2007 Vol. 24, No. 4

Distribution and ecological characteristics of Torreya grandis in China
CHENG Xiao_jian, LI Zhang_ju, YUWei-wu, DAI Wen-sheng, FUQing-gong
2007, 24(4): 383-388.
[Abstract](1309) [PDF](183)
The objective is to get the living condition of Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl. (Chinese torreya)to improve its cultivation. Through five years investigation in its distribution areas and the related literatures, the research showed that the natural distribution area of Torreya grandis was the mid and northern sub-tropical belt in China(25- 32N,109- 121E)and covered a vast area of 7 provinces, includingZhejiang, Anhui, Jiangsu,Fujian, Jiangxi, Guizhou, and Hubei. The average temperature of the distributional area was between 15.2 and 18.7℃ ; the absolute low temperature ranged from- 17.0 and- 8.1℃ ; the annual rainfall reached between 1 000- 1 900 mm; and the annual accumulative temperature 10℃ was in the range of 4 758 and 5 940℃ .Vertical distribution variedwithgeographical location. Forinstance, in the mid sub-tropical beltwhenmoving from north to south, T. grandis grew at altitudes of 800- 1 000 m in the Dabie Mountains, 1 200- 1 500 m in the HuangshanMountain and Tianmu Mountain areas, and 1 800- 2 000 m in the Wuyi Mountains. In the high- altitudeareaswith light wind, abundant sunshine, and few cold waves, and where the absolute low temperature was- 18.0 ℃ With an annual accumulated temperature 10℃ of 3 500℃ , T. grandis grew and fruited normally. Additionally, in the Wuyi Mountains of South China although the accumulated temperature 10℃ at 1 800- 2 000 m was only 3 200 ℃ , T. grandis grew tall and fruited normally due to a higher absolute low temperature thatwas over- 15.0℃ . T. grandis thrived best in fertile soil, which in the optimum areas of this study consisted of soilwith rich organic matter; a soil texture of loose, sandy loam to light clay; and pHof 5.2-6.5.[Ch, 3 tab. 27 ref.]
Biomass of evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province (II) Aboveground biomass and its allocation pattern
YANG Tong-hui, DA Liang-jun, LI Xiu-peng
2007, 24(4): 389-395.
[Abstract](1059) [PDF](182)
Changes in the biomass played an important role in the research of forestecosystem, and the basal data of biomasswas indispensable to its long-term observation. Based on methods of ingathering(for herb and shrub layers) and standard trees(for tree layer), aboveground biomass and its allocation pattem of the community dominated by Schima superba and Castanopsis carlesii were measured and analyzed in the evergreen broad-leaved forest of Tiantong National Forest Park in October, 2003. The results showed that the community biomass aboveground was(141.077 0 17.429 8)thm- 2(mean+ SD, n= 3), thatwas about90% in the tree layers,and little amount in other layers. There was remarkable difference of every species in the community and layers,in which the biomass of dominated species Schima superba and Castanopsis carlesii were respectively dominant, and the trunk biomass was the main component, the biomass order of various organs was trunk branch leaf.Sprouting biomass of the community was mainly allocated in shrub layer; above 50% of that was composed of the biomass of Castanopsis carlesii. This community structure was illuminated by the analysis of aboveground biomass and its distribution pattern as well as the biomass characteristics and allocation of evergreen broad-leaved forest.[Ch, 5 tab. 15 ref.]
Community structural properties and species diversity in primary Pinus yunnanensis forest
LI Gui-xiang, SHI Hai-jing, MENG Guang-tao, FANG Xiang-jing, CHAI Yong, HE Li-ping, ZHANG Zheng-hai, YANG Yong-xiang
2007, 24(4): 396-400.
[Abstract](1593) [PDF](260)
Because the natural Pinus yunnanensis forestswere devastated severely in 1960s and 1970s, todays P.yunnanensis forests are mainly secondary stands.The aimis to compare the difference of both forests to find the way renewing the secondary forests. In primary P. yunnanensis forest of Baimahe, in Yongren County, Yunnan Province, community properties and species diversity were investigated using the Raunkiaer system.Also, richness and evenness of species distribution were compared to secondary P. yunnanensis forests. Results showed that the primary forests were mostly pure P. yunnanensis, but with rich species and diverse structures in their understories.In the community investigated,phanerophytes represented the largestproportion(46.1%)followed by chamaephytes(25.9%), hemicryptophytes(14.0%), cryptophytes(13.3%), and therophytes(0.7%). This indicated that the environment of the primary P. yunnanensis forest was warm and humid during its growing seasons. The individual diameter atbreastheight and age of trees in the community followed a normal distribution,which indicated that the successional structure of the primary P. yunnanensis forests was relatively stable. For richness and evenness of species distribution in the primary forests, the Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index,and Pielou evenness indices Jsw and Jsi were 4.6, 3.7, 3.9, and 4.6 times respectively more than these of secondary forests. This verified that primary P. yunnanensis forests had higher species diversity than secondary forests.[Ch, 2 fig. 2 tab. 15 ref.]
Blooming characteristics and pollinators of Liriodendron chinense and L. tulipifera
LI Huo-gen, CAO Xiao-ming, YANG Jian
2007, 24(4): 401-405.
[Abstract](1155) [PDF](120)
Blooming characteristics and pollinators of Liriodendron chinense(Chinese tulip tree)and L. tulipifera(tulip tree)in a provenance trial plantation including 17 provenances were investigated based on observations over two years on 6 trees in Jurong City, Jiangsu Province. Results showed a moderate difference for initial anthesis among 6 provenances, but no difference among individuals within a provenance. For the number of flowers during bloom, variationswere also found among species,provenances and individuals.However,no interspecies variations were found for the pollinators and their visiting frequency. Altogether, 14 animal species from the orders Diptera(2), Hymenoptera(6), Coleoptera(4), Leoidoptera(1), and Araneae(1)were observed visiting the flowers of Liriodendron. Of these orders three families, namely Syrphidae(flies)(1)and Formicidae(ants)(2), as well as one species, Apis mellifera(bees), were major visitors. When visiting flowers, different visitors had different behaviors with geitonogamy being observed. Generally, the visiting frequency of the visitors was related to the number of daily flowers blossom, the greater the number of blossoms, the higher the visiting frequency.[Ch, 1fig. 2 tab. 13 ref.]
Pollen characteristics and relationships of 12 species and 6 cultivars of Lilium
WUZhu-hua, SHI Ji-sen, XI Meng-li, LIUGuang-xin
2007, 24(4): 406-412.
[Abstract](1294) [PDF](229)
China is the natural distributional center of Lilium, however, more than half of the wild species still remains to be exploited. Researches on wild resources is an important base to breed new cultivars. Pollen morphology of 12 wild Lilium species(including 2 varieties, distributed in the south of China) and 6 cultivars(5 cultivars ofAsiatic hybrids, 1 cultivarof Longiflorum hybrids) had been observed and compared by means of SEM(scanning electron microscope). The results show that the pollen grains of lily are generally ellipsoid or long ellipsoidwith mono-culpus and reticulate sculptures. Culpus reaches to the two poles. Apertures of reticulate sculptures is erose or approximately rotundity with different width. The granules look like nubble or wart and are closely arranged to reticulate spine. The width of spine is 1.17- 2.48m, and is breaken sometimes. There are protuberances in apertures of reticulate, seldom none. The phylogenetic relationships between 12 species and 6 cultivarswere discussed based on the pollen morphology. The five pollen morphological index of 12 species and 6 cultivars were clustered. The results show that the species and cultivars had been sorted to two kinds, section Lilium and section Sinomartagon except of L. lancifolium.[Ch, 2 fig. 2 tab. 13 ref.]
Resources of Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii, Neolitsea sericea and Tilia miqueliana in Zhoushan Archipelago
YUCi-ying, CHEN Ye-ping, YUAN Yan-fei, LI Wan-xing, YUANZheng-zheng
2007, 24(4): 413-418.
[Abstract](1229) [PDF](176)
Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii, Neolitsea sericea and Tilia miqueliana are local tree species of Zhoushan Archipelago. This research was to investigate the numbers and the distribution of the three species.Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii is mainly distributed in MountLuojia, Zhujiajian Island and some other small islands around Zhujiajian, Taohua and Liuheng Island. There are more than 12 000 seed trees of Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii, which can produce about1 500 kg seeds in highyield year. Neolitsea sericea is distributed in Zhujiajian Island, Taohua Island, Mount Putuo and Damao Island, its distributional characteristic is isolated and scattered and small area. There are only 200 seed trees of Neolitsea sericea, which produce 100 kg seeds in high yield year. The scope of Tilia miqueliana is limited inMahuangkeng of Taohua Island andMaocaowulengkeng of Damao Island. There are about170 seed trees of Tilia miqueliana, which only 0.25 kg seedswere gathered per year.[Ch, 3 tab. 12 ref.]
Variation of endogenous polyamines concentrations in Lycoris chinensis bulbs during reproductive period
JIN Ya-qin, HUANG Xue-fang, LI Dong-lin, XIANG Qi-bai
2007, 24(4): 419-423.
[Abstract](1096) [PDF](128)
To study the relationship of endogenous polyamines(PAs)with flower bud differentiation of Lycoris chinensis, putrescine(Put), spermine(Spm)and spermidine(Spd) concentrations of the bulbs during different reproductive periods were determined by the thin layer chromatography-fluorescence spectrometry. The results showed that the three kinds of PAs concentrations showed non-synchronous change. The variation of Put and Spm content was sharper; the variation of Spd content was not marked. During the prophase of flower bud differentiation, the Put contentswas more than Spd and Spm, 1.238 nmolg- 1 in the outer squama, 1.676 nmolg- 1 in the middle squama. 2.313 nmolg- 1 in the innersquama and 1.451 nmolg- 1 in the shootapex, in early July. During the flowering period, the Put content decreased, but the Spm content increased. Spm contents was 1.462 nmolg- 1in the outer squama. 1.502 nmolg- 1 in the middle squama, 1.682 nmolg- 1 in the inner squama and 1.536 nmolg- 1 in the shootapex. The ordersof endogenousPAs contents fromhigh to lowwere shoot apex, inner squama, middle squama, outer squama.[Ch, 4 fig. 2 tab. 12 ref.]
Effects of different fresh pretreatments on the respiration intensity of Dendrocalamopsis oldhami shoots
YUXue-jun, DOUKe, ZHANG Zhao-fu, LIUDe-jian
2007, 24(4): 424-427.
[Abstract](1121) [PDF](141)
The respiration intensity of Dendrocalamopsis oldhami shoots pretreated by 3 different methods(1 is boxed atconstanttemperature, 2 is pre-cooling in icewaterfor2 h, then stored in the thermal container, 3 is pre-cooling in ice water for 2 h, daubed by 10 mgkg- 1 chitose, then stored in the thermal container) in 20 h and 7 dayswas tested. The results showed that the respiration rate would increase quickly if the shootswere stored in the normal temperature and reach the peak value in 4- 6 h, which was 163.81 mgkg- 1h- 1CO2; the respiration rate would reach the peak in 14- 16 h if the shootswere stored in the ice water, whichwas 138.66 mgkg- 1h- 1 CO2; the respiration rate would reach the peak in 14 h if the shoots were pre-cooling in the ice water and treated with 10 mgg- 1 chitose, which was 113.43 mgkg- 1h- 1 CO2. Shoots pretreated with ice water and 10 mgg- 1 chitose would maintain a lowrespiration rate within 7 days. Therefore, such treatment could restrain the respiration of shoots.[Ch, 2 fig. 8 ref.]
Germination of Asparagus cochinchinensis seeds
JIN Xiao-cui, WANG Wei, LIUYu-yan
2007, 24(4): 428-432.
[Abstract](1553) [PDF](174)
In order to solve the problems of low germination rate, uneven and delayed germination of Asparagus cochinchinensis seeds and find out the suitable conditions for its preservation and germination, the effects of seed coat, soaking time, soaking water temperature, illumination, and the storage methods on the seed germination were studied. The seedswere collected and determined in the current year. The results showed that removing the coat of A. cochinchinensis seed was not appropriate for its germination. But soaking the seeds for 72- 96 hwould significantly(P 0.01)promote its germination rate. The germination rate of A. cochinchinensis would also be benefited by soaking the seeds into thewaterof 40℃ or60℃ underthe shadowcondition. The bestway of storing the seedswas to place the seeds into the wet sands(V/ V= 1∶3)at room temperature. [Ch, 4 fig. 2 tab. 10ref.]
Genetic transformation of Myrica rubra mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes
HE Xin-hua, CHEN Li-geng, GUO Chang-lu
2007, 24(4): 433-436.
[Abstract](1653) [PDF](138)
Myrica rubra(China bayberry) is a particular fruit tree to China. It is also a ideal tree species of afforestation. The purpose is to establish a genetic transformation system of Myrica rubra mediated with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Cotyledons, leaves, and stem segments of M. rubra Dongkui and M. rubra Boji' were infected with A. rhizogenes R15834 containing a pDC202 vector carriing the LEAFY gene, which controls floral meristem, cultured in 1/2Murashige and Skoog(MS)orMSmedium. Results showed thatonly less than10%of the cotyledons of M. rubra Dongkui' induced hairy roots. Hairy roots were produced from new seeds of M. rubra Dongkui' more easily than old seeds, and the cotyledons grew hairy roots on the 1/2 MS media more readily than the MS media. By PCR and Southern hybridization test, it was proved that the LEAFY gene of Arabidopsis thaliana was successfully transferred and integrated into a nucleargenome through cotyledons of M. rubra Dongkui'.[Ch, 2 fig. 10 ref.]
Available nutrients with increased N deposition in soils of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations
YUAN Ying-hong, FANHou-bao, WANG Qiang, QIUXiu-qun2, CHENQiu-feng, LI Yan-yan, HUANG Yu-zi, LIAO Ying-chun
2007, 24(4): 437-444.
[Abstract](1273) [PDF](238)
Afield experimentwas setup to study the effects of increasedNdeposition on the chemical properties of the soils under Chinese fir(Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations growing in mid-western Fujian, China.Treatmentswere designed as 0 kghm- 2a- 1N, 60 kghm- 2a- 1N, 120 kghm- 2a- 1 N, and 240 kghm- 2 a- 1N, with three replicates in each treatment. Ureawas used as the source ofN and its solutionswere sprayed on the forestground eachmonth fortwoyears. Results showed thatpH, available P andK, and exchange-eable Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the soils decreased, but NH4+-N and NO3--N increased with increasing N deposition. For all the treatments, soil available nutrient levels decreased(P 0.01)with the soil depth, but soil pHincreased(P0.05)with increasing depth.[Ch, 6 fig. 3 tab. 30 ref.]
Effects of fertilization on soil properties under Castanea mollissima plantation
JIANG Pei-kun, XUQiu-fang, WUQi-feng, WUJia-sen
2007, 24(4): 445-449.
[Abstract](1523) [PDF](192)
Chinese chestnut(Castanea mollissima)is an important plantation in Zhejiang Province for its high cash profit. Fertilization has become a usefulway to improve itsyield. The objective of this paperis to find outthe effects of different types and rates of fertilizers on soil available nutrients and biochemical properties by one-year field fertilizer trial. It was found that soil available N, P and K positively response to the increase of mineral fertilizer, and their concentrations in the soil of treatment1(compound fertilizer: 2 250 kghm- 2) and treatment 2(two times the amount of treatment 1)are respectively 1.18, 1.58, 2.71 times and 2.48, 2.88, 2.98 times more than in the control(no fertilizer), and their concentrations in treatment4(oil cake: 5 400 kghm- 2)were 1.84, 2.10, 1.58 times as many as in the control. Organic fertilizer had a positive influence on activities of soil phosphatase and sucrase, which were significantly more active in the soil treated with oil cake(P 0.05) than those treated with mineral fertilizer. Soil water-soluble organic carbon(WSOC) and microbial biomass carbon(MBC) for treatment 3(0.5 times the amount of treatment 1 plus 0.5 times the amount of treatment 4) were respectively 1.15 and 1.15 times more than the control, and those for treatment 4 were 1.57 and 1.43 times more than the control. Itwas concluded that the practice of fertilization enriched the soil available nutrients, especially organic fertilizer, which had better effects on soil biochemical and biological properties than mineral fertilizer.[Ch, 4 tab. 26 ref.]
Temporal and spatial variation of soil organic matters in Phyllostachys praecox stands with intensive cultivation management
CAI Rong-rong, HUANG Fang, SUN Da, QINHua, YANG Fang, ZHUANG Shun-yao, ZHOUGuo-mo, CAO Zhi-hong
2007, 24(4): 450-455.
[Abstract](1136) [PDF](155)
Phyllostachys praecoxis a favourite bamboo specieswith highereconomic value forits bamboo shoot as a delicious vegetable. The practice of intensive managementby overfertilizingof complexfertilizer(16∶16∶16, 2.25 thm- 2)and urea(1.125 thm- 2)peryearplusheavierwintermulching(40 thm- 2 of rice strawand 55 thm- 2 of grounded bamboo leaves)every two years starting at 5 years for the higher yield of bamboo shoot and earlier marketing at the Chinese Spring Festival season to gain better price and incomes in Southeast China, especially in Zhejiang Province. The objective of this study is to analyse the temporal and spatial variation of soil organic matters(SOM)in Phyllostachys praecox stands during last 15 years with very intensive cultivation management in Lin'an.Total of 20 soil profileswere sampled in main cultivation region of Sankou Town, choosing 1, 5, 10, 15 and 0 years(paddy fields nearby as the beginning soil Phyllostachys praecox stands as a check) plantation of bamboo stands and each by 4 replications. Results indicated thatwith the increase of plantation year,SOMdropped a little in the beginning(1 year), and then rose up steadily. SOM content in surface layer of 0- 10 cmwere gradually increased from1, to 5 years, then 10 and 15 years, andwere 30.96, 25.55, 26.35, 33.07 and 79.24 gkg- 1 respectively. Very high SOM content in 10 years and 15 years soils were resulted from over fertilization and heavy wintermulching of biomass. SOM spatial distribution in soil profiles showed that it was decreased with the soil depth increase in the layers of surface(0- 10 cm) and subsurface(10- 20 cm), but not in the bottom layer(20- 40 cm), it neither dropped at1 years clearly and nor increased lateron, showed a relative steady situation.It indicated that intensive cultivationmanagementhad vigorously effectonSOMcontentin 0- 10 cm surface and 10- 20 cmsubsurface layerswhere the bamboo shootproduced, butcould notaffectthe deep layerof soil. The effect of high content of SOMin Phyllostachys praecox stands on soil quality and its sustainable use, the significance of carbon sequestration of such high SOM accumulation by this intensive management practices were also discussed.[Ch, 1 fig. 2 tab. 20 ref.]
Characteristics of bird communities in Dapanshan National Nature Reserve, Zhejiang Province
WEI Fu-min, CHENShui-hua, FANZhong-yong, CHEN Cang-song, FANG Yi-feng
2007, 24(4): 456-462.
[Abstract](1328) [PDF](161)
During the summer(1st to 6 th June)and the winter(10 th to 17 th December) in 2005, a survey of the bird communitieswere conducted in Dapanshan National Nature Reserve by the methods of line transecting and point counting. Along several transecting lines, we chose enough fixed-radius counting points according the altitudes and the habitats. The bird species and quantities, and the habitats each points were recorded. By the multiple statistic analyses ofSPSS program, we revealed the characteristics of bird communities in Dapanshan, and compared the differences of bird communities in differenthabitats and different altitudes. There are 64 bird species in which 51 specieswere recorded in summer and 40 species in winter. Significant variances(P 0.05) of bird community characteristics are exits both among different seasons and different habitats, but not in different altitudes. Main protections should be on the summerbreeding birds and the forests in the future.[Ch, 5 tab. 11 ref.]
Biological characteristics of blossom midge(Contarinia sp.) in Carya cathayensis and its control techniques
HUGuo-liang, CHENG Yi-peng, LOUJun-fang, WANG Guo-du, XIAGuo-hua, CHEN Jian-gang, ZHANG Zu-ping
2007, 24(4): 463-467.
[Abstract](1532) [PDF](147)
Blossommidge, Contarinia sp.(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)is a new pest species of Carya cathayensis(cathay hickory). Its one generation lasts one year in Lin'an City, Zhejiang Province. Its larvae damage the tree's flowers in early April, the mature larvae live through the summer and winter under the ground and pupate later in next March. Spraying and dripping pesticides methods were used to control blossom midge during the damaging period. The spraying pesticides were 400 gkg- 1 chlorpyrifos EC, 300 gkg- 1 acephate EC, 300 gkg- 1 imidacloprid EC and 500 gkg- 1 qianyingling WP with the ratios to water of 1∶500, 1∶800 and 1∶1 000.The dripping pesticideswas 300 gkg- 1 acephate mixed with 300 gkg- 1 imidacloprid with the ratio of 1∶0, 1∶1 and 1∶2. All the treatments above had six replications. The results showed that the control efficiency of spraying was 94.8%, significantly better(P= 0.00) than dripping's(2.40%).[Ch, 2 fig. 6 tab. 8 ref.]
Exploration of a participative mediation method for disputes on forest property
ZHOUBo-huang, XUAN YU-fang, YUYu-bao
2007, 24(4): 473-477.
[Abstract](1190) [PDF](156)
Disputes on forestproperty have been recognized as an importantissue in the protection of China's forest resources in recentyears. Effective and timely settlement to these disputes are of critical significance in defending obliges' legitimate interests, preserving forest resources, promoting the development of forest industry as well as building a harmonious society. However, traditional efforts failed to provide fundamental solutions because the principle of willingness and self-governance was violatedlaw, ethics, and compassion' couldn't be synthesized and the sttlement procedures were not scientific and standardized. The authors attempt to apply the method of participative investigation in resolving the disputes on forest property. The participative mediation mechanism is propsed as participative working principle, participative working method, and participative procedures in resolving the disputes. Three issues in application are also proposed.[Ch, 11 ref.]
Causes and countermeasures for forestry credit financing difficulty
TAO Bao-shan, SHI Dao-jin, HANGuo-kang, LIUHai-ying
2007, 24(4): 478-481.
[Abstract](1576) [PDF](240)
Great progress has been made in forestry construction in China in recentyears, but the problemof fund shortage is also prominent. Itis concluded thatthe high costof capital transaction caused by asymmetric information is the key reasonof forestry financing difficulty, andmortgage loanon forestownership is an effective solution to the problem. Taking Zhejiang Province as an example, by analyzing the marketization level, forest resources, system of policies and regulations, and professional cooperative organizations and credit system, we drawa conclusion that the conditions formortgage loan on forest ownership have been basically met in Zhejiang Province, and the work should be done gradually under the leadership of the government and good cooperation of different departments.[Ch, 14 ref.]
Criteria and indicators for sustainable management of public welfare forests in Beijing
ZHANG Zhi-hua, PENG Dao-li, JIN Yun-yan
2007, 24(4): 482-486.
[Abstract](1378) [PDF](130)
Based on guidelines and theoretical principles of sustainable management for public welfare forests as well as the current social economic development situation and public welfare forest resources, a system of criteria and indicators for sustainable management of public welfare forests in Beijingwas established. Principles of unity,operability, and flexibility were followed with reference to domestic and overseas research on criteria and indicators forsustainable forest management. The system that was developed included seven criteria, namely, biodiversity conservation, maintenance of forest ecosystem productivity, forest ecosystem health and vitality, conservation of soil and water resources, contribution to the carbon cycle, maintenance and enhancement of social benefits, and the framework of laws and policies. In addition, 37 indicators, for instance, the ratio of the public forest area to the total forest area, the number of species in public forests, and the total biomass of the public forests, were selected. This research should contribute to sustainable forest management and development of the ecological environment in Beijing.[Ch, 11 ref.]
Analysis of balanced water supply and demand in the land consolidation project of Hong'an County, Hubei Province
CHEN Chao, GAO Rui, ZHUMing-dong
2007, 24(4): 487-491.
[Abstract](1353) [PDF](116)
With the land consolidation project of Hong'an County, Hubei Province as an example, and on the basis of the study of status quo ofwater resources in Honghua region, the paper analyzed the equilibriumof supply and demand of water resources in the districtwith the planning of regional land consolidation. The estimate based on the typical annual water supply and demand showed that the design satisfied the irrigation water demand in the project area because the estimatedwaterdemandwasfarsmallerthan the irrigationwatervolume of the land arranged in the area; the supply and demand balance was extremely reasonable. While predicting the irrigation guarantee rate in the project area as 50%with grey GM(1, 1)forecasting models, there would be water scarcity in the following years. But when the irrigation guarantee rate was estimated as 75%- 95%, there would be adequate water supply in the project area for the next several years.[Ch, 7 tab. 11 ref.]
Landscape planning of the agricultural parks
ZHANG Yi-chuan, QIAO Li-fang, YAO Lian-fang, DONG Ying
2007, 24(4): 492-496.
[Abstract](1239) [PDF](242)
Many agricultural gardens were investigated and the research literature was reviewed, landscape characteristics and the existing problems on the construction of agricultural parks were analyzed, the essential methods, the principles and the landscape division were determined. As an ecology-economy-society compound ecosystem, the agricultural parks' landscape planning is vital to its healthy development. The overall development direction should be determined using the SWOT(strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) method, the land function should be determined using the ecological suitable analytic method, the landscape structure should be determined using the landscape security pattern analytic method. The suitable principles of landscape plan should be followed, the landscape district should aim at the sustainable development and have its own characteristics.[Ch, 1 fig. 1 tab. 21 ref.]
Disease prevention and healing with fertilizer agent 1125 on Rhizoctonia solani in cabbage
XIAO He-zhong, YANG Xiu-qin, LIUWei-dong, JI Zhi-xin, WANG Xiao-juan
2007, 24(4): 468-472.
[Abstract](1238) [PDF](150)
The aimwas to study disease prevention and healing propertieswith fertilizer agent 1125 on Rhizoctonia solani disease in Brassica oleracea var. capitata(cabbage). The experiment was set up with a split-plot experimental design having treatments of, 3.3 and 0(control) mLL- 1 of fertilizer agent 1125 2.0 mLL- 1 photosynthetic fertilizer on cabbage with three replications and a microbiostasis method having treatments of 40.0,20.0, 5.0, 3.3, 2.0, and 0(control)mLL- 1 of fertilizer agent1125 and 2.0 mLL- 1photosynthetic fertilizer on Rhizoctonia solani with six replications. Results showed that 3.3 mLL- 1 of fertilizer agent 1125 was significantly more effective than the control(ck)in reducing incidence of Rhizoctonia solani disease(P 0.01),in decreasing relative conductivity, and in increasing the ratio of root weight to crown weight(R/C). Also, for increasing peroxidase(POD) activity and reducing chlorosis of the leaf, fertilizer agent 1125 was significantly more effective than photosynthetic fertilizerand ck(P 0.01). The microbiostasisexperimentshowed thatfertilizer agent 1125 had no significantly(P 0.05)inhibition on the fungi growth. Therefore, this disease preventionwas due to an increased immunity as well as Cu(OH)2and Zn(OH)2 found in fertilizer agent 1125 that formed a protective membrane physically preventing disease. Fertilizeragent1125 could prevent Rhizoctonia solani disease in cabbage and increase freshness, reduce the chemical residue, delay aging, and increase shelf life.[Ch, 5 tab. 6 ref.]
Review of researches on allelopathy of ornamental plants
ZHANG Lan, GAO Su-ping
2007, 24(4): 497-503.
[Abstract](1237) [PDF](198)
Allelopathy of ornamental plants has becomes a focus topic in recent years. This paper systematically reviewed the domestic and overseas researches on the conception, arguments and methods of allelopathy,components and mechanism of allelopathic substances. It is concluded that there were six problems in the research of this field.(1)Little scientific literatures and comparatively more empirical materials could be found, and researcheswere not thorough enough.(2) Research objects need to be defined, and the research should focus on the application of allelopathy in the plant arrangement of landscape gardens.(3) The existence of allelopathy in the real environment needs to be confirmed. Allelopathy should be distinguished from other stress mechanisms in future researches, and the emphasis of researches should be the roles of allelopathy in interaction.(4)The differences of conditions between laboratory studies and natural environments led to less convincing experimental results. The laboratory methods should be combined with natural simulation test in the future allelopathy researches.(5)The reports about allelochemicals were few. The allelochemical researches should focus on the ornamental plantsand their varieties.(6)The research on the mechanism of allelopathy was not thorough enough.Researchers should deepen the research on the mechanismof the allelopathy and find general rules in order to guide arrangement of ornamental plants.[Ch, 56 ref.]
Research advance in butterfly diapause
YI Chuan-hui, CHEN Xiao-ming, SHI Jun-yi, ZHOUCheng-li
2007, 24(4): 504-510.
[Abstract](1618) [PDF](264)
Diapause is a kind of strategy of butterfly to live through the adverse conditions, and it is all instinctof butterfly coming into being in the progress of the evolvement. The recently related researches are reviewed,including the diapause stage, the sensitive stage, the effect of daylength and other environmental factors on diapause, and structural, physiological and biochemical changes in the duration of diapause. The researches mainly focus on the effects of environment on diapause, but less on physiological, biochemical and neurohomonal mechanisms, and nearly fewonmolecularmechanisms. These not-in-depth areaswill be hot, and some high value butterfly specieswill be paid more attention. One of the difficulties of the study in diapause is how to get enough butte flies. So, the breeding technology on butterflies should be improved, and promote the research of diapause.[Ch, 63 ref.]
Diversity of landscape architecture approach in city birds protection
ZHANG Zong, LIANG Nan-nan, GUO Yu-dong, ZHAO Jun
2007, 24(4): 511-515.
[Abstract](2643) [PDF](211)
Bird are an important component of the urban ecological system, having very high ecological and aesthetic values. However, urbanization has changed the pattern of the utilization of city land. It is difficult for birds to survive because of the vanishing or changing of their habitats. To build a sustainable developing urban green space systemwith scientific landscape architecture designs is an effective way tomaintain the diversity of birds in city. We should enhance the integration of urban green spaces, appropriate choice of landscape plants, improve the bird-attracting installations and recognite the construction of urban wetland landscape. By analyzing the naturalized landscape architecture approaches mentioned previously, it is hoped to build a benign triune biosphere between bird, people and environment, and improve the aesthetic value of the city green spaces.[Ch, 23 ref.]