2009 Vol. 26, No. 3

Gene expression with cDNA-AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) during flowering of Carya cathayensis
HUANG You-jun, ZHOU Li, CHEN Fang-fang, ZHOU Qin, HUANG Jian-qin, HUANG Min-ren, WANG ming-xiu
2009, 26(3): 297-301.
[Abstract](3795) [PDF](371)
To shorten the juvenile period and promote early flowering in Carya cathayensis(Chinese hickory),the flowering mechanism of woody plants was studied. Female flower buds were plucked during three periods:before,during,and after flower determination. Then the transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) associated with flowering were cloned using cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis. Of the 278 TDFs,after sequencing and homologic analysis,65 TDFs showed unknown functions,whereas the others showed various functions including hormone synthesis,enzyme synthesis,cell signal transduction,chloroplast synthesis,and photo-induction.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 17 ref.]
Flower development and pistil receptivity in Sinocalycanthus chinensis and Calycanthus floridus var. oblongifolius
ZHAO Hong-bo, ZHOU Li-hua, HAO Ri-ming
2009, 26(3): 302-307.
[Abstract](3866) [PDF](208)
The flower development process and pistil receptivity of Sinocalycanthus chinensis and Calycanthus floridus var. oblongifolius were studied by macroscopic observation and using an in vivo pollen germination method. Flower development stages,consisting of a)small flower buds,b)large flower buds,c)relaxed flower buds,d)blooming but anther not dehisced,and e)blooming with anther dehisced,as well as pistil receptivity were almost consistent,whereas pistil development and anther growth differed slightly. Each stage interval was 1 - 2 d with higher temperatures accelerating development. From the small flower bud stage to blooming with anther dehisced,stamens and staminodes were erect,expanding,and then folding. Pistil receptivity period for these two species was 7 - 8 d,and receptivity was strongest at the blooming but anther not dehisced stage. This flower structure and its relative movement facilitated to outcrossing. [Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 16 ref.]
Chemical constituents of fragrances released from fresh flowers of Wisteria sinensis during different florescence periods
LI Zu-guang, LI Jian-liang, CAO Hui, ZHANG Xiao-sha, SHEN De-long
2009, 26(3): 308-313.
[Abstract](4231) [PDF](243)
The aim is to develop essential oil of Wisteria sinensis(Leguminosae) flower. The chemical con-stituents of fragrance released from fresh flowers of W. sinensis were investigated using headspace solid-phase microextraction(SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Also,variation in the main constituents of the volatile fragrance during five florescence periods(A:flower bud stage,B:early blooming stage,C:full blooming stage,D:end blooming stage,E:senescence stage) was studied. Results showed that linalool,2-nonanone,(E)-ocimene,2-undecanone,furan,3-(4,8-dimethyl -3,7-nonadienyl)-,2-tridecanone,4-acetonylcycloheptanone,α-pinene oxide,isoestragole,and α-farnesene were the most abundant volatiles released from the fresh flowers with 47 volatile compounds being identified. And,chemical constituent contents of flower were increased with blooming,reached a maximum when full blooming stage,then decreased. Overall,headspace SPME combined with GC-MS is a simple sampling method for measuring variation in the main constituents of volatile fragrance from fresh flowers during different florescence periods.[Ch,1 fig. 1 tab. 16 ref.]
Variation of quercetin content in Houttuynia cordata from twenty-two provenances
ZHANG Ai-lian, QIAN Hui-qin, ZHU Yan, WU Ling-shang, SI Jin-ping, ZHAO Qiang
2009, 26(3): 314-318.
[Abstract](4310) [PDF](238)
The objective of this study was to reveal variation in quercetin content,an active ingredient of Houttuynia cordata,from main producing areas in China and to lay a foundation for improvement in breeding quality. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine quercetin content in H. cordata from 22 provenances,after which the relationship between the quercetin content and morphological characteristics,geographic location,and growth traits was tested with a correlation analysis. Results showed that quercetin from different provenances correlated positively with plant morphology and was significantly (P<0.05,r = - 0.596 2) correlated with plant height. However,there was no significant correlation between quercetin and geographic location or plant diameter. Thus,to breed new cultivars of H. cordata for high quercetin levels,priority should be given to plant morphology and height.[Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 8 ref.
Spatial structure of mixed larch-spruce-fir stands
ZHANG Hui-ru, WU Ji-cheng, YANG Hong-bo, CHEN Xin-mei
2009, 26(3): 319-325.
[Abstract](4291) [PDF](276)
To provide a referencing foundation for structural adjustments in a mixed larch(Larix olgensis)-spruce(Picea jezoensis)-fir(Abies nephrolepis) stand,found only in the over-logged forest of the Changbai Mountains,three parameters,namely uniform angle index,mingling index,and neighborhood comparison,were used to describe spatial structure. Results indicated that the stand uniform angle index was 0.520;the average stand mingling was 0.64;and for diameter at breast height with the neighborhood comparison,coniferous trees (esp. Picea jezoensis) dominated,with fewer Pinus koraiensis. The neighborhood pattern showed tree distribution was clustered,and the average mingling index indicated the stand was a medium mixed degree. Thus,these three spatial tests could be used to decide the trees and species to cut so as to adjust stands to an optimum structure.[Ch,3 tab. 17 ref.]
Evaluation system of conservation priority of forest communities in Yaoluoping of Anhui Province
GAO Ju, HE Yun-he, JI Xing-lei
2009, 26(3): 326-332.
[Abstract](4464) [PDF](172)
Plant diversity of forest communities in Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve was analyzed and the conservation was valued based on the field investigation. There were 786 species of plants which belonged to 145 families. The results of the evaluation of the endangered hierarchy indicated that there were six critically endangered species,15 endangered species,41 vulnerable species,66 lower risky species and 658 secured species. Based on the conservation priority of species,there were four classes of plants under conservation. Two species were under class-one conservation,11 species under class-two conservation,21 species under class-three conservation,and 752 species under class-four conservation. The accumulative fidelity of 17 key communities was calculated and sequenced. The order of conservation priority for these communities was Com. Cyclobalanopsis glauca>Com. Alnus trabeculosa>Com. Sassafras tzumu>Com. Quercus stewardii.[Ch,5 tab. 27 ref.]
Soil organic carbon:distribution and storage with five regeneration patterns in Cunninghamia lanceolata forests
XU Gui-lin, FANG Xi, TIAN Da-lun, TANG Zhi-juan, ZHANG Zhu-san
2009, 26(3): 333-340.
[Abstract](4344) [PDF](160)
The vertical distribution and storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the depth of 0 - 75 cm were contrasted and discussed by sampling and laboratory analysis under forests of primary Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir) forests converted with regeneration patterns of a)secondary Chinese fir forests (Chinese fir 12 years and 20 years),b)natural woods,c)Castanea mollissima tree plantations,d)Citrus reticulata plantations and e)Andropogon chinensis grass in Huitong County,Hunan Province. The results showed SOC and C/N in vertical directions decreased generally with depth under different regeneration patterns. In 30 - 45 cm soil depth,the SOC content in the C. mollissima field was significantly higher than that in A. chinensis grass (P = 0.049,t test),but difference of SOC content was not significant in other layers among other regeneration patterns(P>0.05,t test). The sequence of mean SOC content of 0 - 75 cm was C. mollissima > Chinese fir 12 years > Chinese fir 20 years > natural woods > Citrus retculata > A. chinensis grass. The five regeneration patterns resulted in loss of SOC storage(0 - 60 cm),with mean annual decrease being C. mollissima(2.201 t·hm-2·a-1)< Chinese fir 12 years(2.666 t·hm-2·a-1)< Chinese fir 20 years(2.837 t·hm-2·a-1) < natural woods (3.207 t·hm-2·a-1)<A. chinensis grass(3.278 t·hm-2·a-1)<Citrus reticulata(3.565 t·hm-2·a-1). Thus,for Chinese fir stands,regeneration with leaf-fall and deeper rooted trees will have a greater potential for SOC storage. [Ch,2 fig. 6 tab. 26 ref.]
Black carbon occurrence and distribution in forest soils in Zhejiang Province,China
LIU Zhao-yun, ZHANG Ming-kui
2009, 26(3): 341-345.
[Abstract](3559) [PDF](157)
To characterize soil black carbon storage and distribution in Zhejiang Province,China,litter,surface soil(0 - 10 cm),and subsurface soil(10 - 20 cm) samples were collected from forest soils at 60 sites with or without wildfire histories. Results showed that mean content of black carbon in litter,surface soils and subsurface soils were 3.96,6.91,and 3.39 g·kg-1,in that order,accounting for 0.96%,8.07%,and 11.82% of the soil total organic carbon,respectively. From 40 sites experiencing fire events within the last 40 years,black carbon in the litter and 0 - 10 cm soils was significantly higher than soils without a record of fire (P<0.05),whereas in the 10 - 20 cm soils fire events had no major impact on black carbon content(P<0.05). On slopes,accumulation of black carbon was generally higher on the lower part compared to the top and upper part. In soil developed from residual deposits,proportion of black carbon in total organic carbon was greater in the 0 - 10 cm layer and decreased significantly with increasing profile depth(P<0.05). However,in soil developed from slope deposits,high black carbon levels were noted in 30 - 80 cm,and the proportion of black carbon in total organic carbon increased significantly with increasing depths(P<0.05). Content of black carbon in clay fractions was higher than that of non-clay fractions,and size of soil black carbon particles became smaller with increasing depth.[Ch,5 tab. 14 ref.]
Absorption of soil N and P by three fast growing bush species
WANG Wei-guo, TONG Gen-ping, XU Wen-xin, DOU Chun-ying, ZHANG Yuan-yuan, YE Zheng-qian
2009, 26(3): 346-350.
[Abstract](3978) [PDF](142)
Due to soil and water erosion,excessive nutrient loss in heavily fertilized farmland is creating serious pollution problems and contributing to groundwater contamination as well as non-point source pollution;hedge plants may help control this problem. In order to chose bush species with strong absorption ability,a soil-pot experiment was conducted to test the capability of soil nitrogen(N) and phosphorus (P) absorption by three fast growing bush species:Ligustrum japonicum ‘Howardii’,Photinia fraseri,and Chimonanthus salicifolius. Results showed that P. fraseri was able to uptake N most actively(P<0.01);meanwhile L. japonicum ‘Howardii’ was able to uptake P most actively(P<0.01) together with strong ability to absorb N. Therefore, intercropping with these two species may act as a more efficient barrier to N and P loss from soil and water erosion.[Ch,4 tab. 19 ref.]
Combustibility of 25 woody plants for selection of fire-resistant tree species in Kunming area
LI Shi-you, LUO Wen-biao, SHU Qing-tai, MA Chang-le, MA Ai-li, ZHANG Qiao-rong
2009, 26(3): 351-357.
[Abstract](4330) [PDF](192)
Combustion experiments of living branches and leaves of 25 woody plants in Kunming area were conducted with a combustion device designed by the authors. The combustion characteristic parameters,namely the ratio between area of smoke temperature net rising curves apices per unit mass fuel in flaming stage and ignition time,were put forward based on lighting time,smoke temperature and weight losing in flaming stage. The combustibility orders were put forward based on combustion characteristic parameters. According to the combustibility,biological,ecological,silvics and economic characters of 25 woody plants,Myrica rubra var. typica,Myrica rubra var. atropurpurea,Camellia aleifera,Illicium simonsii,Myrica esculenta,Acacia dealbata,Alnus nepalensis and Exbucklandia populnea were fire-resistant tree species. Myrica rubra var. typica,Myrica rubra var. atropurpurea and Camcllia aleifera were the best choices as fire-prevention and fire-resistant tree species. Rhododendron siderophyllum,Rhododendron decorum,Vaccinium sprengelii,Michelia yunnanensi,Eurya japonica and Ternstroemia gymmanthera were hard combustible but not good fire-resistant tree species and could be applied as fire-prevention species for forestation. [Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 25 ref.]
Prevention and control effects of different pesticides on 4 forest pests
SHI Fu-chao, ZHU Xiao-bing, Gong Ning, WANG Tao
2009, 26(3): 358-362.
[Abstract](3947) [PDF](303)
The prevention and control effects of biological and chemical pesticides were studied using the spray and leaf dipping methods to effectively prevent and control Ectropis oblique hypulina,Orthaga achatina,Micromelalopha troglodyte and Latoia consocia in the forests of Chongming County. The results showed that the prevention and control effects of biological pesticides were slower than but as good as that of chemical pesticides. 250 g·kg-1 benzoylphenal urea Ⅲ were ideal pesticides for Ectropis oblique hypulina and Orthaga achatina. 10 g·kg-1avermectin and 200 g·kg-1 diflubenzuron had very good prevention and control effects on Micromelalopha troglodyte and Latoia consocia respectively. Through this research,we selected 5 new biological pesticides for the forestry of Chongming County,namely,250g·kg-1 benzoylphenal urea Ⅲ,Bt suspension concentrate,10 g·kg-1 avermectin,200 g·kg-1 diflubenzuron and 50 g·kg-1 chlorfluazuron EC,which were of high efficiency,low toxicity and low residues. [Ch,4 tab. 16 ref.]
Microscopic analysis on winter plant food of Syrmaticus humiae (Hume’s pheasant) in Dazhongshan,Yunnan
LI Ning, ZHOU Wei, YANG Yan-ying, ZHANG Qing, LIU Zhao
2009, 26(3): 363-367.
[Abstract](3830) [PDF](147)
In order to explore the foraging strategy of Syrmaticus humiae (Hume’s pheasant)in winter,46 grains in 20 piles of fecal matter from S. humiae and 92 plant species from 38 families was collected from Dazhongshan during December 2007. By using a micro-fecal analysis,the diet composition of S. humiae was found. Results showed that the diet composition of S. humiae in winter contained 18 plant species from 12 families that could be divided into 3 groups according to relative density of amount food. The first group was the main foods,about eaten 31.5% in total,which consisted of Athyrium guangnanense and Pseudocystopteris spinulosa. In the second group were 14 plants,eaten 52.7%,that were common in its diet including Ardisia crenata,Acrophorus stipellatus,Castanopsis delavayi,Daphniphyllum oldhamii,Eurya ciliata,Gomphostemma microdon,Hemiphragma heterophyllum,Lithocarpus xylocarpus,Maesa argentea,Millettia longipedunculata,Quercus franchetii,Smilax china,Ternstroemia gymnanthera,and Vaccinium bracteatum. The third group had two species that were occasionally eaten 1.2%,namely Eurya nitida and Lindera nacusua. Overall,the main factors affecting diet composition were species composition and vertical structure of vegetation. For feeding strategies of S. humiae,selecting high quality food was the most important strategy,and followed by eating suitable plants from foraging patches. [Ch,1 tab. 19 ref.]
Study on forest carrying capacity in Zhejiang Province
ZHANG Zhi-jie, YI Li-ta, HAN Hai-rong, YUAN Wei-gao
2009, 26(3): 368-374.
[Abstract](4621) [PDF](164)
Forest carrying capacity evaluation,an important component of forestry sustainable development,is also precondition of establishing strategy of regional forestry sustainable development. Zhejiang Province’s forest carrying capacity in 2005 was evaluated by establishing index system and evaluation model through comprehensive index method. The results showed that the IFC(forest carrying index) was overloaded(IFC = 1.003),so it was in a weak sustainable stage. From two different forecasts,the direction of forestry sustainable development in Zhejiang Province was that shrub and coniferous forest with smaller productivity and biomass would be replaced by broadleaf forest and coniferous and broadleaf forest with bigger productivity and biomass.[Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 13 ref.]
A GIS-based information system for forest resource management in Parung Panjang Forest Farm,Indonesia
BEY-FANANIE Fauzan Mulia, ZHOU Guo-mo, CHIRKO Charles
2009, 26(3): 375-383.
[Abstract](4403) [PDF](142)
To develop a forest resource management tool for a sustainable forest plan to be used on Parung Panjang,a forest farm in Bogor District,West Java Province,Indonesia,a geographic information system (GIS) model with component object model(COM),GIS from the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI),and an embedded GIS ActiveX control with MapObjects on a Visual Basic 6.0 platform,was employed. Basic GIS functions included data entry,graphics and attribute data processing inquiries,output of statistical analyses,and data management functions,such as layer manipulating,map zooming,map attributes managing,data querying,data editing,and statistical map displays. With this new GIS program,forest data and prior statistical data of the Parung Panjang Forest Farm were integrated into one system. Thus,this system can assist organizers,regulators,institutions,researchers,and other interested personnel to improve decision making,evaluation,and monitoring of forest resources.[Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 9 ref.]
Technology of accelerating Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii seedling growth
LI Xiu-peng, YU Ci-ying, WANG Cheng-lin, SHENG Cheng-fen, CHEN Ye-ping, ZHAO Ying
2009, 26(3): 384-388.
[Abstract](3787) [PDF](218)
Triple heat preservation measure including single pipe film greenhouse,middle-arch shed,plastic film and straw were adopted to conduct the seedling experiments of Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii. The results indicated that with the triple heat preservation technology,the average field germination was 84.5 per cent,10 per cent higher than the general open breeding,showing significant differences between the two ways of breeding. Moreover,the technology could greatly improve the air temperature and ground temperature for the seedling in early spring,promote the seedlings germination,prolong seedling growth period,and accelerate seedling growth. The average height growth of 1-year-old seedlings was 75.6 cm,which was 5.2 to 6.5 times that of the general breeding;the average diameter growth was up to 1.24 cm,3.4 to 4.4 times that of the general breeding. The heat preservation technology greatly increased the yield and quality of seedlings,avoided occurrence of low-quality seedlings,and brought significant economic benefits. The technology could be extended and applied in production. [Ch,3 tab. 13 ref.]
Application evaluation of cutting flowers of 40 chrysanthemum cultivars
NING Hui-juan, SHAO Feng, DAI Si-lan, BAO Zhi-yi
2009, 26(3): 389-394.
[Abstract](4599) [PDF](206)
Based on the evaluation criteria of cutting chrysanthemum(Chrysanthermum morifolium),40 autumn chrysanthemum cultivars of big-flower type were selected from abundant chrysanthemum cultivars. Cultivation experiments on 40 cultivars and 2 contrast cultivars(‘Jinhuangqiehua’ and ‘Jinba’) were conducted according to the production requirements of cutting chrysanthemum. And the performance of each cultivars was observed in the course of cultivation experiment. According to professional suggestions,14 test characters fitting for cutting flower were selected from DUS(distinctness,uniformity,stability) test technology for chrysanthemum. We selected 10 individual plants of every culticars at random for 14 cutting flower character test. Finally,individual character of cutting chrysanthemum cultivars was weighed and evaluated through the analytic hierarchy process,and 5 excellent cutting chrysanthemum cultivars were selected from 40 autumn chrysanthemum cultivars of big-flower type,namely,‘Tangshan 6-48’,‘Taohuajian’,‘Qilinge’,‘Dongli Taohuang’ and ‘Huangtuogui’. Meanwhile,a set of evaluation criteria of cutting chrysanthemum were established. [Ch,6 tab. 8 ref.]
Drying and shape maintaining of Camellia japonica flower
XUAN Jun-hua, LIN Xia-zhen
2009, 26(3): 395-399.
[Abstract](3223) [PDF](298)
Taking fresh flowers of Camellia japonica as a testing material,and sense score and water content as indexes,the effects of different chemical solutions and investment materials on drying and shape maintaining of Camellia japonica flowers were studied,in order to find out the best way to maintain its shape. The results indicated that treatment with different solutions had different effects on the shape maintenance of the flower. The order from the best to the worst maintenance effect was:dipping in the 50% xylene for 2 days after disposing in absolute alcohol for 3.0 hours> dipping in the solution of 30% glycerin for 4.0 hours> dipping in the 25% sucrose solution for 4.5 hours> dipping in the 50% propylene glycol for 2 days after disposing in absolute alcohol for 3.0 hours. The best shape maintenance effect of investment materials were 1/2 silica gel plus 1/2 sodium chloride.[Ch,3 tab. 12 ref.]
Technology of oriented forming of bacilliform wood stick
MEN Quan-sheng, ZHANG Qi-sheng
2009, 26(3): 400-405.
[Abstract](3732) [PDF](143)
A brief description of preparation process of new core-board Chinese fir(Cunninghamia lanceolata) orient laminated strand lumber,and the necessity and basic work principle of oriented forming of bacilliform wood stick were made. The various factors which influenced the effectiveness of oriented forming were tested to find out the factor which obtained the best effectiveness of oriented forming. The analysis of the process and results of the test was also conducted. The findings indicated that it was feasible to follow the following steps:pre-orientation of deposit slot→pilot drive→reciprocated oriented forming. When felting machine’s reciprocated journey was 170-180 mm,reciprocated frequency was 126-158 times·min-1,the speed of pilot driven shaft was 80-100 r·min-1,the space between pilot socket plate was 95 mm,it had much better forming result for the length of 100-200 mm bacilliform wood stick,the average rate of oriented forming was over 70%.[Ch,5 fig. 4 tab. 7 ref.]
Catalytic ozonation with activated carbon for degradation of methylene blue in wastewater
LIU Zhan-meng, TANG Chao-chun, LI Jing, BAO Dong-jie
2009, 26(3): 406-410.
[Abstract](3963) [PDF](145)
The effect of ozoniferous air flux,pH,as well as initial concentration and quantity of activated carbon for degradation of a simulated dye wastewater of methylene blue was studied. Experimental results indicated that methylene blue wastewater was effectively decomposed using a low initial concentration of methylene blue and a high pH. For 90 min at an initial concentration of 100 mg·L-1 of methylene and pH of 9.5 with 9 g·L-1 of activated carbon,the removal rate for color was 95.6% and for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 64.8%. Activated carbon not only accelerated the generation of ·OH radicals,but also enhanced their reaction with methylene blue so that in the process of catalytic ozonation with activated carbon,indirect oxidation dominated. Compared with a single ozonation,the removal rate of COD was heightened.[Ch,7 fig. 13 ref.]
Poll investigation of village landscaping in new countryside construction in south Jiangsu Province
HUANG Li-bin, ZHANG Min, ZHU Xi-chen, ZHAN Shun-long, LI Dong-lin
2009, 26(3): 411-416.
[Abstract](4423) [PDF](158)
Villagers’ attitudes toward village landscaping in south Jangsu Province and their willingness to participate were studied through a sampling survey. The findings were as follows: (1) Over 90 per cent of villagers were willing to plant trees around their houses and input their labor voluntarily for the village landscaping. The 72% of the villagers thought planting trees were for the purpose of improving and beautifying their living environments. They preferred evergreen broad-leaf species and flower-shrubs such as Cinnamomum camphora and Osmanthus fragrans and etc. for the village landscaping. They concerned more about the landscaping and beautification of the roads and gardens closely related to their life. (2) Approximately half of the villagers were satisfied with the current status of village landscaping. They hoped the government would provide subsidies and landscaping seedlings for the landscaping. (3) Villagers in different areas,with different ages,education and occupations had different cognition and participation of the village landscaping. We should adjust our measures to different conditions in terms of customs,locations and economic strength. [Ch,3 fig. 5 tab. 10 ref.]
Significance and methods of introducing post occupancy evaluation in China’s landscape architecture design
2009, 26(3): 417-420.
[Abstract](4693) [PDF](158)
With the development of urbanization in China,a lot of landscape architectures have been designed and constructed. But when they were put into use,many projects were unable to meet the demands of the users. POE (post occupancy evaluation) is a research on the systematic evaluation of architectures in outdoor space. We gave a general description of the development of POE at home and abroad,and explained the significance of introducing POE in China’s landscape design from the design process,design quality,government functions,public participation and so on. Moreover,we demonstrated the experience and methods of POE in landscape architectures including interviews,questionnaires,behavioral observation,and cognitive map in hope of arousing the public attention and research on POE in China’s landscape architecture design.[Ch,11 ref.]
Ecological view of garden design strategy
SI Zhen
2009, 26(3): 421-426.
[Abstract](4033) [PDF](144)
Ecological aesthetics is based on ecological values,and it reflects human being’s dependence on the nature and life relationship between human being and the nature. It also has pushed reunion of inter and outer. Garden art has a very realistic significance which serves for contemporaries,and reflects the harmony between human being and the nature. Therefore,we should pay attention to ecological aesthetics and introduce eco-aesthetic concepts into traditional landscape art design,and reflect the ecological beauty in landscape design,which is the requirement of era for the garden designers and their works. [Ch,9 ref.]
Mangrove status and development prospects in southern Zhejiang Province
HUANG Xiao-lin, PENG Xin, QIU Jian-biao, CHEN Shao-bo
2009, 26(3): 427-433.
[Abstract](4415) [PDF](161)
Mangroves,in a general sense,are intertidal plant formations growing in tropical and subtropical coastal areas with temperature being the main constraining factor in plant growth. To Ximen island as an example,southern Zhejiang,the northern boundary of artificially planted mangroves covered an area of over 10.0 hm2 in the past. However,this area has rapidly decreased due to the rebuilding of a dike pond and coastal construction leaving only 0.2 hm2 of mangroves. In recent years,governments at all levels in southern Zhejiang have increased financing for mangrove planting,but these plantings are still immature. Using artificial transplants of mangrove and half-mangrove plants,a coastal shelter forest system can be established for protection,purification,or ornamental features. To provide a scientific basis for management of mangrove areas to the various levels of government,a survey of the transplanted mangrove area in southern Zhejiang was conducted. The main threatening factors,besides temperature,were:1) serious water pollution in coastal waters;2) man-made damage;3) harm of the marine life;4) the impact of aquaculture in tidal areas;and 5) solid waste near the shoreline. To strengthen mangrove protection and rehabilitation in southern Zhejiang,we recommend strengthening education of tidal areas,fortifying scientific research teams working with mangrove forests through a protection troop,accelerating ecological restoration of the mangrove forest wetlands,and developing research on protection of mangrove forests. [Ch,1 tab. 33 ref.]
Research methods on natural forest stand structure:a review
GONG Zhi-wen, KANG Xin-gang, GU Li, ZHAO Jun-hui, ZHENG Yan-feng, YANG Hua
2009, 26(3): 434-443.
[Abstract](4407) [PDF](167)
For the forest manager,forest structure,composed of spatial and non-spatial structures,is an important frame of reference. Each structural type has its own operational method. When used to describe the average characteristics of a stand,the non-spatial method is not bound by the relative location of the trees,whereas the spatial method must take the location of trees into account. In the article the q ratio,development of a stand structural model using diameter,nearest-neighbor indices,and spatial statistical methods are summarized. These methods determine stand structure using diameter,location and size,distribution pattern,species isolation level,relationships between spatial structures,and so on. Finally,issues needing further study were discussed. [Ch,3 tab. 68 ref.]
Protocorm-like body (PLB) development on Dendrobium officinale
ZHANG Qi-xiang, FU Su-jing, FANG Yan-ming, CHEN Na
2009, 26(3): 444-448.
[Abstract](5032) [PDF](156)
To determine the most effective medium for protocorm-like body(PLB) induction and growth,shoot tips of Dendrobium officinale were cultured on media. Then,several compound addenda were added to the media to determine the best treatment for PLB multiplication,and this was followed by anatomical observation of PLB formation on D. officinale. Results showed that the best medium for PLB induction and embling regeneration was 1/2MS + 0.5 mg·L-1 6-BA + 0.05 mg·L-1 NAA + 0.1 mg·L-1 KT + 1.0 g·L-1 LH with potato juice. The anatomical observation showed that the PLBs developed from the tissue behind the apical meristem,which could dedifferentiate into embryogenetic cells. The process was as follows:creamy global structures were visible after 40 d,and these gradually increased. Cells on the edge of the PLBs continued to dedifferentiate forming a global colony. These global structures grew into bumps when the PLBs multiplied. [Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 13 ref.]
Progeny testing of plus trees and selection of Fokienia hodginsii
HUANG De-long
2009, 26(3): 449-454.
[Abstract](3707) [PDF](125)
In order to chose plus trees of Fokienia hodginsii to utilization,mensuration and analysis were conducted on 80 families of Fokienia hodginsii from 5-year-old progeny in the National Forest Farm of Yongan,Fujian Province,in 2005. We used balanced lattice square method with 10 replications. Results showed significant differences(P<0.01) among families for tree height,diameter at breast height (DBH),and stem volume which were mainly controlled by genetic factors. According to progeny tests and based on stem volume while considering tree height,DBH,and straightness,thirteen superior families(J007,N001 etc.) and 35 superior individuals(Di001,Di002 etc.) were preliminarily selected. For 13 superior families,average tree height was 4.05 m with a 9.36% average genetic gain,average DBH was 5.57 cm and 16.46%,and average stem volume was 0.005 94 m3 and 33.77%. For the 35 superior individuals,average tree height was 4.65 m with 24.19% average genetic gain,average DBH was 7.5 cm and 42.17%,and average stem volume was 0.010 66 m3 and 146.93%. These superior families and individuals showed favorable growth traits and could be used for seed orchard or vegetative propagation. [Ch,6 tab. 10 ref.]