2008 Vol. 25, No. 6

Antifungal activity of camptothecin on Rhizoctonia solaniSphaerotheca fuliginea and Pseudoperonospora cubensis
ZHANG Li-qin, SUN Yi-zhao, WANG Pin-wei, TONG Sen-miao, MA Liang-jin
2008, 25(6): 681-684.
[Abstract](4135) [PDF](370)
Effectiveness of a naturally derived fungicide against Rhizoctonia solani,Sphaerotheca fuliginea and Pseudoperonospora cubensis was studied under greenhouse and field condition. In greenhouse,the cucumber(Cucumis sativus)seedlings, inoculated with the three fungi respectively,were planted in pot in the condition of 26 - 28 ℃,95% relative humidity,12-hour photophase and 12-hour scotophase after 16 hours illumination. The seedlings were spraying camptothecin in concentrations of with three replications. In the field,the cucumber seedlings inoculated with P. cubensis were spraying with 5,10,20,40 mg·L-1 camptothecin,600 mg·L-1 flumorph-mancozeb and water(the control)by three replications. The results showed that the product exhibited strong antifungal activity on the three plant pathogens,the ρlc50 and ρlc90 values were 41.964 mg·L-1,40.495 mg·L-1,27.489 mg·L-1 and 756.776 mg·L-1,247.026 mg·L-1, 341.818 mg·L-1 respectively. Field test of camptothecin against P. cubensis also showed that camptothecin had high inhibition effects on the pathogen,and the ρlc50 and ρlc90 values were 11.221 mg·L-1 and 69.128 mg·L-1 respectively. [Ch,2 tab. 13 ref.]
Study on the bacteriostasis of 2-ethylformate-3-formaldehyde thiosemicarbazone-quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide
KONG Xin-gang, GUO Ming, MAO Sheng-feng, LI Hua, YU Fei
2008, 25(6): 685-688.
[Abstract](4370) [PDF](200)
A new 2-ethylformate-3-formaldehyde thiosemicarbazone-quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide was synthesized by oxidizing and condensation reaction. The structure of product was characterized by elemental analyses,MS,IR and 1H NMR. And the antibacterial activity of the product against 9 indicative microorganisms was studied by disk diffusion method. The result showed that the compound had strong inhibitory activity against bacteria,but no inhibitory activity against fungi was observed. [Ch,4 fig. 11 ref.]
Myrica rubra plant growth,nodulation,and nitrogen fixation using a boron spray
HE Xin-hua, PAN Hong, LI Feng, QIN Hong-yan, LUO yan
2008, 25(6): 689-691.
[Abstract](3992) [PDF](275)
Myrica rubra is a boron sensitive plant,and many research were focused on its growth and development,fruit production,fruit quality by boron fertilization,but no research on the relationship of boron and its nitrogen fixation. One-year-old Myrica rubra ‘Dongkui’ in a randomized complete-block design with five replications was sprayed with five treatments of boron[0(control),6.6,13.2,19.8,and 26.4 mg total boric acid per tree,each treatment divide into seven times,sprayed on 15th from May to November of 2005]in fruit tree greenhouse of Guangxi University to quantify plant growth,nodulation,and nitrogen fixation. Results showed that trees sprayed with boric acid had higher growth,nodule biomass,and nitrogenase activities as well as higher total nitrogen(TN) and soluble N in the soil than the control(P<0.05). With boric acid application over a year,as the concentration of boric acid increased,the growth,nodule biomass,nitrogenase activity of the trees along with TN and soluble N in the soil gradually improved(P<0.05). Compared to the control,over a year the 19.8 mg boric acid spray caused 1) maximum plant biomass(30.3%),tree height(64.6%),nodulation(62.0%),and nitrogenase activity(31.6%) and 2) increased TN(31.3%) and soluble N(9.2%). Therefore,a proper supply of boric acid could improve nodulation and nitrogenase activity of Myrica rubra ‘Dongkui’ and promote its growth and development[Ch,3 tab. 10 ref.]
Effects of N,P and K ratio on the growth and development of cut chrysanthemum ‘Jinba’
JIANG Bei-bei, FANG Wei-min, CHEN Fa-di, GU Jun-jie
2008, 25(6): 692-697.
[Abstract](3939) [PDF](214)
To determine the effects of N,P,K nutrients on the growth and development of cut chrysanthemum ‘Jinba’(Dendramthema × grandiflorum ‘Jinba’) and obtain the optimum formula,experiment with orthogonal experimental design with three factors including N,P,K nutrients at three levels was conducted. The results indicated that under the condition of this experiment,N was the most important factor influencing the growth and development,and stem diameter,leaves area,flower diameter,length of petal,growth days of flower bud break,plant weight and length of root among three levels was significant(P<0.05). The effects of P on stem diameter,length of flower neck and growth days of flower bud broke was significant. The effects of K on length of flower neck,growth days of flower bud broke,leaves fresh mass and stem fresh mass was significant. The optimum fertilization level of N,P,K was N ∶ P ∶ K= 14.3 ∶ 2.0 ∶ 8.0 during vegetative growth stage and N ∶ P ∶ K = 7.1 ∶ 4.0 ∶ 12.0 during reproduction stage.[Ch,4 tab. 18 ref.]
Characteristics of vegetation and soil in embankment area of Shanghai Lingang New Town about 60 years
ZHANG Qun, CUI Xin-hong, XIA Lei, ZHU Yi, ZHANG Qing-fei
2008, 25(6): 698-704.
[Abstract](4514) [PDF](189)
Land accretion process of Lingang New Town,which is located southeast of Shanghai,has been formed for about 60 years. The deposition and sediments are affected by the water profiles of the Yangtze River and Hangzhou Gulf. The land reclamation activities such as embank construction in this region severely affect soil properties and distribution of plant communities. The relationship between the number of species and soil properties were investigated. The investigation recorded all together 66 species,64 genera,26 families for the four embank regions. The results show a positive correlation between the number of species and pH value of saline soils,but negative correlation between the number of species and electric conductivity(EC) of saline soils. Organic matter of soils and increasing salinity in October had a positive and a negative relationship with plant species significantly(P<0.05),respectively. The main reasons of plant distributing were diversity of soil organic and salinity. Our investigations provide a basic data set of Lingang New Town for better understanding of coastal processes and promote the planning reclamation work in this area. [Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 15 ref.]
Mobility and enrichment of manganese and phosphorus during limestone weathering in the Wujiang Catchments of southwestern China
SONG Zhao-liang, ZHU Zhao-zhou, YANG Cheng, WU Yong-feng
2008, 25(6): 705-710.
[Abstract](4329) [PDF](197)
How to improve phyto-availability of mineral nutrients Mn and P in calcareous soils has already become an important problem in karst areas. The study selected 9 limestone weathering profiles from the Wujiang Catchments,and investigated the mobility and enrichment behavior of Mn and P during limestone weathering with methods of R-type cluster analysis and mass balance calculation. The purpose of the study is to offer scientific references for cycle regulation of mineral nutrients such as Mn and P in karst areas. The results showed that our calcareous soils were rich in Mn and P relative to upper continental crust (UCC),Guilin calcareous soils(TS and MS) and world soil(WS). The enrichment of Mn in our studied calcareous soils was a result of preferential leaching of other more soluble elements (e.g.,Ca) from the studied profiles and precipitation of supergene Mn in the lower part of the studied profiles. The enrichment of P in our studied calcareous soils was a result of preferential leaching of other more soluble elements such as Ca from the studied profiles. Our studied calcareous soils had lower pH values than those from MS,lower base cation contents than MS,WS and UCC implying that Mn and P in our studied calcareous soils have certain mobility. [Ch,4 fig. 1 tab. 23 ref.]
Community characteristics of a Pinus tabulaeformis secondary forest and a planted forest in the Xunyangba Region of the Qinling Mountains
JING Li, ZHU Zhi-hong, WANG Xiao-an, GUO Hua
2008, 25(6): 711-717.
[Abstract](4983) [PDF](355)
Based on the survey and data from 8 plots,the community characteristics of a natural secondary forest of Pinus tabulaeformis and P. tabulaeformis plantation were compared using a standard quadrat method,in order to know influence of different management style on restoration of the communities after disafforest about 40 years. Analyses included use of the similarity,Shannon-Wiener,Margalef,Richness,Simpson’s Dominance,and Evenness Indices. Main results as follow:(1)The secondary forest consisted of 134 vascular species belonging to 66 families and 104 genera,whereas the planted forest included 125 vascular species in 73 families and 104 genera. The families which included 1 to 2 species were plentiful in the two communities. A similarity index of 53.0% was obtained with 70 co-occurring species. (2)The vertical structure of both communities contained tree,shrub,and herb layers,with the tree layer subdivided into three layers. Plant density in the tree and shrub layers of the plantation was lower than the secondary forest(P<0.05),but density in the herb layer was higher(P<0.05). (3)From the angle of spatial patterns,in both secondary forest and plantation,the Shannon-Wiener,Margalef,and Richness Indices were in the order shrub > herb > tree,and Simpson’s Dominance Indices were tree > herb > shrub. However,differences were found with the Evenness Index for the secondary forest(shrub > herb > tree)versus the plantation(shrub > tree > herb). Also,compared to the plantation,in the secondary forest the Margalef and Richness Indices of the tree layer were higher(P<0.05),but the Evenness Index was lower(P<0.05). Additionally,in the plantation,Simpson’s Dominance Index for the herb layer was higher than in the secondary forest(P<0.05). (4)Litter layer in plantation was thicker than that in natural secondary forest(P<0.05). Thus,after 40 years of restoration,there were many community attribute similarities between plantations and secondary forests meaning that P. tabulaeformis was suitable for afforestation at this site. [Ch,9 tab. 21 ref.]
Interspecies competition among dominant populations of Cerasus subhirtella var. ascendens community in Mount Wuyi of Fujian
XIE Chun-ping, YI Xian-gui, WANG Xian-rong
2008, 25(6): 718-722.
[Abstract](4347) [PDF](219)
In order to better understand the interspecific relationships of dominant tree species in Cerasus subhirtella var. ascendens community and better protect and develop this precious ornamental plant,the research methods of phytocoenology are utilized to study its community in Mount Wuyi,Fujian Province. In the community,the dominant populations are Cerasus subhirtella var. ascendens,Schima superba and Cyclobalanopsis glauca. Taking the dominance as the environmental carrying capacity,calculating the interspecies competition coefficient by percentage of relative dominance values,the interspecies competition among them was studied,and the Lotka-Volterra equation was also used to discussed the competition relationship in the paper. The results showed that after several years’ community succession,the relative dominance of Cerasus subhirtella var. ascendens,Schima superba and Cyclobalanopsis glauca would be 28.65%,62.17% and 9.18% respectively,which indicated that Cerasus subhirtella var. ascendens,Schima superba and Cyclobalanopsis glauca should be the dominant population in this community in the future. But Schima superba would replace the Cerasus subhirtella var. ascendens as the dominant population and control the whole community. It was suggested that moderate disturbance and artificial forest gaps be beneficial to the reproduction of Cerasus subhirtella var. ascendens.[Ch,4 tab. 18 ref.]
Dynamics of forest landscape pattern in Pangquangou National Nature Reserve
XIA Wei-weil, HAN Hai-rong, YI Li-ta, CHENG Xiao-qin
2008, 25(6): 723-727.
[Abstract](5638) [PDF](231)
Based on 1990 TM,1999 ETM and 2004 SPOT 5 satellite images,the geographic information system(GIS) technique was used to analyze the forest landscape dynamic of Pangquangou National Nature Reserve with indices including patch density,Shannon’s diversity index,Shannon’s evenness index and landscape aggregation index. The analysis of forest landscape dynamics indicated that the average size of woodland patches was gradually increased. During the research period,patch density and edge density of whole landscape were on the rise,which indicated that the whole landscape had a fragmentation trend. The forest landscape diversity decreased. As the dominant landscape type had more advantages,the heterogeneity of whole landscape was lower. The management departments of the reserve should pay great attention to the landscape fragmentation. They should adjust the management measures,control jamming,prolong the logging cycle,and increase the canopy density of stand. [Ch,4 tab. 12 ref.]
Morphology and photosynthesis of an intergeneric hybrid between Sinocalycanthus chinensis and Calycanthus floridus
SHENG Ning, YAO Qing-ju, REN Quan-jin, XIONG Yu-ning, SUN Xiao-fang
2008, 25(6): 728-732.
[Abstract](3855) [PDF](196)
We obtained an intergeneric hybrid between female,Sinocalycanthus chinensis,and male,Calycanthus floridus in 2001,in Nanjing botanical Garden Mem. Sun Yat-sen. This hybrid initially flowered in 2006. Differences in(1) flower morphology,(2) fecundity,and(3) photosynthesis and water use efficiency(WUE) between this intergeneric hybrid and its parents were researched in Nanjing in 2006 and 2007. Ecological differences of photosynthesis and water use with S. chinensis between nursery plants and those in an endangered species garden(ESG) were also studied. Results showed that (1) the intergeneric hybrid combined favorable qualities of its parents and had a high ornamental value with intermediate morphological characteristics for flowers-size,color,odor,and perianth arrangement,outer and inner row tepals(amount,size,color,shape,and texture),for stamens (fertile,staminodia,“food body”),and for pistils(style,stigma). Also,(2) natural fecundity was found in S. chinensis and non-normal fructification in C. floridus with the intergeneric hybrid exhibiting florescence but unfruitful for the two years of this study. Additionally,(3) the intergeneric hybrid was similar to C. floridus in photosynthesis and water use,but without a severe photosynthetic midday-depression or burns on leaves and bracts;in the nursery with natural sunlight,the hybrid showed a strong superiority to S. chinensis. In addition,compared to C. floridus,the hybrid,and S. chinensis in a nursery with natural sunlight,S. chinensis with shading in an ESG expressed a higher apparent quanta efficiency(AQE) and water use effiencyc(WUE) with lower rates of net photosynthesis and transpiration and with no photosynthetic midday-depression. [Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 17 ref.]
Diurnal changes of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence in Cattleya × hybrida and Phalaenopsis amabilis with different light intensities
WU Gen-liang, HE Yong, WANG Yong-chuan, SUN Yao, ZHU Zhu-jun
2008, 25(6): 733-738.
[Abstract](4386) [PDF](264)
Cattleya × hybrida and Phalaenopsis amabilis are popular for special flower and long florescence. We want to grasp the optimum illumination intensity for their cultivation. Diurnal changes in the rate of net photosynthesis (Pn) and parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence were studied with three light intensities:full light(no shading net,the most high light intensity was 860 μmol·m-2·s-1),36% of full light(with one layer of shading net,310 μmol·m-2·s-1) and 18% of full light(with two layers of shading net,160 μmol·m-2·s-1). The diurnal change were determined from 28th to 30th of September,2005 with three replications. The diurnal change in Pn for C. × hybrida and P. amabilis formed a“V”curve. From 10 a.m. onward to 6 p.m.,leaves in plants with full light and 36% of full light experienced negative photosynthesis. At 6 p.m.,Pn for full light intensity was still below 0,whereas the other two treatments were above 0. With 18% of full light intensity,compared to other two treatments,Pn decreased less at noon and recovered quicker. With full light intensity,variable fluorescence/maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm) of dark-adapted material,Φ photosystem Ⅱ(ΦPSⅡ),and photochemical quenching (qP) decreased in the leaves with increasing light intensity,and were lower at 6 p.m. than at 8 a.m. Changes for Fv/Fm,ΦPSⅡ,and qP at 36% of full light intensity were nearly the same as full light intensity,but were closer at 6 p.m. and 8 a.m. With 18% of light intensity,chlorophyll fluorescence in C. × hybrida and P. amabilis was steady for the whole day. For 36% and 18% of full light intensity,the electron transfer rate increased with increasing light intensity,whereas the opposite occurred with full light intensity. Thus,C. × hybrida and P. amabilis suffered serious photoinhibition with light intensity of 500 μmol·m-2·s-1,but could endure with 310 μmol·m-2·s-1 light intensity with an optimum light intensity of about 160 μmol·m-2·s-1. [Ch,6 fig. 15 ref.]
Epipremnum aureum:growth and photosynthetic response to light-emitting diodes(LED)
WU Jia-sen, FU Shun-hua, ZHENG Jun, ZHOU Guo-quan
2008, 25(6): 739-742.
[Abstract](4274) [PDF](288)
Light-Emitting Diode(LED) is turning into an important research field as a promising irradiation source for plant factory. To determine the influence of LED on growth and photosynthesis of Epipremnum aureum,a fluorescent lamp and two LEDs,the combination of red and blue LED(R/B) = 2.8 and R/B = 4.3,were used with seedling height,leaf number,leaf width,leaf spacing,leaf length,light quality,net photosynthetic rate,intercellular CO2 concentration,transpiration rate,and stomatal conductance being measured after 45 d of growth with three replications. Results of a t test for the a fluorescent lamp and two LEDs showed no significant difference (P>0.05) for seedling height,leaf number,and leaf width,but significant difference (P<0.05) for leaf spacing and leaf length,leaf spacing for LEDs decreased,whereas corresponding leaf length increased. With the two LEDs,light quality differences were slight. Also,significant difference (P<0.05) for net photosynthetic rate,intercellular CO2 concentration,transpiration rate,and stomatal conductance,these indexs with LEDs were higher than for a fluorescent lamp. Thus,for the two LED sources,the LED with R/B = 4.3 was more suitable for growth of E. aureum.[Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 13 ref.]
Biomass of Rhodiola fastigiata
LU Jie, ZHENG Wei-lie, LAN Xiao-zhong
2008, 25(6): 743-748.
[Abstract](3555) [PDF](249)
Rhodiola fastigiata is a famous,rare medicinal plant found in China. In order to rational utilization of this plant,its biomass was analyzed in four different habitats of Sejila Mountain in Tibet(Xizang) using correlation analysis. Results showed that environmental conditions affected average moisture content with scape and leaf > belowground(root) > main and branch stems,but not the ratio of the average modular moisture content to the average moisture content. The ratio of the fresh weight of aboveground to belowground parts was 6.65;the dry weight ratio was 7.57;the average individual biomass was 5.721 3 g;and the resource capacity was 93.8 kg·hm-2. Biomass of main and branch stems,aboveground parts,and the individual plant showed similarities(P<0.01) to stem rings,which correlation curves was“S”shaped;these were fit to a logistics equation;their environmental capacities were 12.749 7,13.226 9 and 15.534 5,and their corresponding instantaneous growth rates were 0.277 9,0.338 6 and 0.316 9,respectively. Stem and leaf biomass as well as belowground parts had a significant (P<0.01) correlation with a polynomial,which were fit to a logistics equation. Also,basic diameter to biomass of various parts were fit to a power function with correlation coefficients of r =0.802 1 for the main and branch stems,r = 0.803 2 for the aboveground parts,and r = 0.812 9 for the individual plant. [Ch,3 fig. 3 tab. 12 ref.]
Selecting provenances of Cephalotaxus fortunei for superior growth and content of harringtonine and homoharringtonine
LI Yin-gang, ZHOU Zhi-chun, JIN Guo-qing, LIAO Guo-hua, YU Neng-jian, WANG Yue-sheng
2008, 25(6): 749-755.
[Abstract](4265) [PDF](181)
To determine variation in geographic growth patterns,dry matter accumulation,and medicinal content of young Cephalotaxus fortunei trees and to select superior provenances with high yield for medicinal use in Mingxi of Fujian Province,a provenance test was set up at Mingxi,Fujian Province as well as Chun’an and Anji in Zhejiang Province. Two-year-old seedlings were chosen for random block design with three replications in February,2005,then branches and leaves were collected in September of 2006 to determine the content of harringtonine and homoharringtonine,and tree height,root collar diameter,number of branches,dry matter accumulation of each organ were measured in December of 2006. A correlation analysis was conducted. Results indicated strong differences(P<0.05) among provenances for tree height,root collar diameter,number of branches,dry matter accumulation of each organ,and content of harringtonine and homoharringtonine in branches and leaves. In addition,differences among long-leaf C. fortunei with high growth rate and dry matter accumulation was greater(P<0.05) than among short-leaf plants. Among the three sites,no differences between harringtonine and homoharringtonine content of leaves were found,whereas harringtonine was significantly greater (P<0.05) in branches. Also,longitude of the seed source was correlated to:1) dry matter accumulation (r = 0.423 3,P<0.05),as well as 2) leaf homoharringtonine(r = 0.505 1,P<0.05) and 3) branch harringtonine(r = 0.450 0,P<0.05). Overall,for the index of harringtonine and homoharringtonine yield of branches and leaves,superior medicinal provenances such as Wuyishan and Zherong in Fujian Province were selected.[Ch,8 tab. 14 ref.]
Ginkgo biloba seedling tolerance to high-temperature stress using salicylic acid
CAO Fu-liang, OU Zu-lan
2008, 25(6): 756-759.
[Abstract](3804) [PDF](264)
To determine tolerance,Ginkgo biloba seedlings were sprayed with salicylic acid (SA) and then subjected to high-temperature stress. Electrical conductivity,malondialdehyde(MDA) content,superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity,ascorbic acid(ASA) and soluble proteins and carbohydrates were determined. The 2 year-old seedlings were sprayed by SA at 0(the control),100 or 200 μmol·L-1 for 4 times (twice for one day) in July of 2007. Results showed that:SA at 100 μmol·L-1 increased SOD activity and ASA content,significantly(P<0.05)more efficient than the control and 200 μmol·L-1;SA at 100 and 200 μmol·L-1 restrained(P<0.05) the increase of electrical conductivity,significantly(P<0.05) lower than the control. In addition,compared with the control,treated seedling leaves showed higher(P<0.05) soluble protein content and lower(P<0.05) soluble carbohydrates content. All of these results indicated that pretreatment with SA could increase the tolerance of G. biloba seedlings to high-temperature stress.[Ch,3 fig. 21 ref.]
Pressure-volume curves and drought resistance of Catalpa bungei cultivars
CEN Xian-chao, PENG Fang-ren, CHEN Long-sheng, YANG Yan
2008, 25(6): 760-764.
[Abstract](4375) [PDF](180)
The Catalpa bungei resource has greatly diminished owing to self-incompatibility and improper planting in arid lands. To provide a theoretical foundation for afforestation in arid and semi-arid regions and to exploit the Catalpa resource,11 parameters of water characteristics for three Catalpa cultivars(‘Jin Si Qiu’,‘Zhou Qiu Ⅱ’,and ‘Yuan Ji Chang Guo Qiu’) were determined using culm-water characteristic curves. Seedlings from cuttings of C. bungei were cultured in Hoagland nutrient solution with 120 g·L-1 polyethylene glycol(PEG) 6000(treatment Ⅰ) to simulate draught stress and without PEG(treatment Ⅱ). One day after treatment application,the stems were measured by Hammel’s Method. Also draught resistance exponent functions were used for the analysis. Results from maximum osmotic potential at a water saturation point of Ψπ100,sufficiency expanded osmotic potential of Ψp100,apoplastic water volume(Vb),the ratio of apoplastic water to free water(Vb/Vf),and the relative apoplast water content(CAW) showed that ‘Jin Si Qiu’ was most resistant to draught stress. Exponential functions for draught resistance of Catalpa cultivars for treatments Ⅰ and Ⅱ were in the order:‘Jin Si Qiu’Ⅱ> ‘Zhou Qiu’Ⅱ> ‘Zhou Qiu’ Ⅰ> ‘Jin Si Qiu’ Ⅰ > ‘Yuan Ji Chang Guo Qiu’ Ⅱ> ‘Yuan Ji Chang Guo Qiu’ Ⅰ. So,‘Jin Si Qiu’ was the best cultivar for planting in drought area. [Ch,2 tab. 23 ref.]
Resistance to and absorbency of gaseous NO2 for 38 young landscaping plants in Zhejiang Province
MIAO Yu-ming, CHEN Zhuo-mei, CHEN Ya-fei, DU Guo-jian
2008, 25(6): 765-771.
[Abstract](4816) [PDF](277)
To enhance the ability of garden city landscapes to decontaminate toxic gases,we studied the resistances and absorbencies to nitrogen dioxide(NO2) of 38 commonly plants,which widely used in landscaping in Zhejiang Province with artificial fumigation method.According to the results of system cluster analysis by DPS software,resistances and absorbencies of the participants can be graded five levels:strong,moderately strong,mid-level,moderately weak,and weak. Results showed that the times to resist NO2 of these 38 participants were ranged from 97 h to 25.5 h. Camellia japonica has the longest time while both Canna generalis and Pyracantha fortuneana have the shortest time. Moreover,the absorbencies to NO2 of these 38 plants were also different. After treating them in fumigation chamber,the weakest one,Michelia maudiae,contains 1.4 mg·kg-1 of nitrogen while the strongest one,Pyracantha fortuneana,contains 476.3 mg·kg-1. [Ch,2 fig. 5 tab. 13 ref.]
Adhesive properties of a soy-based wood adhesive using sodium dodecyl sulfate
WEI Qi-hua, TONG Ling, CHEN Nai-rong, LIN Qiao-jia
2008, 25(6): 772-776.
[Abstract](4335) [PDF](247)
A 10.0 g·kg-1 concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS) was applied to a watery soy flour paste having a mass fraction of 250.0 g·kg-1 to produce SDS-modified soy-based wood adhesives. The hydrophobic adhesive properties of these modified soy-based adhesives were tested for pH,temperature,and reaction time;an infrared spectrum analysis was also conducted. Test results showed that the optimum parameters were a pH of 8,temperature of 35 °C,and a reaction time of 4 h. Infrared spectrum analysis showed that SDS-modification moved some inner hydrophobic side chains outward thereby increasing water resistance and hydrophobic adhesion strength.[Ch,4 fig. 3 tab. 10 ref.]
Application of “origin” garden ideology in modern cemetery park
XU Bin, DONG Hai-yan, JIN Min-li
2008, 25(6): 777-780.
[Abstract](4373) [PDF](213)
Cemetery park is a place for burying and recalling the deceased. It is not only the essential part of people’s lives but also an important composition of the urban landscaping system. According to the characteristic and the development direction of modern cemetery park,the paper put forward a planning concept of modern cemetery park based on the idea of “origin” garden. It explained the definition of “origin”,functions and themes of “origin” gardens. With Yundu cemetery park of Bozhou City in Anhui as the example,the paper discussed its spatial structure,burial,landscaping and architecture from the perspective of origin garden ideology. It also pointed out how to improve the designing of modern cemetery park. [Ch,1 fig. 15 ref.]
Aesthetic connotation of forest
WU Zhi-pei, WANG Chang-jin
2008, 25(6): 781-786.
[Abstract](4134) [PDF](210)
As a very crucial element in human ecological environment,the forest is closely linked with human’s existence. People start to show their respect to the forest during the process of exploitation and regard it as an aesthetic object. The paper attempts to discus the aesthetic connotation of forest and its relevant issues from the perspectives of cultural inheritance,ecological environment,social significance,literature and aesthetic imagery,evidence of social development. [Ch,21 ref.]
Negative effect of environment liability insurance and elusion
JIA Ai-ling
2008, 25(6): 787-790.
[Abstract](3877) [PDF](197)
The environmental liability insurance could not only dilute the loss and enhance the environmental management,but also bring about moral risks such as reduction of the social responsibility of the insurant,unfair competition among the companies and weakening of the punishment and warning function of civil liability system. The paper analyzed the nature of moral risks caused by the environmental liability insurance and put forward the corresponding elusion measures such as strengthening the supervision of insurance companies,limiting the covered insurance range,adopting different insurance premium rate and the maximum compensation,to control the negative effect of environmental liability insurance. [Ch,10 ref.]
Camptothecin:a biosynthetic pathway with associated enzymes and genes
WANG Lei, WU Jia-sheng, LIAO Liang
2008, 25(6): 791-797.
[Abstract](4412) [PDF](245)
Camptothecin is a monoterpene indole alkaloid found in Camptotheca acuminata,which is native to China. After the discovery taxol as an anti-cancer agent,C. acuminata became a favored plant-based anti-cancer medicine with exceptional market prospects. Due to a lack of Camptotheca trees and the high demand of camptothecin,metabolic engineering has been employed to improve camptothecin yield. Thus,the biosynthetic pathway of camptothecin is being studied. Based on the literature,the camptothecin biosynthetic pathway can be divided into upper and lower pathways with strictosidine as the dividing line. In this paper the biosyntheses of many intermediate products in the pathway,including related enzymes and genes,are discussed in detail. Possible methods for regulating camptothecin biosynthesis along with key issues for future studies are also mentioned. [Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 29 ref.]
Artificial light sources for production of greenhouse plants
ZHOU Guo-quan, XU Yi-qing, FU Shun-hua, WU Jia-sen, ZHENG Hong-ping
2008, 25(6): 798-802.
[Abstract](4189) [PDF](228)
Light is the energy source for photosynthesis in plants with chlorophyll a absorbing red light (600 - 700 nm) and chlorophyll b absorbing blue light(400 - 520 nm). Light is also the signal source of photomorphogenesis in plants. Red light can also reduce gibberellin(GA) content,which minishes internode length and plant height;however,far red light(700 - 800 nm) can have the opposite affect and enhance GA. Based on the light demand of greenhouse plants,characteristics and problems with traditional artificial light sources presently used in a greenhouse were analyzed and showed that as an artificial light source,the light emitting diode (LED) had superiority over other artificial light sources. Subjected to limited photometric brightness from an LED,an LED light source can be assembled to satisfy light demands for the natural growth of plants. Using an LED light source,plantlet cultivation has been successfully performed in vitro. As to the illuminative circumstances,however,there is a prodigious discrepancy between a plantlet in vitro and a greenhouse plant. Therefore,LED assembled light sources that are specially applied in the greenhouse should be further developed. [Ch,32 ref.]
Progress in research on the comprehensive monitoring of forest resources
LUO Xian-xian, KANG Xin-gang
2008, 25(6): 803-809.
[Abstract](4062) [PDF](240)
From the perspectives of the core concepts,the inventory and monitoring methods of forest resources were introduced,and the characteristics of national forest inventory at home and broad were compared. At the same time,the status quo of forest resources monitoring in the major developed forestry countries was analyzed. Based on the current conditions and existing problems in forest resources monitoring in China,according to the actual conditions and the social requirements for forest resources monitoring,the paper pointed out that the development trend and construction goal of forest resources comprehensive monitoring in China should be the diversification of monitoring content,annual monitoring period,the standardization of monitoring technology,the integration of monitoring measures and the sharing of monitoring information.[Ch,41 ref.]
Review on ranges of ecological road-effect zones
DING Hong, JIN Yong-huan, CUI Jian-guo, ZHAO Lin-sen, PIAO Zheng-Ji
2008, 25(6): 810-816.
[Abstract](4402) [PDF](218)
Road construction has brought environmental pollution,caused habitat fragmentation for wildlife and plants,and contributed to other severe ecological problems in adjacent areas;meanwhile it has promoted social and economic development and improved daily life for human beings. Road ecology has become one of the most important frontier fields in ecological research. In the late 1990’s,the focus of road ecology research shifted to an ecological road-effect zone and other related fields including the ecological influence of range,type,form,and pattern of roads. Many studies have shown that in the peripheral surroundings the various road systems impact soil properties,moisture,air composition,and other ecological factors,as well as species of wildlife and plants,differently. The range of the ecological road-effect zones produced by a road system also varies along with traffic volume,types of ecological factors,and specific change patterns of each factor. After summarizing both domestic and overseas studies on the range of the ecological road-effect zone,this paper recommended that comprehensive research should be carried out in China with research achievements being applied to road system planning practices so as to improve the development of road ecology in China. [Ch,58 ref.]
Optimum media formula for Camellia japonica cut seedlings
ZHAI Mei-gui, LI Ji-yuan, XU Ying-chun, LI Xin-lei, LI Yu-hong, NI Sui
2008, 25(6): 817-822.
[Abstract](4856) [PDF](295)
This experiment was conducted to select the optimnm medium formula for a culture of Camellia japonica. Formulas were mixed with seven volume proportions of perlite,peat,coir fiber,sand,decomposed sawdust,and coal cinders. Bare soil was used as a control,and 2-year-old cuttings of C. japonica seedlings(‘Black Magic’,‘Miss Charleston Variegated’ and ‘Helen Bower’) were chosen as the planting material. In terms of plant height,trunk diameter,crown breadth,leaf width,root activity,leaf chlorophyll content,and soluble carbohydrate content,the results showed that perlite ∶ peat = 2 ∶ 1 was the best media formula for this soil-less culture. Compared with bare soil,C. japonica in the best media had greater plant height (34.3% - 42.9%),trunk diameter (17.2% - 26.0%),and crown breadth(11.3% - 32.9%). In addition,chlorophyll content,root activity,and the soluble carbohydrate content were significantly(P<0.05) better than the control with maximums of 2.48 mg·g-1,133.90 mg·g-1·h-1,and 22.7 g·kg-1,respectively. Also,physical and chemical properties,such as volume-weight(0.20 g·mL-1),porosity(73.00%),electric conductivity value(67 mS·m-1),and salt-base exchange(81.2 cmol·kg-1) were suitable for C. japonica cultivation. [Ch,5 tab. 15 ref.]
Damage characteristics of Phyllostachys pubescens forests in freezing rain and snow hazards
YIN Xin-hua, WENG Yi-ming, DONG Yun-fu, FU Hong-mei, WU Li-dong
2008, 25(6): 823-827.
[Abstract](3774) [PDF](211)
From January to February in 2008,main areas of China subjected to freezing rain and snow hazards. We investigated the damage in Phyllostachys pubescens(moso bamboo) forests in Suichang County of Zhejiang Province in the late of February,in order to provide reasonable basis for management of moso bamboo forests. The analysis of moso bamboos damage characteristics in freezing rain and snow hazards indicated that:① The damage rate was above 50% when the altitude was between 400 - 700 m. ② Gradient and damage rate formed a direct proportional relationship as y = 1.301 1x - 1.071 4. The damage rate decreased when gradient was lower than 30°.③The breaking rates of moso bamboo forest treated with over 20 cm comprehensive digging were significantly(P<0.01)higher than that of chemical weeding. ④There were significant difference in different age classes. Through Q-test,1 - 2 years old bamboo(Ⅰ phase)’s damage rate was significantly higher than 3 - 4 years old bamboo(Ⅱ phase)’s damage rate[D = 13.43>D0.05(11.630 7)]and 5 - 6 years old bamboo(Ⅲ phase)’s damage rate[D = 18.64>D0.01(15.72)]. ⑤ In the age structure,the portion ofⅠ∶Ⅱ ∶ Ⅱ ∶ Ⅳ(7 - 8 years old) = 3 ∶ 3 ∶ 3 ∶ 1 was reasonable for defense against freezing rain and snow hazards.[Ch,2 fig. 6 tab. 8 ref.]