2008 Vol. 25, No. 5

Foliar-applied boron (B) to prevent B-deficiency in red bayberry(Myrica rubra
MENG Ci-fu, CAO Zhi-hong, JIANG Pei-kun, XU Qiu-fang, ZHOU Guo-mo
2008, 25(5): 543-547.
[Abstract](4417) [PDF](395)
Red bayberry(Myrica rubra),a fruit tree,is very sensitive to boron (B)-deficiency. Three trials were conducted in Zhejiang Province to study the response of red bayberry to foliar B application and to determine the optimum period of application. Treatments included application to:soil + foliar B,foliar B,and soil;foliar-applied:1) B and B plus:2) urea,or 3),urea and KH2PO4;and timing of the spray:autumn(5 August of 2002),before blossoming(5 March of 2003)or full flowering day(20 April of 2003). Each treatment had four replications. After treatment,fruit setting rate,fruit weight,length of branch sprouted in spring,concentration of N,P,K,and B in leaf were determined. Results showed that foliar-applied B not only significantly(P<0.05)improved sprouting of spring and summer shoots,but also significantly(P<0.05) increased fruit yield and improved fruit quality. Different B applications on fruit yield and quality of red bayberry showed:soil application + foliar B application > foliar B application > soil application. Urea or urea + KH2PO4 added to a foliar B application not only significantly(P<0.05)increased tree uptake of B,but also significantly(P<0.05) increased yield. Overall,foliar-applied B was found to be an effective method to correct B-deficiency of fruit trees with the optimum growth stage(before blossoming or full flowering days) for application being at full bloom.[Ch,5 tab. 18 ref.]
Soil microbial diversity with different fertilizer types and rates in a Phyllostachys praecox stand
XU Qiu-fang, JIANG Pei-kun, LU Yi-tong
2008, 25(5): 548-552.
[Abstract](4612) [PDF](319)
High rates of fertilization and heavy winter mulching commonly practiced in Phyllostachys praecox forest have resulted in several problems,such as bamboo grove deterioration and a decrease in soil quality. A randomized complete block design(RCB) trial with six treatments and three replications was conducted to determine the effects of fertilization on soil microbial biomass and diversity. This trial designed in two parts,treatments 1,2 and 3 with mixture of mineral and organic fertilizer composed of urea,compound fertilizer,manure or rape cake with relative nitrogen value of 2.0,2.0,1.0 (contained 673.5 kg·hm - 2 of N);treatments 4,5 and 6 with pure mineral fertilizer composed of urea and compound fertilizer with relative nitrogen value of 2.0,1.5 and 1.0 in order,was conducted in May 2005 and soils sampled in December. Compared to soils with a pure mineral fertilizer(treatments 4,5,and 6),soil total organic C(TOC) was significantly higher(P<0.01) in soils having a mixture of mineral and organic fertilizer(treatments: 1,2,and 3);with more organic fertilizer (treatments 1 and 2 in contrast to 3) relatively more(P<0.05) TOC was found. With both mineral and organic fertilizers(treatments 1 and 2),soil microbial biomass C (MBC) was significantly greater(P<0.01) than single mineral fertilizer(treatments 4 ,5 and 6). With an increase in the rate of organic fertilizer,soil MBC increased with treatment 1 and 2 significantly higher (P<0.01) than treatment 3;however,with an increase in the rate of mineral fertilizer used,it decreased with treatment 4 and 5 significantly lower(P<0.01) than treatment 6. As for soil microbial diversity characterized as average well color development(AWCD),with various rates of organic fertilizer there were no differences between treatments,however with different mineral fertilizer rates AWCD values decreased with treatment 4 significantly lower(P<0.01) than treatment 5 and 6 at the end of incubation. [Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 20 ref.]
Alnus nepalensis seedling growth with N and P treatments
FU Yu-pin, XU Liang, BAI Shang-bin, MENG Guang-tao, QI Rong-pin
2008, 25(5): 553-558.
[Abstract](4956) [PDF](229)
Nitrogen(N) and phosphorus(P) are important nutrients for tree growth. There is low N and P content of mountain soil in Yunan Province. They maybe affect Alnus nepalensis seedling growth. This aim was to study Alnus nepalensis seedling growth with different N and P supply. Sand culture greenhouse experiments were used to determine the growth response of Alnus nepalensis to three N treatments (50,210,and 420 mg·L-1) and four P treatments(14,32,62,and 124 mg·L-1),of which the control treatment design was 210 mg·L-1 N and 62 mg·L-1 P. Split-plot design with 9 treatments and 5 replications was used in the experiment. Results showed:(1)There had significant changes in root biomass,shoot biomass,leaf biomass,height and diameter increments of seedlings with different N and P supply,but no interaction between N and P,of which the effect of N was remarkable(P < 0.05),and P was extreme remarkable(P < 0.01). However,when N or P supply was less than the control,seedling growth reduced. (2)With increasing P and with N lower than 210 mg·L-1,the fine root mass/leaf mass ratio and root mass/shoot mass ratio was reduced,whereas with N of 210 mg·L-1 these two ratios increased.(3)Compared to the control,with N of 50 and 210 mg·L-1 as P increased,N content of roots and shoots decreased,but leaf N increased.(4)For all N treatments,P concentration in roots,shoots,and leaves was lowest with P 32 mg·L-1. In conclusion,there was an important effect of Alnus nepalensis seedling growth with balanced N and P supply or with increased P from a Hoagland solution.[Ch,4 fig. 3 tab. 9 ref.]
Crude toxin production of Botryosphaeria dothidea:initial conditions and characteristics
LIANG Jun, WEI Shu-hua, YE Jian-ren, ZHANG Xing-yao
2008, 25(5): 559-564.
[Abstract](4863) [PDF](245)
To study pathogenic mechanisms,initial conditions and characteristics of crude toxins produced from Botryosphaeria dothidea(Moug. ex Fr.) Ces. de Not. were first analyzed using the degree of browning on callus of Populus × beijingensis as the appraisal index. Results showed that with light,shaking,being cultured in a modified Fries No.3 liquid medium at 25 °C for 21 days,and a pH of 5.60 (acidic) and 7.00 (neutral),was the optimum condition for crude toxins production by B. dothidea. Additionally,produced more toxin. When treated with high temperature(121 °C) and high pressure(0.11 MPa) for 15 minutes,the toxins exhibited thermal instability and lost their bioactivity. However,with acidity and alkalinity they did remain active. Although toxicity decreased slightly,activity with this higher temperature and pressure was similar(P>0.05) to toxins with pH of 4.69 and 8.69. [Ch,5 fig. 3 tab. 18 ref.]
Variation in elytral color with Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) for different sites and altitudes in Yunnan Province
ZHANG Xiao-ning, OU Xiao-hong, CHEN Jie, SITU Ying-xian
2008, 25(5): 565-568.
[Abstract](4187) [PDF](194)
Adult individuals of Coccinellidae show variation in elytral color patterns,including Harmonia axyridis (Pallas). In order to determine the role of site and altitude in the elytral color polymorphism,specimens were collected using routing design method in Shangri-La(1 800 m),Dongchuan(770 - 2 600 m),Yuanjiang(625 - 2 160 m),and Kunming(1 900 m) of Yunnan Province from May 2006 to March 2007,and variation in elytral color of H. axyridis was studied. Results showed that after elytra color was divided into black and yellow series with 43 variance patterns,most H. axyridis were in the yellow series. In Shangri-La,Dongchuan,and Kunming the black series totaled less than the yellow,but the black series dominated in Yuanjiang. In the middle altitude belt(1 200 - 2 000 m) the splash variance of H. axyridis was greatest. The elytra color variance of H. axyridis is an active adaptation to the environment. [Ch,3 fig. 2 tab. 12 ref.]
Joint effects of bamboo vinegar and pesticide adjuvant on surface tension
BAO Bin-fu, WANG Pin-wei, ZHANG Qi-sheng, SHEN Zhe-hong, MA Jian-yi
2008, 25(5): 569-572.
[Abstract](4358) [PDF](211)
The joint effects of bamboo vinegar and 11 kinds of pesticide adjuvant on surface tension were studied to improve the use of bamboo vinegar. The result indicated that combined use of bamboo vinegar with sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and sodium dodecyl sulfate had the comparatively large effects on the surface tension,which could greatly decrease the capability of the pesticide adjuvant,indicating a strong antagonistic joint effect. Among the 11 kinds of pesticide adjuvant,the compound of bamboo vinegar and OP-10,BD-3071 had the greatest effect which could promote the pesticide adjuvant to reduce the surface tension,indicating a synergistic joint effect. The combined use of bamboo vinegar with the Lignosulfonic acid,surfactant-810,NS-146,GL-B005,VIS777 and GL-B002 nearly had no effect on surface tension,indicating an added joint effect. In conclusion,pesticide adjuvant OP-10 and BD-3071 combined with the bamboo vinegar had the greatest joint effects. [Ch,1 tab. 13 ref.]
Infrared radiation with bamboo charcoal
ZHANG Wen-biao, LI Wen-zhu, ZENG Fan-di
2008, 25(5): 573-577.
[Abstract](4364) [PDF](214)
Infrared radiation characteristics with bamboo charcoal were studied using a Fourier spectrometer and infrared radiation. Results showed that(1) with 25 °C and a wave from 8.00 to 25.00 μm,the normal spectral emissivity of bamboo charcoal was high reaching 0.888 to 0.904. (2) Infrared absorption of bamboo charcoal with peaks centered around 8.00 to 14.00 μm corresponded well to Wien’s Law,which fits to the human body extremely advantageous remote infrared ray wavelength range. (3) The infrared emissivity of bamboo charcoal was no significant difference at 700 - 1 100 °C. Bamboo charcoal for different ages of bamboo had different infrared emissivity abilities,mainly due to its chemical composition. This research demonstrated that bamboo charcoal has great practical application potential in fields,such as health care,maintaining body heat,and so on. [Ch,2 fig. 1 tab. 18 ref.]
Tree species selection for an ecological landscape forest at Qingshan Lake,Zhejiang Province
MA Jun, WEI Xin-liang, YOU Jian-lin, XU Xiao-jun
2008, 25(5): 578-583.
[Abstract](9216) [PDF](424)
ree species selection is a key technical element in the construction of an ecological landscape forest. Designed to facilitate tourism development at Qingshan Lake National Forest Park in Zhejiang Province,this research considered the local environment and ecosystem to determine a set of standards for tree species selection and then determine the best trees to use. With the advice of specialists,standards consisting of biological characteristics,ornamental characteristics,and ecological functions were chosen. To this end,twelve evaluating indexes were used including morphological habit,rate of growth,adaptability to soil,and resistance to insect pests and diseases. With a five level rating system,a quantitative grade was determined for each index,and using a stratified analysis,weights were fixed for each index. Then,this comprehensive evaluating index system and quantitative model were applied to 41 tree species to determine tree species selection. Results showed that among the deciduous tree species,Albizzia julibrissin,Liquidambar formosana,Sapium sebiferum,Pistacia chinensis,Ailanthus altissima,and Ginkgo biloba were excellent choices,and that among evergreen tree species,Castanopsis sclerophylla,Cinnamomum camphora,Michelia maudiae,and Schima superba were excellent ones. However,Albizzia julibrissin with its low branching habit was not appropriate for large-scale planting. Therefore,the suggested primary tree species for Qingshan Lake National Forest Park were the following four species:Liquidambar formosana,Sapium sebiferum,Castanopsis sclerophylla,and Cinnamomum camphora. [Ch,2 tab. 64 ref.]
Application of theory of “similar nature forest”in building landscape forests
CAI Xia, YE Xu-ying, XU Hong-xia, FANG Wen-fei
2008, 25(5): 584-590.
[Abstract](4077) [PDF](308)
We apply the theory of “similar nature forests” on the basis of the forest landscapes which should be recovered and rebuilt broad-leaved evergreen forests. We also follow the rules of the origin vegetation of natural distribution and native development,and promote the differences of measures using manpower,and adopt four technical ways to establish similar nature forests,which are “similar natural isolating the hills for afforestations,similar natural patch planting,similar natural reform and similar natural construction”. These differences are characterized by “wildness,coarseness,low cost and high efficiency”. We have made an experiment in the landscape forests in the degenerate districts of the forest ecology which are along the both sides of the No. 5 provincial road and the expressway between Hangzhou and Qiandaohu Lake during the year of 2005 and 2007. The total experiment area is 1 721.2 hm2. The results indicated that compared with the traditional operation methods,the experiment had saved the labor force by 135 - 165 hm2,nursery-grown plants of 900 - 1 200 hm2 and reduced the cost by 53.2% - 67.7% in these forest landscapes. The earth erosion in these forests was decreased by 83.6%. The plentiful and average index number of the arbor trees was 4.79 times and 1.6 times of undeveloped Cunninghamia lanceolata. It has achieved great ecological,social and economic benefits. [Ch,1 tab. 10 ref.]
Sub-alpine forest structure resulting from human disturbances in Shangri-La County,China
XU Hui-min, ZHANG Jin-feng, XIANG Hong-mei, GUO Hua
2008, 25(5): 591-596.
[Abstract](4082) [PDF](203)
Human disturbance strongly impacts a forest ecosystem. We want to know the quantitative relation of the disturbance intensity and the forest structure. In this research forest tree species composition,importance values of tree species,and community structure of a subalpine forest ecosystem in Shangri-La County were studied using 12 sample plots with three types of intensities of human disturbance. Results showed that human disturbance increased tree species diversity. Moreover,with an increase in disturbance intensity,forest species diversity declined. In addition,structural fragments(no tree layer) appeared in disturbed forest communities,and stand volume decreased. Thus,succession in the forest ecosystem was being damaged,suggesting that plantations of timber forests,non-timber forest products,and fuelwood forests could be used to help mitigate the human disturbances as well as alleviate dependence on the forest resources. [Ch,4 tab. 15 ref.]
Nutrients and litter decomposition in Vatica mangachapoi forest versus Casuarina equisetifolia plantation
WANG Min-ying, LIU Qiang, DING Ya-feng, FU Su-zhen, YE Zhao-li, FENG Tai-sheng
2008, 25(5): 597-603.
[Abstract](3874) [PDF](246)
The aim of this study was to provide a scientific basis for constructing a mixed forest of Vatica mangachapoi and Casuarina equisetifolia . Comparative biogeochemical and litter decomposition studies were conducted in similar environmental conditions on Shimeiwan Coast in Wanning City,Hainan Island. Results showed that (1) the concentration of N in leaf and branch compartments of V. mangachapoi forest was significantly higher(Pleaf = 0.008,Pbranch<0.001)than that of C. equisetifolia plantation;the concentration of phosphorus in leaf,branch and root compartments of V. mangachapoi forest was significantly higher(Pleaf =0.030,Pbranch< 0.001,Proot = 0.021) than that of C. equisetifolia plantation;the concentration of K in leaf,branch and root compartments of V. mangachapoi forest was significantly higher(Pleaf< 0.001,Pbranch<0.001,Proot<0.001) than that of C. equisetifolia plantation. (2)In the soil,N and K of the V. mangachapoi forest was significantly higher(PN<0.001,PK = 0.028) than that of the C. equisetifolia plantation,but phosphorus was not significantly different. (3) Concentrations of N,P,and K in all compartments of both forest and plantation changed with the season,except for the concentration of N and P in soil compartments. Finally,(4)the turnovers of V. mangachapoi litter and C. equisetifolia litter were 3.52 and 1.83 years respectively under V. mangachapoi forest,whereas they were 3.53 and 3.45 years respectively under C. equisetifolia plantation. Thus,the V. mangachapoi forests had a stronger N,P,and K accumulation capability than the C. equisetifolia plantation,and the microenvironment under V. mangachapoi was more conductive to litter decomposition.[Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 33 ref.]
Effects of aqueous extracts of Cinnamomum bodinieri and Liriodendron chinense litter fall on physiological activities of Pinus massoniana seedlings
HE Pei-yun, DING Gui-jie
2008, 25(5): 604-608.
[Abstract](4078) [PDF](263)
The allelopathic effects of litter fall of Cinnamomum bodinieri and Liriodendron chinense on the physiological activities of Pinus massoniana seedling were studied by using the biological identification method with litter extract solution. The results indicated that the aqueous extracts of the two broad-leaved tree species promoted the chlorophyll content and cell membrane permeability of the receptor plant but inhibited its photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate. The nitrogen and phosphorus absorption of donor C. bodinieri and L. chinense presented a trend of promotion in low concentration and an inhibition in high concentration;and they both promoted the absorption of the potassium. As far as the photosynthetic rate of P. massoniana seedling is concerned,the L. chinense can be selected as a companied species for P. massoniana. [Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 18 ref.]
Water consumption and transpiration for seedlings of three ornamental tree species in Beijing
CHE Wen-rui, MA Lü-yi, WANG Rui-hui, FAN Min, DUAN Jie
2008, 25(5): 609-613.
[Abstract](4482) [PDF](254)
The objective is to contribute to the theoretical basis for reasonable selection of greening tree species and its water management. Water consumption characteristics due to transpiration for three ornamental tree species;namely Magnolia denudata,Liriodendron chinense,and Robinia pseudoacacia;were systematically studied in Beijing using a Li-6400 Portable Photosynthesis System and BP-3400 precision electronic balance. Results showed that 1)the spring transpiration rate of these three trees was higher than summer and autumn;2)daily water consumption for these species was greatest in spring;and 3)the annual average daily water consumption rates were in the order:M. denudata (1.493 8 kg·m -2·d -1) > L. chinense(1.234 1 kg·m -2·d -1) > R. pseudoacacia (0.623 6 kg·m -2·d -1). The rate of annual average daily water consumption is important for evaluating the water consumption capability of a tree.[Ch,4 fig. 1 tab. 19 ref.]
Morphological and photosynthetic characteristics of Ligularia stenocephala with shading
LIN Xia-zhen, LU Ting
2008, 25(5): 614-618.
[Abstract](4010) [PDF](218)
Ligularia stenocephala(Compositae),a perennial herb,is a potential ground-cover plant. Shading(0,55%,and 75%) was applied to L. stenocephala to determine a theoretical basis for morphological and photosynthetic characteristics in plantation and landscape application. Results indicated that relative growth rate was higher with 55% shading. The diurnal variation of net photosynthesis(Pn) in L. stenocephala with all shade conditions presented a double-peak curve with a midday depression for Pn at 13:00. For shading of 0,55%,and 75%,the light compensation points(LCP) were 13.20,15.10,and 8.63 μmol·m -2·s-1;the light saturation points (LSP) were 919.66,749.20,and 727.34 μmol·m -2·s -1;the maximum net photosynthetic rates were 13.20,15.10,and 8.63 μmol·m-2·s-1;and apparent quantum efficiencies were 0.040 1,0.046 0,and 0.046 3,respectively. The maximum Pn rate significantly(P<0.05) increased,and LSP were significantly(P<0.05) decreased with 55% and 75% shading,with shading of 75%,LCP were significantly lower than shading of 0 and 55%. This result indicated that L. stenocephala was adapted to weak light. Thus,L. stenocephala is a shade tolerant plant that can be planted under low light conditions. [Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 16 ref.]
Anatomical characteristics of dwarf Cunninghamia lanceolata
CHEN Fen-xue, HUANG Hua-hong, TONG Zai-kang, ZHU Yu-qiu, HE Fu-ji
2008, 25(5): 619-623.
[Abstract](5058) [PDF](255)
To reveal how dwarfing occurs with Cunninghamia lanceolata(Chinese fir),and clarify the internal structure of both branch and leaf,the anatomical characteristics of a dwarf and a control(a normal tree) were compared with the method of manufacture slice in 2007 and using t-test. Results revealed that the average growth of the trunk (25.54 cm) and branches (24.59 cm) of the dwarf were significantly(P<0.01) lower than the control (trunk:89.61 cm and branches:57.52 cm). Furthermore,for the bark,the dwarf average was 76.50%,and the control was 37.70%(P<0.01). The average mean area of a tracheid cell for the dwarf (241.901 6 μm2) was significantly(P<0.01) lower than the control (308.894 6 μm2),however,the average dwarf tracheid density was 3 375 cells·mm -2,whereas the control was significantly(P<0.01) lower at 2 456 cells·mm -2. For leaf unit length,the dwarf average (trunk:14 leaves·cm -1 and branches:10 leaves·cm -1) were significantly(P<0.01) greater than the control (trunk or branches:7 leaves·cm -1);however,there were no difference in the proportion of palisade tissue and spongy tissue. [Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 13 ref.]
Evaluation on quality of twenty-five clones of Camellia oleifera Group Gan
ZUO Ji-lin, GONG Chun, WANG Jian-ping, ZHOU Wen-cai, WEN Qiang, XU Lin-chu
2008, 25(5): 624-629.
[Abstract](4521) [PDF](203)
Based on the comprehensive indexes including yield of oil,the economic characters of fruit and its fatty acids composition,25 clones’ quality of Camellia oleifera (oil camellia) Group Gan was evaluated,which provided scientific grounds for breeding and selection of superior oil camellia clones. By the principal component analysis,the article compared the quality of the twenty-five clones and ranked their advantages and disadvantages. The results indicated that the differences among the twenty-five clones were significant,which reached medium intensity variation. Of the eleven indexes evaluating the quality of oil camellia,the oil contents in the fresh fruits,the dry seed producing rate,linoleic acid,oleic acid and the oil production played decisive roles. The ranking of the quality of 25 clones from the best to the worst was as follows:Ganshi 84-8,Ganwu 1,Ganwu 11, Ganshi 83-4,Gangfu 20,Ganwu 16,Gan 71,Ganshi 83-1,Gan 6,Ganwu 24,Ganshi 84-3,Gan 8,Ganxing 48,Gan 55,Ganyong 6,Ganxin 46,Gan 68,Ganwu 15,Gan 70,Ganwu 12,Ganwu 2,Gan 77024,Gan 190,Gan 447 and Ganyong 5. [Ch,5 tab. 13 ref.]
Polyploidy induction in Zantedeschia elliottiana
, LIANG Guo-lu,
2008, 25(5): 630-634.
[Abstract](5252) [PDF](203)
To determine colchicine’s best concentration and treating time for inducing polyploidy in colorful calla lily,test materials with yellow cultivar of bulbs from Zantedeschia elliottiana ‘Black Magic’,were induced in vitro to form small buds from callus. Then,the small buds were soaked in the chemical reagent colchicine of 0.2,0.5 and 1.0 g·L -1 for 24,48 or 72 hours with 30 replications to induce polyploidy. Then,count the number of chromosome,and compare morphologic difference between the polyploidy and the diploid. Results showed that soaking small buds in 0.5 g·L -1 of colchicine for 48 hours could successfully induce tetraploid with an induction rate of 13.3%. The tetraploid were stronger and had thicker and larger leaves,larger guard cells,more chloroplasts,and less stoma density than the diploid. The tetraploid would mend the pace of new breed varieties.[Ch,3 fig. 3 tab. 18 ref.]
Sediment and yield runoff with simulated rainfall on a barren slope
SUN Da, ZHANG Miao-xian, HAN Jin, HUANG Fang
2008, 25(5): 635-638.
[Abstract](4078) [PDF](188)
To assess sediment and yield runoff on a barren slope in the Qingshan Catchment of Lin’an City,Zhejiang Province,a field ,simulated rainfall experiment was carried out using five rainfall intensities(1.66,1.57,1.51,0.97,0.65 mm·min -1). Results showed that with an increase of rainfall intensity and a decrease in runoff time,runoff,ratio of sediment yield and sediment yield increased. When rainfall intensity was 1.66 mm·min -1,the runoff time was 47 seconds,and after 30 minutes,runoff reached 0.898 m3 with a soil erosion modulus of 30 t·km -2. As a logarithmic function,rainfall intensity was negatively correlated with runoff time(r = - 0.965 5,P<0.01),while it increased with the exponential of the runoff correlation(r = 0.921 8,P<0.01)and soil erosion modulus(r = 0.963 5,P<0.01). Also,with runoff as a power function,the correlation was r = 0.873 6(P<0.01). [Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 11 ref.]
Supercritical CO2 extraction of natural pigment from Citrus paradisi ‘Changshan Huyou’ cuticle
SHI Hai-xiang, ZHONG Shan-min, WU Feng-hua
2008, 25(5): 639-643.
[Abstract](3763) [PDF](216)
In order to obtain the optimal technical condition on the extraction of Citrus paradisi‘Changshan Huyou’and give a theoretic guarantee of extracting it in a large-scale and industrial way,cuticle of ‘Changshan Huyou’was studied with the supercritical CO2 technology. Factors affecting extraction such as time,pressure,95% ethanol dosage and temperature were studied. The results showed that the optimal technical condition of extracting natural pigment from‘Changshan Huyou’cuticle were as follows:extracting time was 2 h;extracting pressure was 25 MPa;95% ethanol dosage was 300 mL;extracting temperature was 35 ℃. After extracting,the liquid pigment was dried to a permanent weight to calculate the extraction rate. The extraction rate was 3.78%. [Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 15 ref.]
Regional characteristics of the domestic waste and its circular use in rural Zhejiang
CHEN Rong, SHAN Sheng-dao, WU Ya-qi
2008, 25(5): 644-649.
[Abstract](4286) [PDF](243)
Through random sampling survey,judgmental sampling survey,and interviews with related departments,an investigation and analysis of the domestic waste in rural Zhejiang Province was conducted. The results indicated that in 2006 each household in rural Zhejiang produced about 3 kg domestic waste every day,i.e.,each person produced about 1 kg domestic waste per day. The total output of the domestic waste in rural Zhejiang was on the quick rise. Rural domestic waste was made up of complex components and influenced greatly by seasons. There was a long way to solve the pollution caused by rural domestic waste. And the regional differences of domestic waste were significant. The results indicated that most farmers didn’t have awareness of protecting environment. There were no sound classification of domestic waste and its disposal was really difficult. In order to promote the building of ecological villages and towns in rural Zhejiang,it’s important to enhance farmers’ awareness of protecting environment,improve circular management system,and set up special funds to deal with domestic waste. [Ch,3 tab. 11 ref.]
Structure and social economic roles of modern bamboo science and technology parks in Zhejiang Province
ZHANG Xiao-yan, SHEN Yue-qin, MAO Yu-xiang, FU Zhi-zhen
2008, 25(5): 650-655.
[Abstract](4804) [PDF](235)
Agricultural science and technology park is a platform and carrier to research,develop,demonstrate and extend the agricultural science and technology. As a new developmental pattern,it is important to increase farmers’ income and develop the countryside. Taking the modern bamboo science and technology parks in Anji County and Suichang County as examples,using the participatory rapid rural appraisal (PRRA) method,the paper analyzed the development and the structure of the modern bamboo science and technology parks. The parks consisted of core area,demonstration area and radiation area. The in-depth survey and statistic analysis of 120 farmer households revealed the social and economic roles of the modern bamboo science and technology parks. The parks are effective means and platforms to increase per-unit income from the land,increase farmers’ income,extend technology,adopt governmental policies,increase farmers’ quality and employment. [Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 11 ref.]
Instilling qualities of willingness to work,modesty,and competence in students of Zhejiang Forestry College
WANG Shi-hua
2008, 25(5): 656-660.
[Abstract](4050) [PDF](212)
In the half century since Zhejiang Forestry College was founded in 1958,the college has been geared to the rural area,the grass-roots level and society (3 facings),has attached great importance to nurturing students with a good quality of willingness to work,modesty and competence,and has contributed to the development of forestry economy in Zhejiang Province and even in the whole country,based on characteristics of agricultural and forestry areas. Many of the graduates have helped forestry peasants throw off poverty and set out on a road to prosperity. This paper analyzed and summarized development of the education ideal,practice way and effects,which would be useful for other universities with the same category in the talent-nurturing orientation. [Ch,6 ref.]
Research progress of applying Pilodyn in genetic improvement of forests
ZHU Jing-le, WANG Jun-hui, ZHANG Shou-gong, ZHANG Jian-guo, SUN Xiao-mei, LIANG Bao-song
2008, 25(5): 661-665.
[Abstract](4184) [PDF](202)
Pilodyn is a non-destructive testing tool to test the wood density indirectly. Based on the review of the domestic and overseas scholars’ research on the application of Pilodyn,we expatiated on the working principle,applying method,merits and deficiencies,and points for attentions in the practical use. It concluded that Pilodyn was a cheap,convenient,quick non-destructive testing tool which could obtain plenty of data rapidly and accurately. It was important for the genetic improvement and selection of the wood property. It also discussed the bright future of Pilodyn in the selection and improvement of wood property. [Ch,27 ref.]
Hybrid identification of Cunninghamia lanceolata × Platycladus orientalis based on ISSR markers
QI Ming
2008, 25(5): 666-669.
[Abstract](4751) [PDF](226)
To identify truthfulness of distant hybrids for Cunninghamia lanceolata(Chinese fir) × Platycladus orientalis,a series of exploratory experiments were conducted with 9 intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers having polymorphism screened out from 100 University of British Columbia(UBC) primer Set # 9(800 - 900). For A4(1419) × B1 distant cross combinations of C. lanceolata × P. orientalis,four outstanding seedlings were selected. Analysis of the parents and the four outstanding seedlings was done with DNA extraction;polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using 9 polymorphism primers;polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(PAGE) based on the following order of maternal:A4,seedlings (No. 2,3,11, 12),paternal,and ethylene dibromide (EB) staining;and DNA band observations with an ultraviolet lamp. Then,these were recorded with an FR-200A Bio-electrophoresis Image Analysis System. Experimental results of the four outstanding seedlings (No. 2,3,11,12) showed that for the combination of A4 × B1:(1) there were 16 paternal special bands in 7 of the 9 polymorphic primers and(2) there were no paternal special bands with the other 2 primers,but some common bands of their parents were detected within the four seedlings. Thus,(1) all selected outstanding seedlings were distant hybrids;(2) distant hybridization between C. lanceolata × P. orientalis was compatible;and(3) wide cross breeding of Chinese fir could be used for multiple-trait genetic improvement of forest trees. [Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 17 ref.]
Water potential and transpiration with decreasing soil moisture in Photinia frasery potted seedlings
YANG Jing, WANG Hua-tian, SONG Cheng-dong, ZHANG Pei-fa, WANG Ying, TAN Xiu-mei, DONG Yu-feng
2008, 25(5): 670-674.
[Abstract](3723) [PDF](164)
Diurnal soil and leaf water potential as well as transpiration rate of 2-year-old potted seedlings of Photinia frasery were studied with decreasing soil moisture conditions during the testing period. Also,a correlation analysis between the transpiration rate of the soil versus leaf water potential was conducted. Results indicated that the change of daily soil and leaf water potential was a‘V’shape with daily fluctuation range increasing as drought stress rose during the testing period. As soil water potential decreased over the experimental period,the daily mean transpiration rate decreased with daily fluctuation range decreasing and the transpiration peak occurring sooner. The correlation analysis showed that the correlation between transpiration rate and soil water potential was extremely significant(r = 0.804,P<0.01),while that of transpiration rate and leaf water potential was significant(r = 0.566,P< 0.05).[Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 19 ref.]
Microwave treatments on the ageing physiology of Dendrocalamopsis oldhami bamboo shoots
GAO Gui-bin, GU Xiao-ping, ZHANG Xiao-ping, ZHOU Yi-quan, YUE Jin-jun, YUAN Na
2008, 25(5): 675-678.
[Abstract](4414) [PDF](231)
In order to explore the inhibitory effects of microwave on bamboo shoots aging,and more safety and high-quality fresh-keeping method of bamboo shoots,changes in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase(PAL) activity and acid detergent fiber(ADF) mass fraction of Dendrocalamopsis oldhami bamboo shoots were studied using mid and high intensity microwave for 0(the control),10,20,and 30 seconds with four replication. Results showed that after being treated with mid intensity microwave,PAL activity decreased gradually from 155.4 to 62.0 nkat and after high intensity microwave with increasing times,decreased from 159.4 to 35.7 nkat. There were significant differences(P <0.05) between PAL activity of most shoot samples and the control(except for the sample treated for 10 s with mid intensity microwave). The ADF mass fraction decreased rapidly in the prophase,and was lower when the microwave intensity was stronger and treatment time was longer. All facts showed that the shoot ageing speed was faster in the prophase and slowed with increasing microwave intensities and prolonged time periods. [Ch,4 fig. 1 tab. 14 ref.]
Saxifraga stolonifera f. sepaloides:a new form of Saxifraga from Zhejiang,China
XIA Guo-hua, LI Gen-you
2008, 25(5): 679-680.
[Abstract](3926) [PDF](220)
Saxifraga stolonifera Curt. f. sepaloides G. H. Xia G. Y. Li,a new form of the Saxifraga from Lin’an City in Zhejiang,is described and illustrated. This form is related to S. stolonifera Curt. and S. stolonifera Curt. f. aptera(Makino) Hara.,but differs in corollas actinomorphic,petals homotypic and sepaloid.[Ch,2 fig. 3 ref.]