2009 Vol. 26, No. 2

Analysis of query efficiency of forest resources database system
ZHANG Mao-zhen, TANG Xiao-ming, XIE Yang-sheng, DING Li-xia
2009, 26(2): 149-154.
[Abstract](4207) [PDF](137)
Analyzed the query characteristics and its efficiency on forest resources database system,proposed that all the queries on forest resources database can be divided into 4 types,and showed the key factors affecting the query efficiency for each type. It is evident that DBMS parameters,the logical and physical design of database,the SQL expression,and the application system design are all the key factors affecting the system efficiency. The optimization of forest resources database application system should give full consideration to the characteristics of each query type. The policy should be made according to their query characteristics by choosing different optimizing method from different angle of view. For the type of browsing queries through network,the query algorithm and the data organizing are most important for query optimization. For the type of query of statistics and the analyzing,the priority should be given to database tuning,using of middle table and cluster indexing etc.[Ch,3 fig. 4 tab. 14 ref.]
Soil physical and chemical properties in Shanghai’s urban forests
LIU Wei-hua, ZHANG Gui-lian, XU Fei, WANG Ya-ping, YU Xue-qin, WANG Kai-yun
2009, 26(2): 155-163.
[Abstract](4753) [PDF](182)
To explore the soil physical and chemical properties in regards to the vegetation community of urban forest,and to inquire the relationship between soil and the vegetation from the urban ecology angle,soil was collected from park green spaces,road green belts,residential areas,and green space affiliated to units within the external circle highway of Shanghai City. Based on the community structure,a system of 6 forest types consists of evergreen broad-leaved forest,deciduous broadleaved forest,evergreen coniferous forest,deciduous needle-leaf forest,evergreen shrub forest and deciduous shrub forest was determined. And the polts were ascertained according to the fan-shaped grid method of landscape pattern. Physicochemical properties were measured at soil depths of 0 - 10,10 - 20,and 20 - 30 cm. Results showed that average soil organic matter(SOM) above 30 cm was 15.52 g·kg-1,average total nitrogen(TN) was 3.78 g·kg-1,and average total phosphorus(TP) was 1.13 g·kg-1. SOM and TN in the surface layer were rich and gradually decreased with depth,but TP did not show a gradual downward trend. Soil density was between 1.44 - 1.60 g·cm-3. Because average SOM,TN,and TP in the top 30 cm of urban green belt soil in Shanghai were low and compaction had increased soil density,measures are needed to improve fertility levels,especially in the newly-established green belts,to enhance the nutrient content and increase the landscape effect. [Ch,4 fig. 3 tab. 25 ref.]
Extraction and purification of microbacterial total DNA from bamboo soil for PCR-DGGE analysis
HE Sha-e, ZHANG Zhi-jun
2009, 26(2): 164-168.
[Abstract](3914) [PDF](119)
An improved SDS-extraction method was used to obtain high quality DNA from five different bamboo soil samples. The crude DNA was purified by a simple method with DNA gel extraction kit,amplified with 16 S rDNA-based primers in V3 region by use of the polymerase chain reaction(PCR),and then the products of PCR was identified by denature gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE). The results showed that the DNA extracted from a little soil by this method was greater than 23 kb in size. The simple purification method we described here can remove greater part of contaminants from crude DNA and obtain high purity DNA. DGGE analysis patterns of amplified DNA presented abundant fragments. The extraction and purification method was considered to be an effective method for DNA isolation and purification from bamboo soil. It can be used to help characterize the biological composition and diversity of the microbial population in bamboo soil samples. [Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 15 ref.]
Stem sap flow of Cryptomeria fortunei in Mount Tianmu National Nature Reserve
ZHAO Li-juan, JIANG Wen-wei, YANG Shu-zhen, ZHAO Ming-shui, WEN Guo-sheng
2009, 26(2): 169-175.
[Abstract](5013) [PDF](199)
The group of Cryptomeria fortunei trees in the Mount Tianmu Nature Reserve of Zhejiang Province fall into a decline. In order to find out their life activities,the diurnal and monthly variations of stem sap flow in old growth C. fortunei and environmental factors in the Mount Tianmu Nature Reserve were measured using the Environmental Information System (ENVIS) ecological environment monitoring network. Results showed that the daily change in stem sap flow velocity of declining Cryptomeria fortunei displayed single peak or multi-peaked curves with an obvious day and night rhythmic variation that fluctuated with environmental factors. For seasonal variation,the maximum average stem sap flow was 56.7 mL·min-1 in November,which was 22.9 mL·min-1 more than in February (33.8 mL·min-1). Also,the range of stem sap flow in the sunshine was greater than for a rainy day. The main environmental factors related to stem sap flow velocity were 1) photosynthetic active radiation(PAR)(r = 0.913) and 2) air temperature(r = 0.903) and relative humidity(r = 0.897). [Ch,5 fig. 1 tab. 26 ref.]
Soil NaCl stress and photosynthetic characteristics with Clerodendrum trichotomum
XIE Fu-chun, CHEN Cai-ye, ZHANG Wen-ting, WEI Juan, LI Yuan-yuan, WANG Hua-tian
2009, 26(2): 176-181.
[Abstract](3978) [PDF](207)
Clerodendrum trichotomum is a small tree with strong adaptability and fine ornament,which maybe a select for greening tree species in saline land. We set salt treatment test to determine its salt tolerance. Stress from soil NaCl treatments of 0(the control),2,4,6,8 g·kg-1 on one-year-old C. trichotomum potted seedlings with five replications were studied for their morphology,chlorophyll content,gas exchange characteristics,and water use efficiency(WUE). The parameters were determined from the second treatment day to the twelfth treatment day. Results showed that as NaCl stress increased and with a prolonged stress time,new shoot and functional leaves faded becoming brown with chlorophyll a(chla),chlorophyll b (chlb),chla/chlb,stomatal conductance (Gs),transpiration rate (Tr),WUE,and net photosynthesis (Pn) gradually decreasing. Intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) decreased but later increased;stomatal limitation value(Ls) changes were the opposite of Ci changes. Salt tolerance of C. trichotomum was less than 6 g·kg-1 in few days. Stomatal limitations mainly caused the decline in the photosynthetic rate of C. trichotomum,whereas in the long run non-stomatal limitations were the primary cause.[Ch,5 fig. 14 ref.]
Physiological response of three garden plants to drought stress
ZHANG Wen-ting, XIE Fu-chun, WANG Hua-tian, YU Wen-sheng, CHI Bing-qing, DU Jun, SONG Li, JIANG Cheng-ping
2009, 26(2): 182-187.
[Abstract](4250) [PDF](197)
Because of difficulty with timely irrigation of garden plants,this research was conducted to determine the best water-stress tolerant shrub of three types to plant in the drought prone north of China. Two-year-old potted shrubs of Ligustrum vicaryi,Forsythia suspense,and Lagerstroemia indica were chosen and treated with natural drought stress with three replications in a 3 × 3 randomized block design. Physiological characteristics were measured during the course of drought stress,and the membership function was used to assess the plants’ complex anti-drought stress capability. Results showed that as drought stress increased,the leaf chlorophyll curve for Li. vicaryi was increase-decrease-increase(P<0.05),for F. suspensa was decrease-increase(P<0.05),and for La. indica was increase-decrease. The curve of the relative electrolyte conductivity of the leaf tissue solution for Li. vicaryi was increase-decrease-increase,for F. suspensa was decrease-increase(P<0.05),and for La. indica was a constant increase(P<0.05). The curve of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity for Li. vicaryi was increase-decrease,for La. indica was decrease-increase,and for F. suspensa was increase-decrease-increase,and SOD activity of different periods of the three species respectively had significant difference(P<0.05). Soluble protein contents of the three shrubs decreased at first and then increased,and soluble protein contents of different periods for F. suspense respectively had significant difference(P<0.05). The proline content of Li. vicaryi was decrease-increase-decrease(P<0.05)while F. suspensa and La. indica constantly in creased. Complex appraisal of drought resistance by using membership functions for the three shrubs showed: Li. vicaryi > F. suspensa > La. indica.[Ch,5 fig. 1 tab. 17 ref.]
Cold resistance in Dendrocalamopsis oldhami from four different geographical provenances
HUANG Yao-hua, ZHENG Rong, SHAO Ji-feng, FANG Wei
2009, 26(2): 188-195.
[Abstract](4229) [PDF](254)
To determine cold resistance of Dendrocalamopsis oldhami from four different geographical provenances (Wenzhou,Fu’an,Youxi,and Zhangzhou),changes in semilethal temperature(LT50);peroxidase (POD) activities,malondialdehyde (MDA),proline and soluble protein content over the course of a winter were compared. Results showed that from the four different geographical provenances the semilethal temperature of Dendrocalamopsis oldhami decreased with the drop in temperature,and decreased to -5.1 to -8.1 °C in January. Over the winter,POD,MDA,and proline content increased with the drop in temperature,but the ranges differed for different geographical provenances. The correlation analysis showed significant,negative correlations between solub1e protein in and POD(P<0.01),MDA(P<0.01),and proline (P<0.01);between POD and proline(P<0.01);and between latitude and LT50(P<0.05) and MDA(P<0.05). However,there was a highly significant,positive correlation between POD and proline (P<0.01),LT50 and soluble protein(P<0.01). Principal component analysis indicated that cold-resistance of Wenzhou provenance was best,followed by Fu’an,Youxi,and Zhangzhou provenances.[Ch,7 fig. 6 tab. 16 ref.]
Measurement of main effective medicinal ingredients of elite cultivars of Cornus officinalis and their quality evaluation
YU Wei-wu, LI Zhang-ju, ZENG Yan-ru, DAI Wen-sheng
2009, 26(2): 196-200.
[Abstract](3800) [PDF](138)
Identification of main effective medicinal ingredients in approved cultivars of Cornus officinalis may further screen cultivars in line with cultivation objectives. Fully mature fruits were collected from 9 selectively bred cultivars of C. officinalis that were screened on the basis of yield indicators and their main effective ingredients,viz. ursolic acid,oleanolic acid,and colchicines,were measured using high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC),based on which a comparison was conducted among cultivars in terms of effective ingredient content-based quality. Results revealed that such 9 elite cultivars as ‘August Red’,‘Langhong’,‘Yongan’,‘Ligao’,‘Xianfeng’,‘Peace’,‘Yuzhuhong’,‘Big Goldendate’,and ‘Chun 86’ ranged from 5.920 to 13.260 g·kg-1 in ursolic acid,1.013 to 4.771 g·kg-1 in oleanolic acid,and 0.149 to 1.305 g·kg-1 in colchicine. In terms of all three ingredients together,‘Langhong’ and ‘Chun 86’ were best in quality. One cultivar was different from another in the content of effective medicinal ingredients. ‘Langhong’ and ‘Chun 86’ were the preliminarily selected cultivars in line with cultivation objectives.[Ch,2 fig. 1 tab. 9 ref.]
Genetic improvement on bi-clonal seed orchard of Chinese fir clone Long-15 and Min-33
ZHENG Yong-ping, SUN Hong-you, FENG Jian-min, ZHANG Jian-zhang, FENG Jian-guo, WU Long-gao
2009, 26(2): 201-208.
[Abstract](4025) [PDF](195)
With both the unimproved Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir) trees(ck1) and the multiple-clonal seed orchards (ck2;i.e.,first generation,one-and-half generation,and second generation seed orchards) as experimental controls,we studied the genetic improved gain,direct and reciprocal crossing effects,and genetic effects of a bi-clonal Chinese fir seed orchard(clones Long-15 and Min-33). We measured qualities of seeds collected in four consecutive years,planted seedling in two consecutive years at four different locations with five replications,and analyzed inheritance traits in the progenies. The results showed that compared to ck1,seeds from the bi-clonal seed orchard increased 6.76% - 20.44% quality gains;compared to ck2,thousand-seed weight,seed viability,and seed vigor were superior. The six-year-old progenies derived from the bi-clonal seed orchard had an increase of 46.14% volume gain than ck1,an increase of 10.63% - 21.10% than ck2. Both effects of direct crossing and reciprocal crossing on progeny growth,height-diameter ratio and crown diameter were similar;but height,diameter at breast height(DBH) and volume growth were mostly controlled by the gene additive effect;and thousand-seed weight,germination index and seed vigor showed a super dominant effect.[Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 16 ref.]
A comparative study on spatial structure of Myrica rubra forest under three different managements
HUANG Li-xia, YUAN Wei-gao, JIANG Bo, ZHU Jin-ru, PENG Jia-long
2009, 26(2): 209-214.
[Abstract](3752) [PDF](223)
We compared Myrica rubra forest under three different managements using the analysis of forest spatial structure in Xianju County,Zhejiang Province,where the M. rubra is one of the majority economic tree species. The objective of the study was to provide a quantitative description of the spatial structure of the three plots (plot 1 named X1 is intension type;plot 2 named X2 is extensive type and plot 3 named X3 is compound type.),and to present a method for comparative analysis of the three forest sites. The results showed that,the mingling degree of the M. rubra on X1,X2 and X3 were 0,0.208 and 0.336 respectively. The average neighborhood comparison of each plot range from 0.564 to 0.667 all were belong to cluster distribution pattern,but the average neighborhood comparison of the compound forest was closer to normal distribution. Therefore compound M. rubra forest is closer to uniform distribution than other two types. The neighborhood comparison measured by diameter at breast height(DBH),biomass,canopy breadth,and tree height under compound type had a slighter fluctuation range than the other two. Compound type is the most beneficial way of the three managements to maximize the ecological benefits. It was possible that increasing individual’s DBH to enhance its biomass,and thus,to achieve its predominance status among individual’s competition was the main strategy of individual’s differentiation. Neighborhood comparison should also be taken as an instructive reference in modifying the spatial structure of stand.[Ch,6 fig. 2 tab. 13 ref.]
Growth and yield traits of Tripterygium wilfordii
YE Rong-hua, SI Jin-ping, RUAN Xiu-chun, HUANG Wen-hua, GUO Bao-lin, XU Yuan-ke
2009, 26(2): 215-219.
[Abstract](4220) [PDF](217)
Growth and yield traits of Tripterygium wilfordii,used for the traditional Chinese medicine: Radix et Rhizoma Tripterygii,were studied to provide a theoretical basis for improved growing stock and resource utilization. The 55 2-year-old seedlings and 62 3-year-old seedlings were measured. A correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between whole root yield and 1) root system biomass;2) branch fresh weight;3) branch number;4) main branch thickness and length;and 5) number,thickness,and length of the main root system. Results showed that the biomass ratio of the aerial to the underground parts was 1.0 ∶ 1.7 ~ 2.0. However,with increased plantings,the number of main roots decreased. Strong correlations(P<0.01) were noted between fresh weight of the whole root and branch fresh weight (r2 = 0.854 5,r3 = 0.869 2. The subscript 2 means 2-year-old seedlings,and 3 means 3-year-old seedlings,same as below),branch number (r2 = 0.691 5,r3 = 0.489 9),branch thickness(r2 = 0.504 4,r3 = 0.358 5),branch length(r2 = 0.509 7,r3 = 0.444 8),number of main root systems(r2 = 0.686 5,r3 = 0.444 2),thickness of the thickest root (r2 = 0.614 7,r3= 0.383 7),and length of the longest root (r2 = 0.571 0,r3= 0.631 1). Thus,for T. wilfordii,since branch fresh weight followed by branch number had the most positive influence on fresh weight of the underground root,they could be used to forecast biomass of the root system. When selecting the best planting stock,the main factor to consider would be the fresh weight and number of branches,as well as the thickness of the thickest root and the length of the longest root.[Ch,4 tab. 12 ref.]
New records of a genus and a species of Mycetophilidae
YU Xiao-xia, WU Hong
2009, 26(2): 220-222.
[Abstract](4889) [PDF](234)
Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Magnolia cylindrica on nine phytopathogenic fungi
HI Dong-hui, LIU Hong-bo, YANG Xiao-feng, ZHANG Yu, CHEN An-liang, ZHANG Li-qin
2009, 26(2): 223-227.
[Abstract](4261) [PDF](222)
To exploit plant essential oils as botanical fungicides. The essential oil from Magnolia cylindrica was evaluated for its antifungal activity in vitro by using mycelial growth rate method on nine fungi: Rhizoctonia solani,Alternaria solani,Valsa mali,Fusarium graminerum,Bipolaris maydis,Exserohilum turcicum,Fusarium oxysporum f. vasinfectum,Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea. In addition,protective and curative effect of the M. cylindrica oil against B. cinerea on tomato was tested in vivo. In vitro the results showed that the essential oil of M. cylindrica at 500 μL ·L-1 was highly antifungal on the most of the tested fungi. Inhibition rates to the oil from the most sensitive fungi were 95.23%(V. mali) and 93.83% (F. graminerum).The half maximal effective concentration(EC50) of six sensitive fungi ranged from 147.94(V. mali) to 223.73 μL·L-1(S. sclerotiorum). In vivo with tomato,the concentration of the M. cylindrica oil at 1 000 μL·L-1 had higher efficiency on B. cinerea than did of 500 μL·L-1 oil and 100 mg·L-1 triadimefon. This study indicated that the essential oil of M. cylindrica had a high antifungal efficacy,however,further study was needed to provide experimental data for development of botanical fungicides from essential oils of M. cylindrica and other woody plants. [Ch,3 tab. 15 ref.]
Occurrence regularity of Carya cathayensis canker disease and its control
YANG Shu-zhen, DING Li-zhong, LOU Jun-fang, ZHANG Qiu-yue, WU Ji-lai, HU Guo-liang
2009, 26(2): 228-232.
[Abstract](3870) [PDF](244)
Canker disease is a new disease of Carya cathayensis,which induced by Macrophoma caryae. This disease begins in late March and ends in late November. To control the disease effectively,14 bactericides were screened,and three were found to be effective. After testing eight concentrations of each of the three bactericides,the proper methods to control the disease were obtained. When applied with 1 ∶ 100 - 1 ∶ 2 500 of 80% “402” bactericide,1∶100-1∶2 500 of ethylicin and 1∶100-1∶500 of 95% CuSO4 in April or May,the canker disease could be controlled effectively. When applied with 1∶100-1∶500 of 80% ethylicin,80% “402” or CuSO4 in September,the canker disease could also be controlled in 15 days. [Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 9 ref.]
Application of percolation theory in forest fire simulation
XIA Qi-biao, LI Guang-hui, YIN Jian-xin
2009, 26(2): 233-238.
[Abstract](3908) [PDF](203)
In order to know the importance of forest fire behavior to the decision making of forest fire fighting,a forest fire spreading model based on the percolation theory was established to simulate the forest distribution,the spread and movement of forest fire. The simulation experimental results indicated that the proposed model reflected the relationship between the forest fire spread characteristic and the forest density. Furthermore,we discussed other factors affecting the forest fire spreading,such as wind speed,wind direction,topography,and put forwards one modified model for forest fire spreading. [Ch,6 fig. 1 tab. 10 ref.]
Microstructure and fiber size of the castor-oil plant
LI Xiao-ping, ZHOU Ding-guo, ZHOU Xu-bin, WANG Wei, SHAO Yi
2009, 26(2): 239-245.
[Abstract](5304) [PDF](202)
To better use the castor-oil plant as a high quality fiber-material,the microstructure and fiber size of the cortex,xylem,and marrow of the castor-oil plant was studied with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM),Optics Microscope,and Motic Images Plus 2.0 image processing software system. Results showed the presence of fibers,axis-thin-wall,and radial cells in the cortex of the plant. The xylem microstructure was similar to diffuse-porous wood with the pipe orifice developed close up marrow and having linear-heterotype and non-linear-heterotype rays. Border pits were found on the fiber cell which curved in a plant burl. There also were polyhedral-shin wall cells and spiral vessels in the plant marrow. The cortex fiber cell was most to 26.50 mm in length,high to 540.00 in ratio of length to width and had a cell wall:cell cavity in width of 0.56∶0.83. The fiber cell of the plant’s branch-cortex was longest in length and largest in length to width ratio. The plant’s fiber cell of spike-cortex was shortest in length,smallest in length to width ratio and wall to cavity in width. The xylem fiber cell was from 0.75 to 0.90 mm in length,from 4.38 to 5.40 μm in width,and had a length to width cell ratio of 31.78∶37.54. The cell wall∶cell cavity in width was from 0.56 to 0.83. For the axes,the average length and width of the cell cavity and the length:width of the branch fiber cell was smaller than those of the trunk fiber cell,but the cell wall to cell cavity ratio for the width of the branch fiber cell was greater than or equal to those of the trunk fiber cell. In the spike the length,cell width,and cell cavity width of the fiber cell was smallest,but the cell length∶width and the width of the cell wall ∶ cell cavity was largest. In middle part of the xylem the radial length,cell cavity width,and the length∶width ratio of the fiber cell was larger,and the cell width,cell wall width,and cell wall ∶ cell cavity in width of the fiber cell in outside were largest. Thus,the fiber size was different in the different parts of the castor-oil plant. Since this fiber is an excellent material,it can be used to make paper or make artificial boards. [Ch,9 fig. 3 tab. 10 ref.]
Collaborative effect of almond gum and xanthan gum
WANG Sen, XIE Bi-xia, ZHONG Qiu-ping, LI Yi-na
2009, 26(2): 246-251.
[Abstract](3375) [PDF](175)
Synergistic texture properties and change rules of almond gum and xanthan gum were investigated to determine the flexibility,hardness,bondability,cohesiveness,adhesivity,chewiness,recoverability and brittleness of xanthan gum,which will provide theoretical base for the application of almond gum in functional food production. The texture properties of almond-xanthan gum blends were measured by TA-XT21 texture analyzer to study the collaborative effect and change rules of almond gum and xanthan gum. Results showed that texture property curves of the gum blends had significance difference(P<0.01) in general with different accession amounts of almond gum. Significant differences(P<0.05) were found in hardness,the F value of which reached 6.221 75;Extremely significant differences(P<0.01) were found in bondability,the F value of which reached 12.087 44. The hardness of xanthan gum slightly decreased first,and then fast increased with increase of the amount of almond gum. Generally,the collaborative effect of almond gum and xanthan gum showed diverse change rules. [Ch,2 fig. 2 ref. 9 ref.]
Cultivation history of Prunus mume in Changxing County,Zhejiang Province
ZHOU Wei, WANG Xiao-de, WU Xiao-hong, ZHOU Xiao-jie, ZHOU Qi
2009, 26(2): 252-256.
[Abstract](4165) [PDF](244)
In order to explore the cultivation history of Prunus mume(Mei) in Changxing,the historical tracks of planting Mei was analyzed systematically by reviewing local historical documents,studying the paintings and poetries about Mei. The research findings indicated that Mei cultivation in Changxing started in Tang Dynasty and mainly the fruit Mei,it was further developed in Song and Yuan Dynasties. During the beginning of Ming Dynasty to the late Qing Dynasty which were the period of prosperity,the number of Mei reached as many as 100 000. Due to the destruction by wars and the adjustment of agricultural structure,the cultivation of Mei declined in late Qing Dynasty and the cultivation area was less than 1 hm2. Since 1980s,Mei industry including fruit Mei,flower Mei,and fuctus Mei,resumed gradually and achieved a great leap-forward development;the area of flower Mei reached 400 hm2 in 2007. The history and the scale of Mei cultivation in Changxing are comparable with all the other traditional production areas. It plays an important part in the history of Mei cultivation and culture. [Ch,15 ref.]
“Farmhouse enjoyment”courtyard reconstruct practice integrating “local”and“innovative”in southern Yangtze River area
BAO Qin-xing, MA Jun-shan, ZHOU Jing-song, WANG Mei-yan
2009, 26(2): 257-261.
[Abstract](4823) [PDF](128)
“Farmhouse Enjoyment”is one important parts of leisure agriculture. In order to improve reconstruction model of “Farmhouse Enjoyment”,we chose one farmyard in Jianlin Village of Jiaxing City,Zhejiang Province,which located in water rural area in southern Yangtze River,to practice,we reconstructed the object guided by the principle of integration“local”and“innovative”. It means reconstructing the old farmyard using local and old materials but new technique. [Ch,6 fig. 3 ref.]
Multiple aesthetical connotations of plants in Chinese classical gardens
YANG Xu-fei, LI Guo-xin
2009, 26(2): 262-265.
[Abstract](4508) [PDF](158)
People usually concern more about the ecological meaning and external aesthetical factors of garden plants. As an important language factor of gardens,plants also have their own cultural connotations,sensational factors and auspicious meanings. To have a better understanding of garden plants,their spiritual connotations have to be studied and explained. Only in this way,the multiple connotations of plants can be fully understood. The multiple aesthetical connotations should be fully understood and applied in the garden building. [Ch,4 ref.]
Conception on constructing emergency platform system for emergent forest pest incidents in China
CHAI Shou-quan, QU Tao, ZHU Yun-feng, HE Chuan-jie, WANG Yun-li
2009, 26(2): 266-272.
[Abstract](4025) [PDF](302)
The occurrence and harm of forest pests were getting more and more severe in China. The emergency platform of emergent forest pest incident was a device of emergency management and disposition,a technical guarantee system combining software and hardware,which supported by forest pest control techniques,modern advanced information and communication techniques,and directed by emergency management flow of emergent forest pest incidents. The emergency platform system should include a four-tier management system including state forestry administration,provincial forestry department,municipal forestry department and county level forestry department,and a four-tier technological system including application layer,platform layer,data layer and equipment layer. The construction of emergency platform of emergent forest pest incidents can effectively defend and reduce the emergent affairs and its losses,and is very significant to protect forestry resource,maintain public safety and construct ecological civilization. [Ch,3 fig. 17 ref.]
Selecting salt?鄄tolerant mutants from somatic plant cells
MA Jin, BAO Qin-xing, TANG Geng-guo, ZHENG Gang
2009, 26(2): 273-278.
[Abstract](4251) [PDF](165)
Selection of salt-tolerant mutants from somatic cells of plants has been an important issue for breeding salt-tolerant plants. This paper introduces current development levels of materials,methods,and identification for the selection of salt-tolerant mutants from somatic cells of plants and points out defects which exist with complex variation types,such as difficulty in controlling the direction of variation and regeneration difficulties with a salt tolerant line of plant cells. Further study should focus on:1)establishing a stable and highly efficient plant regeneration system,2)reinforcing cell suspension culture in order to improve selection efficiency of salt-tolerant mutants from somatic cells of plants,3)increasing the frequency of variation for salt-tolerant target characteristics to reduce the production of non-target characteristics,and 4) determining a new direction in basic research for detecting salt-tolerant mutants. This would improve salt-tolerant breeding from somatic cells of plants and be useful for application in today’s world.[Ch,36 ref.]
Status quo and development trend of facility agriculture in foreign countries
GAO Feng, YU Li, LU Shang-qiong, XU Qing-xiang, YU Li-jie
2009, 26(2): 279-285.
[Abstract](4456) [PDF](190)
Facility agriculture is a highly effective agricultural production under the artificial controllable environment. It is characterized by strong risk resistance,large input of material and energy,highly concentrated knowledge and technology,distinct region discrepancy and multiple effects in economy,society and ecology. The facility agriculture can be dated back to the 4th Century BC and has been developing rapidly since the 1970s. It has developed to such a high degree that facility horticulture and intensive production are of considerable large scale and complete technology,equipment and specification. The development trend of foreign facility agriculture is as follows: standardization and large-scaling of agricultural facilities,mechanization of agricultural production,automatization,intellectualization and networking of computer monitoring system for environment of agricultural facilities,industrialized agricultural production,etc. In this paper,the connotation and characteristics of facility agriculture were analyzed,the history of foreign facility agriculture was briefly reviewed,and the status quo of foreign facility agriculture was concluded. In the end,the development trend of the world facility agriculture was also pointed out.[Ch,40 ref.]
Application of entomogenous fungi in biological control of agriculture and forestry pests
WANG Ji-xiang, MA Liang-jin
2009, 26(2): 286-291.
[Abstract](4051) [PDF](247)
Briefly review the research history and current research situation of entomogenous fungi and list the thirty-two main genus which include entomogenous fungi. Nine species of entomogenous fungi(such as Beauveria and Metarhizium) were detailed described,which have been researched and employed more frequently. Coelomomyces sp. is suitable for controlling the larva of mosquitoes,using Beauveria sp. to control pests is one of the most successful pest control practices and it can effectively control pests of Ostrinia nubilalis,Dendrolimus punctatus etc.,Metarhizium sp. is extremely effective in controlling larvas living in soil such as Anisoplia austriaca. The penetration mechanism of entomogenous fungi infecting pests was described,and the advantages and disadvantages of employing entomogenous fungi to control pests were discussed. The entomogenous fungi can infect each growth phase of pests and cause transmissible diseases,while this biological control easily influenced by temperature and humidity. [Ch,1 tab. 24 ref.]
Two new plant records of Zhejiang discovered in Mount Tianmu
LI Gen-you, CHEN Zheng-hai, YE Xi-yang, MA Dan-dan, ZHAO Ming-shui, XIE Wen-yuan
2009, 26(2): 292-293.
[Abstract](3705) [PDF](273)
One subspecies and one variety of Zhejiang Province were reported,which were discovered in National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmu. They are Oxalis acetosella Linn. ssp. japonica Hara of Oxaliaceae and Allium victorialis Linn. var. listera(Stearn) J. M. Xu. of Liliaceae.[Ch,8 ref.]
A genus and a species of Cruciferae newly recorded from Zhejiang,China
WANG Wei-guo, YOU Han-jie, CHEN Hao-liang, ZHANG Hong-wei, JIN Xiao-feng
2009, 26(2): 294-296.
[Abstract](3815) [PDF](216)
Barbarea orthoceras Lédeb. and the genus Barbarea(Cruciferae) were recorded as geographic distribution new to Zhejiang Province,which were found in Banqiao Town of Lin’an City. The voucher specimens are preserved in the herbarium of Hangzhou Normal University (formerly HTC).[Ch,1 fig. 11 ref.]