmanthus fragrans from 17 cultivars were firstly studied .The values of corolla diameter , density , color and scent of flower , shape of branch , etc wre used . The samples were taken from the healthy trees of O .fragrans .The amount for reproductive organ was 10 and that for vegetative organ was 20 .The classifying criteria for cut-flower cutivars of O .fragrans were initially established according to both of the common grade standard of cut-flowers and the ornamental value of O .fragrans .The results showed that Houban Jingui, Liuye Jingui' , Jingui' and so on were ramked the primo grade iwth fine color , scent and shape Dahua jingui' , Yingye Jingui' , Dangui' etc . were ranked the second grade .Zao Jingui' , Baibi Jingui' , Chenghuang Jingui' etc . belonged to the third grade , whereas , Daye Jingui' and Sijigui' were not fit for application of cut-flowers .[ Ch , 4 tab .12 ref .]
2006, 23(6): 664-668.
[Abstract](1055) [PDF](286)
Abstract:
Six methods including basic CTAB method , modified CTAB methods as CTAB I , CTAB Ⅱ , CTAB Ⅲ , CTAB Ⅳ , and improved SDS methods were used to extract high-quality DNA from the young leaves of Betula luminifera .The DNA samples obtained by the above methods were tested by agarose-gel electrophoresis , restricted enzyme digests and PCR. Results showed that the modified methods were better than the basic CTAB method in terms of the quality of total DNA , but the effects of DNA extraction differed greatly . Among them, the modified CTAB I method was the best for extracting B .luminifera DNA from leaves .The comparisons of PCR patterns of genomic DNA extracted with different methods showed that different extracting methods would affect the changes of PCR patterns .[ Ch , 3 fig .1 tab .13 ref .]
2006, 23(6): 669-672.
[Abstract](1280) [PDF](393)
Abstract:
Leaf photosynthesis and transpiration of climbing plant Parthenocissus tricuspidata in different soil moisture cofiditions were measured to find out the effects of soil moisture on O2 releasing , CO2 fixing , air temperature falling and air humidity increasing .Results showed that Parthenocissus tricuspidata absorbed 4.71 gm-2 d-1 CO2 and released 3.43 gm-2d-1 O2 in the favorable soil moisture condition in a day , which reduced air temperature by 0.45 ℃per 1 000m3 and increased air humidity by 0.39 %. With soil water stress increased , CO2 fixing , O2 releasing , air temperature reducing and air humidity increasing of Parthenocissus tricuspidata declined . [ Ch , 2 tab .17 ref .]
2006, 23(6): 678-683.
[Abstract](1252) [PDF](298)
Abstract:
The secular Buddhism , Buddhism custom, the supernatural and Buddha in a world together are the characteristics of the Dai Nationality traditional culture .Under this kind of cultural influence , the temple landscape of Dai Buddhism is different from that of Han Buddhism .The Buddhist temples of Dai are always located in the most important and beautiful places of the villages in Xishuangbanna .The temples in this area are not laid out in orderly or symmetry fashion , but the architecture and artistic creation are unique .The decoration materials are colorful.Tropical plant and religious cultural plant are multifarious.Based on the analysis of various elements , the landscape characteristics such as the simple style , the unusual form , the unique decoration and the region and religious cultural plant application in Dai Buddhist temples are summarized .[ Ch , 2 fig .12 ref .]
2006, 23(6): 629-635.
[Abstract](1359) [PDF](273)
Abstract:
In a survey of endophytes associated with Populus spp .in Inner Mongolia from 2004 to 2005 , healthy leaves , branches (including integuments and xylem)and stems were collected from Huhhot City , Dalate County , Siziwang County , and Salaqi Town .Based on morphological characteristics , 351 strains of endophytes were isolated and classified into 7 orders , 8 familes , and 29 genera .The results showed that endophytes varied in quantity , population distribution , and dominance in different tissues , regular changes showed in species and quantity for different age phases , and varied in quantity and population composition in Populus spp .of different areas .[ Ch , 4 tab .14 ref .]
2006, 23(6): 694-696.
[Abstract](1411) [PDF](707)
Abstract:
The meaning of tuigeng huanlin is to stop the forest-sourced farmland for grain production and converse it back to forests .In many papers , tuigeng huanlin is trainslated into grain for green or returning farmland to forestland and so on .People might misunderstand it as planting trees on bare mountains or changing the farmland into forest land .The paper argues that faithful translation of tuigeng huanlin is determined by the correct understanding of its meaning .After a comparative analysis , the referential translations such as conversion of farmland back to forests , transfer of farmland back to forests and forest rehabilitation from slope agriculture are suggested .[ Ch , 17 ref .]
2006, 23(6): 647-650.
[Abstract](2458) [PDF](283)
Abstract:
Bambusa ventricosa is an excellent bamboo species which is used for garden landscape and potted landscape .The shooting capacity of B .ventricosa is strong and no off-year of shooting .The shooting period lasts 116 d ranging from July to October .More than 70 % shoots emerge at high emergencing shoot stage ranging from the first ten days of August to the last ten days of September .The latest stage takes the percentages 44.8 % of the emergencing shoot stage .The height growth of shoots and seedlings presented the S type curve with rapid-slowrapid rhythm .Speedy growth stage lasts 20 d with 2.6 cm height growth per day .The biomass of this period takes the percentages 65.4 % of seedlings height .There are no differences on height growth of shoots and seedlings among all shoot stages .The average of height growth time is 62 d , which is shorter than that of other sympodial bamboos .[ Ch , 1 fig .2 tab .11 ref .]
2006, 23(6): 673-677.
[Abstract](1710) [PDF](226)
Abstract:
Lumber is complex , porous , moist , and viscoelastic .Moisture content in lumber varies with tree-species, tree-age , and felling season .It must be reduced to an acceptable level to guarantee the quality and service life of wood products .During lumber drying , many factors , such as temperature in the drying kiln , real-time moisture content , and circulation rate of hot air in the drying kiln , influence the final wood-product quality .So drying wood efficiently and effectively are important factors .This study used the latest theoretical achievements related to wood drying , and to propose software and hardware program designs .The hardware system was composed of a transducer unit , a signal processing unit , an MSP 430 F149 micro-controller , isolation actuation , and other periphery circuits , while the software system programs included a main program , data (temperature , equal moisture content , and moisture content of lumber)capture program, etc .[ Ch , 4 fig .1 tab .17 ref .]
2006, 23(6): 684-688.
[Abstract](1531) [PDF](270)
Abstract:
This paper reviewed the important nutritional role of boron (B) with red bayberry (Myrica rubra), diagnosis of B deficiency , effects of B application on growth , yield , and quality of M .rubra , and optimum technology for applying B .B was the most important nutrient element for M .rubra with typical symptoms of deficiency being small leaves , rosette shoots , and fading of the shoot tops .In M .rubra B deficiency seriously inhibited growth and even led to death .B application not only greatly improved the length and growth rate of spring and summer shoots , but also improved yield and quality .Application of B could also greatly alleviate alternate bearing behavior .The critical values of B deficiency in M .rubra were 0.30 mgkg-1 in the soil and 17.0 mgkg-1 in leaves .Applying borax of 50 gtree-1 every three years or 20 gL-1 every year could solve B deficiency in M .rubra .[ Ch , 1 fig .1 tab .29 ref .]
2006, 23(6): 689-693.
[Abstract](1425) [PDF](273)
Abstract:
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is of tremendous importance in plant breeding .This review focuses on the progress of CMS studies from three aspects :(1)CMS of mitochondria through interference of the energy supply .(2)the effects of a fertility restorer gene , and (3)the application of CMS in genetic engineering of plant male sterility .The prospects of further studies on this subject are also discussed .[ Ch , 23 ref .]
2006, 23(6): 697-700.
[Abstract](1312) [PDF](282)
Abstract:
The relevant literatures of herons and their habitats , the heron's living habit , such as building nest , searching for food , dwelling for rest , moving were grasped .Based on the characteristics of the city environment in Central China , the three major construction techniques for the city habitat of herons in Central China region are summarized .The first is the nest building techniques , which includes rebuilding terrain , selecting plant species to construct the community .The second is the techniques of constructing the zone for finding food , such as waterside line designing and aquatic plant arrangement .The last is the secluded techniques , including of setting up farbetween plant , strengthening the concealment of establishment .Furthermore , some suggestions about rebuilding time and intensity are given .[ Ch , 2 fig .2 tab .17 ref .]
2006, 23(6): 701-704.
[Abstract](1277) [PDF](247)
Abstract:
The effects of types , concentration and combination of plant growth regulators on induction and proliferation of axillary buds of Trachelospermum jasminoides `Variegatum' , the optimum time for axillary bud proliferation-oriented successive culture and rooting were studied .The results showed thag the optimum induction culture media was MS +BA 3.0 mgL-1 +NAA 0.1 mgL-1 , the induction rate was up to 90 %;the better regeneration culture media was MS +BA 1.5 mgL-1 +NAA 0.1 mgL-1 .The multiplication coefficient was 6 , and the optimum regeneration time was 25 d .The optimum rooting culture media was 1/2MS and 1/2MS +BA 0.1mgL-1 +NAA 0.1 mgL-1 .The rooting rate was up to 90 %.[ Ch , 4 tab .6 ref .]
2006, 23(6): 705-709.
[Abstract](1143) [PDF](244)
Abstract:
The mutative pattern of dry matter distribution in different organs (including leaf , stem and root) of one-year- old seedling of Cyclobalanopsis pachyloma was studied by raising seedlings from 2002 to 2003 .Through periodic measurement and regression analysis , the mathematical model of dry matter distribution , the interrelationships and the different growth speed were modified .The results showed that the dry matter distribution were mainly in roots during the germinating stage , the initial growth stage , the end of growth peak stage and the late growth stage .During the peak growth stage , the major proportional dry matter distribution was to leaves .The proportion of dry matter distribution in the end of peak growth in stem was more , while less than those of roots and leaves in the entire seasons .The dry matter distribution in different organs seems to be linked to the growth of the seedling's ground diameter and stock high .The mathematical model can be used to estimate and analyze dry matter distribution of one-year-old seedling of Cyclobalanopsis pachyloma in different growth periods .[ Ch , 1 fig .4 tab . 11 ref .]