2009 Vol. 26, No. 1

研究论文
Quantitative evaluation of rural forest-ecological adaptability
WEI Xin-liang
2009, 26(1): 1-6.
[Abstract](3962) [PDF](319)
Abstract:
Evaluation of rural forest-cological adaptability is the basis for scientific and rational forest management. Based on the characteristics of rural forest management and forest management inventory,according to the ecological characters of forest species of trees and econvironment conditions in rural areas,the research divided the forest ecological factors,measured the power coefficient of each forest ecological factor,graded and quantitized the forest-cological adaptability. The comprehensive evaluation principles were used to define the forest-cological adaptability indexes to analyze and describe the forest-cological adaptability of stand and research district. The application of this method in Lingnan town,Shangyu City forest management showed that the forest-cological adaptability index here was 0.57,close to adaptation level;the real forest group and its spatial distribution was in line with the ecology conditions. The forest-cological adaptability indexes were clearly defined,convenient,straight forward,and practical for the forest management and planning in rural areas.[Ch,2 tab. 13 ref.]
Non-quidistance gray mode forecast of forest resource dynamic changes in Shandong Province
LI Yi-qiu, FENG Zhong-ke
2009, 26(1): 7-12.
[Abstract](4257) [PDF](166)
Abstract:
Non-equidistance grey models of time-series data including forest cover rate,forested area and living trees volume in Shandong Province between 1974 - 2007 were established based on the Grey Systems Theory. The model fitted well with the main outcomes of forest resource measurement in Shandong Province. The fitting errors were lower than 10 percent. The models had ideal fitting precision. Posterior variance test method was used to test the precision grade of the models. The test results showed that the posterior variance test c values of forest cover rate,forested area and living trees volume were 0.15,0.23 and 0.14,which were all lower than 0.35. Small error possibility was 1. The forecast precision of the models reached the “first grade”. The paper provides a more ideal forecast method for constructing “Digital Forestry”. It is a basis for formulating the future development of the forestry program in Shandong Province. The forecast results showed that forest cover rate would be 26.78% in 2020,which was lower than 30%,the phased target of construction of ecology province. Therefore,it is very important to promote the development of forest resource,steadily improve forest cover rate,significantly increase forest volume,improve forest quality,so as to avoid the degeneration of forest resource. [Ch,4 tab. 15 ref.]
Outside and inside bark diameter at breast height for Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis in the Beijing area
MA Feng-feng, JIA Li-ming
2009, 26(1): 13-16.
[Abstract](4488) [PDF](166)
Abstract:
Linear models were used to determine the relationships between outside and inside bark diameter at breast height of 57 Platycladus orientalis and 60 Pinus tabulaeformis trees in the Beijing area. Results showed that mathematical models of outside bark(DOB) and inside bark(DIB) diameters at breast height in Platycladus orientalis(PO) and Pinus tabulaeformis(PT) were DIBPO = 0.918 DOBPO and DIBPT = 0.916 DOBPT. Two equations of bark thickness,such as BPO = 0.082 DOBPO and BPT = 0.084 DOBPT,as well as two adjusted bark coefficients,KPO = 1.089 and KPT = 1.092,were obtained indirectly from the above two bark thickness models. These data also indicated that the models formed and the coefficients obtained were stable for diameter growth model optimization of both trees in the Beijing area. [Ch,1 fig. 1 tab. 6 ref.]
Effects of red soil moisture on leaves growth and nutrient accumulation of Citrus unshiu
WANG Min-hua, ZHOU Jing, CUI Jian
2009, 26(1): 17-21.
[Abstract](3941) [PDF](140)
Abstract:
Red soil moisture makes an important role in the production of crop and fruit as one of the most limiting factors in the red soil region of China. Citrus is the main fruit in the region. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of red soil relative water content (RSWC) on leaves growth and nutrient accumulation of citrus in spring,further,to provide the theoretical foundation for economic irrigation of citrus production in red soil region of China. Mature satsuma mandarin trees(Citrus unshiu ‘Miyagawa Wase’) were selected as experimental materials and Frequency Domain Reflectometry(FDR) was used to monitor red soil moisture. And there were five red soil moisture treatments,which red soil water content accounted on 30%,45%,60%,75% and 90% of the maximum for water content in red soil field. The results showed that the leaf growth factors including the leaves area,the leaves perimeter and the leaves width all reached the maximum values,which were 12.25 cm2,13.84 cm and 3.19 cm,respectively,When RSWC was 75%.As for nutrition accumulation,soil moisture was advantageous to N accumulation when soil water stress was the right amount. P was positively and significantly(R2 = 0.944 3,P<0.05) correlated with RSWC while no differences for K in leaves was found. When RSWC was below 30%,accumulations of calcium (Ca),magnesium (Mg),and iron (Fe) were negatively affected. In addition,there were no differences for N in between leaves and roots;however,P and K in leaves were less than in roots. Overall balance of leaves growth and nutrient accumulation,it was more beneficial for leaves growth when RSWC was about 75%. [Ch,3 tab. 14 ref.]
Decomposition and nutrient dynamics of Schima superba leaf litter
ZHENG Zhao-fei
2009, 26(1): 22-26.
[Abstract](3764) [PDF](202)
Abstract:
Schima superba are cultivated widely in southern China. In order to know its material cycling in the plantation for better sustainable management,we studied the decomposition and nutrient dynamics of its leaf litter by the nylon bag method. The new leaf fall were collected in the 25-year-old plantation of Nanping City,in 1st of November of 2006,drying at 65 ℃ to constant weight,packed with 36 nylon bags,then replaced to the plantation’s ground surface. Three bags were withdrawn once a month. Then determine weight loss rate,and N,P,K and C contents variation. Results showed that for leaf litter decomposition,the weight loss rate over one year was 41.5% with a decomposition coefficient of 0.001 6 d-1. Also,50% decomposition was estimated at 1.36 years while 95% was 5.47 years. During decomposition,N increased;P fluctuated but increased slowly;K steadily decreased;and C and carbon-nitrogen ratio increased slightly in the early stages,but decreased in later stages. Nutrient release was in the order:K(81.3%) > C(54.8%) > N(35.7%) > P(28.6%). [Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 10 ref.]
Leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in three species of Ilex
WANG Li-ying, LOU Lu-huan, WANG Chao, HUANG Qi, GU Min
2009, 26(1): 27-31.
[Abstract](4695) [PDF](170)
Abstract:
The gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in leaves of three broadleaf tree species:Ilex viridis,I. zhejiangensis,and I. cornuta,were determined under field conditions. Results showed that there were no significant differences(P>0.05) for light compensation point:(20.94 μmol·m-2·s-1 in I. viridis,29.91 μmol·m-2·s-1 in I. zhejiangensis,and 24.02 μmol·m-2·s-1 in I. cornuta). The light saturation point of I. cornuta was significantly greater(P<0.05)(1 516.67 μmol·m-2·s-1) than I. viridis (1 204.29 μmol·m-2·s-1) and I. zhejiangensis(1 305.10 μmol·m-2·s-1). Also,the maximum net photosynthetic rate in I. cornuta was significantly greater(P<0.05) for CO2 (8.43 μmol·m-2·s-1)than I. viridis (3.33 μmol·m-2·s-1) and I. zhejiangensis(5.53 μmol·m-2·s-1). Finally,electron transport rate(ETR),photosystem (PS) Ⅱ efficiency(Yield),and non-photochemical quenching(qN) in the leaf were much higher(P<0.05) in I. cornuta than in I. zhejiangensis and I. viridis. Thus,I. cornuta had a higher photosynthetic capacity and stronger utilization ability for light energy,and its quantum yield of PS II electron transport and the potential capacity of heat dissipation were greater(P<0.05). [Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 12 ref.]
Chlorophyll fluorescence of Carya cathayensis with simulated acid rain
LIU Hao, YU Shu-quan, JIANG Hong, FANG Jiang-bao
2009, 26(1): 32-37.
[Abstract](3554) [PDF](192)
Abstract:
What’s the effect of acid rain on Carya cathayensis,an excellent dry fruit tree plant which mainly produced in Zhejiang. The chlorophyll fluorescence analysis was used to determine the effects of acid rain stress with C. cathayensis. The experiment was set up with four groups of simulated acid rain treatments,including pH 2.5,pH 3.5,pH 4.5,and pH 5.6 (as the control) in Oct. 2006,Apr. 2007,July 2007,and Oct. 2007 with 10 pots of one-year-old C. cathayensis for each treatment. Results showed that as pH of the simulated acid rain decreased,maximal photochemical efficiency of PhotosystemⅡ(PSⅡ)(Fv /Fm),potential activity of PSⅡ(Fv /F0),actual photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ(ΦPSⅡ),and chlorophyll content were all decreased and they were not obviously different except in Oct. 2007(P<0.01). All test parameters could be used as the physiological indexes for assessment parameters of acid rain resistance. C. cathayensis was more susceptible to low temperature. [Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 25 ref.]
Light environment and canopy structure of a Pinus tabulaeformis community in the mountainous area of Beijing
SONG Zi-wei, GUO Xiao-ping, ZHAO Ting-ning, DAI Wei
2009, 26(1): 38-43.
[Abstract](4060) [PDF](230)
Abstract:
Light is a dynamic factor that affects the course of community succession and plant survival strategies. To reveal the light environment and provide reference for improving plantation structure,five Pinus tabulaeformis communities of different diameter classes in Beijing’s Miao-feng Hill Forest Farm were studied. Photos were produced with WinSCANOPY,and light characteristic indexes,along with canopy structure parameters,such as photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD),canopy openness,leaf area index (LAI),and the light extinction coefficient(k),were analyzed by using standard plots method. Results showed that in the same habitat,total PPFD under the canopy ranging from 14.64 to 22.43 MJ·m-2·d-1 or about 64.59% of the PPFD above the canopy,decreased with increasing diameter at breast height (DBH). Canopy openness was between 24.91% and 43.77%,whereas LAI ranged from 2.23 to 4.50 with an average of 3.67. Also,light extinction coefficients of all five communities were less than 0.20. Therefore,the light environment under these P. tabulaeformis communities was sufficient for growth and regeneration,to some degree,of the shrub and herb layers. [Ch,4 fig. 1 tab. 30 ref.]
Population structure and spatial patterns of dominant populations in Illicium lanceolatum-Choerospondias axiliaris community in Tiantong,Zhejiang Province
CAO Yong-hui, XIAO Jiang-hua, LI Ying-chun, CHEN Shuang-lin, WU Ming
2009, 26(1): 44-51.
[Abstract](4008) [PDF](179)
Abstract:
The population structure and spatial distribution patterns of 5 dominant populations in the Illicium lanceolatum-Choerospondias axiliaris community of Tiantong(29°48′N,121°47′E) were investigated by using every-tree measuring method,time specific method for life-table analysis and contiguous grid method. Spatial distribution and spatial association of individuals in different layers of 5 dominant populations were analyzed. The total relative basic area(RBA) of the 5 species was 74.85%. The size distribution index (SDI) of I.lanceolatum,Machilus thunbergii and M. leptophylla was negative and relatively low,except for C. axiliaris and Acer olivaceum which had a positive value. The species occupied different vertical spaces. The spatial distribution varied among intra- and inter-specific cohorts in the different layers and size classes and showed complex multilevel distribution patterns. The I. lanceolatum and M. leptophylla had an aggregated distribution,C. axiliaris and A.olivaceum had an uniform distribution and M. thunbergii had a random distribution. There were differences in spatial associations among intra- and inter-specific cohorts in the different layers and spatial scales examined. The first layer and the second layer of I. lanceolatum weren’t repellent at different scales,which showed that it was strongly tolerable to the shade. The spatial associations indicated that I. lanceolatum and M. thunbergii were significantly positively associated. The negative association among cohorts increased and the positive association was decreased as the scales increased. By occupying different horizontal and vertical spaces and having different life history strategies,the dominant species of the community could co-exist,resulting in rich biodiversity in the studied community. [Ch,5 tab. 23 ref.]
Heat tolerance for summer blooming of Chrysanthemum
JIA Si-hen, FANG Wei-in, CHEN Fa-di, CHEN Su-mei, YANG Xue-meng
2009, 26(1): 52-57.
[Abstract](3696) [PDF](231)
Abstract:
Summer chrysanthemum varieties in seasonal high temperatures differ in their blossoming characteristics. To evaluate heat-tolerance and to choose heat resistance indicators for Chrysanthemum that bloom in summer,physiological indicators,anatomic structure,and blooming traits were among 13 indicators,studied in five cultivars—‘Huoju’,‘Zihe’,‘Fenhe’,‘Jinguang’,and ‘Jinxing’. Principal component and subordinate function analyses were used. Results showed that both superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves as well as the integral of the diurnal net photosynthetic rate (Pn) could be used as heat-tolerance evaluation indexes. A comprehensive evaluation model D=-1.818 + 0.013x2 + 0.008x6 + 0.002x8 - 0.000 048x13,where x2 is the blooming period,x6 is the SOD activity in leaves,x8 is the MDA content in leaves,and x13 is the integral of diurnal Pn,was developed. A significant correlation (P<0.001,R=0.973) between predictive value (Vp) and D was also found. The decreasing order for heat tolerance of D with the five cultivars was ‘Huoju’>‘Zihe’>‘Fenhe’>‘Jinguang’>‘Jinxing’. [Ch,4 tab. 14 ref.]
Genetic relationships between Prunus salicina ‘Hongjing’ and ther important plum cultivars
ZHANG Jun-hong, LU Yang-hai, LU Yong-quan, ZHANG Jian-ping, SI Jin-ping
2009, 26(1): 58-62.
[Abstract](4240) [PDF](198)
Abstract:
Prunus salicina ‘Hongjing’ is a new cultivar selected by us,which early maturing,scarlet,and having good taste. The relationships between P. salicina‘Hongjing’and other main plum cultivars were studied using the ISSR (inter simple sequence repeats) technique. Altogether,120 primers were screened,from which 24 polymorphism primers were selected. Using these primers 98 bands were harvested,of which 84 polymorphism loci were identified. POPGENE 32 was used to calculate the genetic distance between cultivars. Results showed that the polymorphism ratio was 90.3%,and the genetic distance between P. salicina‘Hongjing’and 19 other cultivars ranged from 0.215 5(for‘Oishi Wase’) to 0.734 8 (for ‘Zuili’). Thus,one 1 000 bp band,amplified with primer U811,could serve as the characteristic band of P. salicina ‘Hongjing’. This study showed that P. salicina‘Hongjing’had its own genetic basis. [Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 18 ref.]
AFLP-based sexual identification in Torreya grandis
LIANG Dan, ZHOU Qin, SHU Yan, ZENG Yan-ru, YU Wei-wu
2009, 26(1): 63-67.
[Abstract](3771) [PDF](261)
Abstract:
Torreya trees can be monoecious or dioecious,and if they are monoecious,the male and female cones may be on different branches. To identify young male and female seedlings of T. grandis,an established AFLP(amplified fragment length polymorphism) analysis protocol along with thymine-adenine (T-A) cloning and sequencing were applied to male and female T. grandis seedlings using 15 pairs of primers. Results showed that the E-AGC/M-CAT marker revealed a band restricted to the female whose sequence was not matched to any sequence from GenBank. This female-specific band was only available in the female,monoecious T. grandis trees. It was inferred that monoecious trees were likely derived from female trees. These results have laid a foundation for subsequent studies. [Ch,6 fig. 12 ref.]
Medicinal bryophytes in Zhejiang Province,China
WU Lu-lu, YAN Xiong-liang, JI Meng-cheng
2009, 26(1): 68-75.
[Abstract](4145) [PDF](211)
Abstract:
Medicinal bryophytes are abundant in Zhejiang Province. The 145 medicinal bryophyte species (including subspecies and varieties) reported from Zhejiang account for 6.8% of the total number of known bryophyte species with 45 genera (15.3%) and 29 families (37.2%) found in the province. These include eight species of liverworts and 59 species of mosses. A preliminary record of their habitat,distribution,and therapeutic effect is given. Some suggestions,including taxonomic research as well as resource investigation and protection of medicinal bryophytes in the province,are also proposed. There are some preferentially species recommended for exploitation and utilization as medicinal bryophytes:Conocephalum conicum,Reboulia hemisphaerica,Marchantia polymorpha,Ditrichum pallidum,Weissia controversa,Funaria hygrometrica,Plagiomnium cuspidatum,Haplocladium microphyllum,Thuidium cymbifolium,Hypnum plumaeforme,Taxiphyllum taxirameum,and Pogonatum inflexum. [Ch,1 tab. 40 ref.]
Effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Artemisia frigida on germination and growth of four plant types
ZUO Zhao-jiang, ZHANG Ru-min, ZHU Jin-hu, WEN Guo-sheng, HOU Ping, GAO Yan
2009, 26(1): 76-82.
[Abstract](4309) [PDF](208)
Abstract:
In order to make clear the allelopathy of the volatile organic compounds(VOCs) from Artemisia frigida,we investigated seed germination and seedling growth of Paphanus sativus,Phaseolus radiatus,Cucumis sativus and Medicago sativa under the VOCs from undamaged and damaged A. frigida using the bioassay. Results showed that the VOCs from undamaged A. frigida were found to be inhibitory (P<0.01) to the germination percentage of P. sativus and Ph. radiatus,with inhibition rates of 45.8%,and 30.0%,respectively. The inhibition of bud dry mass by the VOCs from undamaged A. frigida was significant(P<0.01),with rates of inhibition of 26.4%,for Ph. radiatus. However,the inhibition of root dry mass by VOCs was very significant(P<0.01),with rates of inhibition of 67.9%,69.4%,51.1%,and 48.7%,respectively,for the four species. In addition,the inhibition of the VOCs from damaged A. frigida was stronger than the undamaged. These results indicated that VOCs from A. frigida had a strong allelopathic affect on seed germination and seedling growth. [Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 29 ref.]
Shooting order and cultivation of Dendrocalamopsis oldhami
GAO Gui-bin, GU Xiao-ping, WU Xiao-li, ZHU Ru-yun, LIN Feng, YUAN Na
2009, 26(1): 83-88.
[Abstract](4643) [PDF](255)
Abstract:
Dendrocalamopsis oldhami,a monopodial bamboo,is an excellent species for edible bamboo shoot bud and timber. To explore and improve its cultivation technologies,1) shooting order of large buds(initial generation) with an attaching sequence on the bamboo root-ball from bottom to top of first,second,third,and fourth bud,in turn,and sub generation buds with shooting from the root-ball of the initial generation bamboo culm as well as 2) their role in cultivation were studied by investigation in the bamboo plantation of Pingyang County,Zhejiang Province,in 2007. Results showed that the shooting sequence of the large buds on the root-ball was second,third,fourth,and first,in turn. Shoot yield of the third bud was highest (247.60 g·m-2) followed by the second (239.30 g·m-2) and first (222.40 g·m-2) buds with the fourth bud lowest (70.60 g·m-2). The distance between large buds (from the first to the fourth) and mother bamboo culms were:24.32,19.48,13.06,and 8.44 cm. Compared to the mother bamboo culms,bamboo DBH (diameter at breast height) of the first and second buds was significantly greater(P<0.01);the third bud was no difference(P>0.05);and the fourth bud was less(P<0.01). For sub generation buds distance from mother bamboo culms was greater than for mother bamboo buds with no major differences between sub generation bamboo culm DBH and the initial geration bamboo culm. So for continuous cultivation,it was necessary to keep the middle or lower large buds on the root-ball,and because of poor shoot quality,lower yield,and a decreasing DBH ,it was better to remove the fourth bud to reduce nutrient consumption and promote shooting of other buds. Also,sub generation buds had great potential in promoting cultivation.[Ch,5 tab. 10 ref.]
Establishing root cuttings of Corylus heterophylla × Corylus avellana and Corylus avellana‘Barcelona’
LI Da-wei, GUO Su-juan, ZHAI Ming-pu
2009, 26(1): 89-94.
[Abstract](3880) [PDF](201)
Abstract:
In order to enhance the rooting rate of hazelnut cuttings,analysis how different periods,sources of cuttings,plant growth regulator and cutting substrate affect rooting,and find the best combination of technical support for hazelnut cuttings root,the author used five-year-old Corylus heterophylla × C. avellana ‘85-134’and C. avellana‘Barcelona’collected from the Institute of Economic Forestry in Shandong Province as experimental material,carried out the cutting experiments in the greenhouse of Shandong Agricultural University from March to July 2007. Complete randomized block design was designed in experiment,in which the author researched four periods(March 20th,June 1th,June 15th,July 5th),four types of plant growth regulators(indole-3-butyric acid (IBA),1 IBA + 1 naphthaleneacetic acid(NAA),ABT1,NAA) and control (ck),two sources of cuttings(canopy shoots and basal shoots),three types of substrate (the perlite and vermiculite with a volume ratio of 2 ∶ 1,1 ∶ 1 and the sand). Results showed that 1) C. heterophylla × C. avellana‘85-134’and C. avellana‘Barcelona’were both suitable for softwood cuttings with the best cutting time on July 5th. The rooting rate for‘85-134’was 71.1% with the average number of root amounted to 10.3 whereas‘Barcelona’was 81.1% with the average number of root amounted to 11.7;these were significantly better(P<0.01) than the other three periods (March 20th,June 1th,June 15th). 2) Compared with canopy shoots,the rooting rate of basal shoots was significantly less for‘85-134’ (P<0.05)(43.3%) and for ‘Barcelona’(P<0.01) (45.6%). 3)Plant growth regulators promoted rooting rates of ‘85-134’and‘Barcelona’in the following order:100 mg·L-1IBA> 50 mg·L-1IBA + 50 mg·L-1NAA> 100 mg·L-1ABT1 > 100 mg·L-1NAA > ck. 4) The most favorable cutting substrate to achieve the best rooting rate was perlite and vermiculite with a volume ratio of 2 ∶ 1 as the ratio of liquid,gas,and solid was ideal. So that was the most conducive to choose the canopy shoots,with the best being IBA at 100 mg·L-1 with a 2 h immersion cutting in the perlite and vermiculite with a volume ratio of 2 ∶ 1 in early July in Taian region. [Ch,6 tab. 13 ref.]
Antifungal activity of extracts from leaves of Myrica rubra
LIU Hong-bo, SHI Dong-hui, CHEN An-liang, YING Meng-meng, ZHANG Li-qin
2009, 26(1): 95-99.
[Abstract](4853) [PDF](173)
Abstract:
The objective is to test the antifungal activity of extracts from Myrica rubra leaves and myricetin. Based on a preliminary test for inhibition of acetone extracts from leaves of Myrica rubra,the fungi Rhizoctonia solani,Sclerotinia sclerotiorum,Botrytis cinerea,Fusarium graminerum,Valsa mali and Fusarium oxysporum f. vasinfectum were selected and their mycelium growth rate were tested in five concentrations(among 5,10,20,30,40,50,and 60 g·L-1). Antifungal activity was also tested with pure myricetin acetone solution in five concentrations(among 0.30,0.40,0.50,0.60,0.70,and 0.80 g·L-1). Results showed that when restraining effect were 50%,concentrations of extracts from leaves of M. rubra were (in g·L-1) R. solani(23.08),S. sclerotiorum(19.85),B. cinerea(25.86),F. graminerum(22.07),V. mali(23.18),and F. oxysporum f. vasinfectum(22.86). Meanwhile,when inhibition was 50%,concentrations with pure myricetin acetone solution for the same fungi were 0.32,0.33,1.09,0.69,0.34 and 2.09 g·L-1 respectively. A stronger effect of 10 times the diluent from leaves of M. rubra showed a therapeutic action 42.3% and a protective function 45.6% on tomato.[Ch,3 tab. 11 ref.]
Chemical components and antifungal activities of extracts from the husk of Carya cathayensis
LIN Jun-yang, MA Liang-jin, CHEN An-liang, ZHANG Li-qin
2009, 26(1): 100-104.
[Abstract](4832) [PDF](137)
Abstract:
Carya cathayensis is distributed around Mount Tianmu and its nut production is one of the important incomes for the local people. The husks,which were often thrown away randomly,were confirmed having antifungal activities. Petroleum ether,chloroform,ethyl acetate,and n-butanol solvents were used to extract and separate the methanol extraction from the husk of C. cathayensis and get four fractions. Next,antifungal activities of the four fractions were compared to Alternaria solani,Valsa mali,Fusarium graminearum,Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The chloroform fraction was then separated by silica gel column chromatography. Results showed that antifungal activity with the four solvents was in the order:n-butanol (activity up to 100%) > chloroform and petroleum ether > ethyl acetate. Also,silica gel column chromatography revealed two compounds identified as 5-hydroxy-2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and β-sitosterol,which inhibited conidial germination of Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium graminearum.[Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 13 ref.]
Resources advantages and development countermeasure of non-timber forest products in impoverished mountainous areas in Yunnan Province
ZHAO Jing, QIN Hai-long, KONG Yan
2009, 26(1): 105-110.
[Abstract](4494) [PDF](156)
Abstract:
Located in the Southwest border in China,Yunnan Province is a province embracing borders,ethnic groups,poverty and mountains. Some impoverished mountainous areas reserve rich species,and abundant resources of non-timber products (wild mushroom products,bamboo and bamboo products and wild vegetables). Development and utilization of non-timber forest products are important means to make a living,increase revenue and develop economy for local people. Based on the review of the domestic relevant research findings and the analysis of non-timber forest products resources,on-site surveys,we pointed out the following existing problems in the impoverished mountainous areas:destruction of non-timber products and forest resources caused by unsustainable collection,low level of industrialization,small scale,low added value of products,infringed farmers’ rights and interests caused by backward non-timber forest products marketing,inadequate policy supports,insufficient inputs in technology and capital. We explore the ways of sustainable development by rationalizing the system,strengthening macro-management,adopting scientific and reasonable collection methods,establishing assessment and monitoring system of non-timber forest products collection and use,rational distribution planning,promoting non-timber forest products industrial clusters,establishing the “leading enterprises plus farmers plus bases” development model to increase their production and scale,establishing and improving the paths and solutions of trading system and product research and development system of non-timber forest products to promote the sustainable development and utilization of the non-timber forest products in this region. [Ch,9 ref.]
Design and implementation of personal digital assistant (PDA) based information collection system for forest resources
ZENG -wei, LI Guang-hui, HU Hai-gen, TANG Jian-feng
2009, 26(1): 111-115.
[Abstract](4316) [PDF](153)
Abstract:
A personal digital assistant(PDA) based information collection system for forest resources was developed to improve the efficiency of forestry information collection. The paper presented the system development platform,choice of development tools,system structure and functions,and key techniques. We laid emphasis on studying the interaction of the data transmission by wireless net between Client and Server in this paper. [Ch,4 fig. 12 ref.]
Atomization quality and charge performance experimentation research on air-assisted electrostatic spraying nozzle
LIU Chun-jing, WANG Ke-yuan
2009, 26(1): 116-121.
[Abstract](3796) [PDF](151)
Abstract:
An air-assisted electrostatic-induction nozzle was designed. The basic designing theories,structure and working process of this nozzle were specified in the paper. And then the atomization quality and charge performances of this nozzle and its affecting factors were studied by carrying out performance experiment and statistic analysis. Within the experiment,air pressure at 0.4 MPa,liquid pressure at 0.25 MPa,jet orifice diameter at 2.0 mm were the most suitable parameters for the nozzle.[Ch,3 fig. 6 tab. 15 ref.]
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium testing and estimating of allele frequency
GUAN Yu, ZHANG Xiang-yun, XU Qun-fang, WU Zhi-song, GU Guang-tong, NIE Wen
2009, 26(1): 122-126.
[Abstract](5832) [PDF](170)
Abstract:
As the most important principle in population genetics,Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) is a rule to check whether observed genotypic frequencies and allele frequencies between parents and their offspring are in equilibrium in a population. During HWE testing,frequencies of those alleles must be estimated. When there were dominant and recessive genotypes,we used Newton alternate algorithm to get maximum likelihood estimate(MLE) of allele frequencies. The research findings indicated that Newton alternate algorithm had a faster convergence than method of maximum likelihood. An approximate formula about the least Pearson χ2 statistic estimate and MLE was discussed. Newton alternate algorithm on MLE and the least Pearson χ2 statistic estimate were recommended. [Ch,10 ref.]
问题讨论
Management system of China’s nature reserve
XIA Shao-min, YAN Xian-wei, QIAN Kun, LIANG Xiao-yan
2009, 26(1): 127-131.
[Abstract](4322) [PDF](135)
Abstract:
The nature reserve is the most effective way to protecting wild animals and plants,natural resources and ecosystem. Based on the concepts and characteristics of management system of China’s nature reserve,this article tries to spot the existing problems in categorized management,tiered management and divisional management. By referring to the successful experience in the foreign countries,it proposed to improve the management system of China’s nature reserve from the legal perspective:first,the nature and roles of nature reserves should be defined;second,the overhead cost should be shared by different governmental departments;third,the system of direct management by the superior departments and chief responsibility system should be adopted. [Ch,5 ref.]
Application and precision analysis of several surveying methods in forest resources survey
XU Wen-bing, GAO Fei, DU Hua-qiang
2009, 26(1): 132-136.
[Abstract](4721) [PDF](161)
Abstract:
This paper compares and analyzes several surveying methods in forestry resource investigation via an analysis of experiment datum and theory reasoning. The research findings are as follows: (1) The compass could only satisfy the criteria and standards of surveying sample plot due to its roughness;and its accuracy would decrease significantly while distance and vertical angle increased;the compass was inconvenient,imprecise and inefficient for large scale forestry acreage survey or special scientific research. (2) When the length measured by total station was not over 100 m,semi-observation accuracy of distance measuring could reach 1/10 000 and height measuring error wouldn’t be over 1 cm;and the measuring was hardly affected by distance and vertical angle. (3) When acreage and length were over 3.34 hm2 and 100 m respectively,handy global positioning system(GPS) could replace compass,and its measuring accuracy could be improved by coordinating difference or modifying parameter of coordinates transform. Besides,development of network real time kinematic(RTK) with total station would be main instruments for the precise forestry surveying.[Ch,2 tab. 13 ref.]
研究简报
Hybridization breeding and AFLP analysis of relative relationship of Dendrobium nobile
ZHENG Yong-ping, ZHENG Quan, YU Ji-ying, ZHANG Ying, FAN Wen-feng
2009, 26(1): 137-141.
[Abstract](4698) [PDF](171)
Abstract:
Dendrobium nobile(Orchidaceae),subtropical flower,usually blossoms in spring. It is a very important and popular potted-flower in Europe,Japan and USA. To avoid over-reliance on the seedling import,authors had introduced about 141 species,varieties,and culitvars,and selected those who were suitable for planting in China for hybrid breeding. Between 2002 and 2006,there were 345 pollination hybrid crosses,144 of them were bred successfully and the success rate was 41.74%. In 2004,the success rate of hybrid crosses were 58.62%. 12 hybrid crosses had very excellent prospect for development. In 12 hybrid crosses,No. 5029 and No. 5041 as two most important ones,had been put into mass production. Authors had set up the DNA fingerprinting of new varieties of Nobile-Type Dendrobium with Fluorescent AFLP(amplified fragment length polymorphism) technology,and provided a reliable and convenient technical means for identification,evaluation,protection and innovation of varieties. [Ch,2 tab. 3 fig. 8 ref.]
Population quantity surveillance of the rare and endangered plant in Zhejiang Province:Sinojackia microcarpa
SU Xiao-ling, MA Dan-dan, LI Gen-you, LIU Xi
2009, 26(1): 142-144.
[Abstract](3926) [PDF](208)
Abstract:
In order to know about the special local product plant-Sinojackia microcarpa’s population quantity change in Zhejiang,their individual quantity changes were monitored and reported. The results of the direct counting survey showed that there were 235 such plants,12 in Lin’an City and 223 in Jian’de City. The total number of such plants was 817 fewer than in 2000. Based on the analysis of the reason for decreasing population,this article proposed to carry out protection,research and the development of it. Meanwhile,the original records on its morphological features were revised and amended.[Ch,3 ref.]
Two species and one variety of seed plants new to Zhejiang Province
ZHANG Fang-gang, ZHANG Yang, WEI Fu-ming, CHEN Zi-lin
2009, 26(1): 145-146.
[Abstract](3934) [PDF](263)
Abstract:
Two species and one variety of seed plants were reported as new records to Zhejiang Province. They belong to three families and three genera:Rhamnus utilis var. hypochrysa(Rhamnaceae) flowering from April to June,and fruiting from June to August;Ampelopsis chaffanjoni(Vitaceae) flowering from May to July,and fruiting from July to September;Amitostigma hemipilioides(Ochidaceae)flower from May to July.[Ch,5 ref.]
Teinopalpus aureus firstly found in Zhejiang
WANG Yi-ping, LIN Li-si, ZHENG Fang-dong, WU Hong
2009, 26(1): 147-148.
[Abstract](5250) [PDF](127)
Abstract:
Teinopalpus aureus is a nationally protected Grade I insect,which is firstly reported from Zhejiang (Mount Wuyanling) in this paper. The specimens of butterfly Teinopalpus aureus are deposited in the National Nature Reserve of Wuyanling in Zhejiang,China.[Ch,1 fig. 8 ref.]