2015 Vol. 32, No. 4

Design and implementation of the forestry data acquisition system
ZHOU Keyu, XU Aijun, LI Huixia, XIA Kai
2015, 32(4): 491-496. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.001
[Abstract](3973) [PDF](596)
On the basis of the reviewing the research status of the forestry data acquisition, by analyzing the demands of the forestry management services and field data acquisition, and taking the forest rights and afforestation management services for example, the research had a deep analysis of the data process, functional structures and database design of the system, examined and solved some key technical problems in designing and developing the system such as the forestry planning and design drawing and data checking, and chose the Visual Studio 2010 and ArcGIS Engine as the developing tools to achieve the automatic updating, chart and table operating, data processing and system managing. The research extended the informationization of forestry management to the field data acquisition phase and improved the accuracy and efficiency of the forestry data acquisition. [Ch, 5 fig. 10 ref.]
Geographically weighted regression based on estimation of regional forest carbon storage
GUO Hanru, ZHANG Maozhen, XU Lihua, YUAN Zhenhua, CHEN Tiange
2015, 32(4): 497-508. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.002
[Abstract](1977) [PDF](662)
Global climate issues have confirmed the irreplaceable role forest carbon stocks play in the global carbon cycle. To research whether the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model method which considers the role of survey factors spatial heterogeneity and establish the local regression model, can improve the estimation accuracy of forest carbon stocks, instead of the more commonly used methods of global regression model such as ordinary least squares analysis(OLS), we used forest management inventory data in Xianju County, Zhejiang Province, combined with Landsat TM image data developing local models using GWR to estimate forest carbon stock and its density. Available of geographically and altitudinal weighted regression (GAWR) model was then tested in smooth terrain. Analysis is included comparison to traditional regression and co-kriging interpolation. Results showed that the total forest aboveground carbon stocks estimated by the GWR(T) model for Xianju County were 3.132 106 Mg, and carbon density ranged from 0 to 89.964 Mghm-2 with a mean value of 15.555 Mghm-2. Meanwhile, the total forest aboveground carbon stocks calculated from diameter measurements were 3.192 106 Mg with a mean value of 15.854 Mghm-2. The overall result from GWR(T) model was lower than diameter measured by 1.880%, R2 = 0.654 (P<0.01), and carbon density distribution was consistent with the actual situation. The estimated results also had a higher accuracy with the RRMSE = 9.802 (P<0.01) than traditional regression method with the RRMSE = 15.033 (P<0.01) and co-kriging interpolation method with the RRMSE = 16.427 (P<0.01). GWR method can effectively estimate the regional forest aboveground carbon stocks reasonably and accurately, however, the GAWR model is not applicable for the areas with smooth terrain. Adding altitude as an explanatory variable in the modeling could improve estimation accuracy but would in turn create a multi-collinearity problem.[Ch, 6 fig. 9 tab. 26 ref.]
Remote sensing based estimation and spatial distribution of tree species diversity for Zijin Mountain
JIANG Yunjiao, HAN Yiqun, LI Mingyang, WANG Yixiao
2015, 32(4): 509-515. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.003
[Abstract](1860) [PDF](582)
Monitoring biological diversity is a core scientific research project in the field of international biological diversity. To overcome drawbacks with traditional ground surveys, such as intensive labor and low efficiency, this study used remote sensing based estimation of biological diversity at the landscape scale. Zijin (Purple) Mountain National Forest Park in Nanjing was the research area where survey data from 90 field plots were collected in 2011, and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) remote sensing imaging in the same year was gathered to build remote sensing based models for the Gleason Index and Shannon-Wiener Index. Then a trend surface analysis was conducted with hot spot detection for biodiversity indexes. Results showed that: 1) terrain factors (Gradient and elevation), human disturbance (the distance of road and residential areas), and vegetation growth conditions (the indexes of Gleason and Shannon-Wiener) were the primary environmental factors contributing to tree species diversity. 2) The Gleason Index for Zijin Mountain presented a ring pattern descending from southwest to northeast, and the Shannon-Wiener Index revealed a spatial pattern of a concentric circle with an eastward center. 3) Forest stands with a higher Gleason Index in Zijin Mountain were mainly located in places at lower elevations, with gentler slopes, and near roads and settlements; whereas, stands with a higher Shannon-Wiener Index were mainly concentrated in places at higher elevations, with steeper slopes, and far from road and residential lots. Therefore, we can protect tree species biodiversity for Zijin Mountain by the two means of increasing tree species and establishing conservation area.[Ch, 7 fig. 1 tab 14 ref.]
A comprehensive evaluation system for anti-typhoon performance of trees in coastal areas
XU Xiuyu, XIAO Li, WANG Minghuai, ZHANG Huaxin
2015, 32(4): 516-522. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.004
[Abstract](13904) [PDF](566)
To effectively evaluate and select trees in coastal areas for protection against typhoons, 16 traits from three categories including 1) growth and properties of 2) roots and of 3) wood types were chosen to establish a comprehensive evaluation system using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Then 10 trees (Casuarina equisetifolia W8, Casuarina equisetifolia K18, Casuarina equisetifolia P6, Casuarina equisetifolia G1, Casuarina equisetifolia A8, Calophyllum inophyllum, Melia azedarach, Eucalyptus grandis Eucalyptus urophylla, Acacia mangium, and Acacia crassicarpa) were selected and evaluated using the comprehensive evaluation system. Results of tree performance in resisting typhoons showed that wood property was the key factor with a weight of 0.633 3, growth was second, and root traits had a minimal influence (weight of 0.106 2). Wood property traits of 1) wood density and 2) ratio of fiber length to width had the greatest influence on anti-typhoon performance. For growth traits, the ratio of aboveground to belowground fresh weight had the largest contribution, and for root traits, root depth had the largest weight. The comprehensive evaluation system ranked the 10 trees as: Casuarina equisetifolia W8 > Casuarina equisetifolia K18 > Casuarina equisetifolia P6 > Casuarina equisetifolia G1 > Casuarina equisetifolia A8 > Calophyllum inophyllum > Melia azedarach > Eucalyptus grandis Eucalyptus urophylla > Acacia mangium > Acacia crassicarpa. Evaluation results were consistent with typhoon damage investigations, so this comprehensive evaluation system could provide an important reference when selecting and evaluating trees for anti-typhoon performance. [Ch, 7 tab. 25 ref.]
Growth rule for a 46-year-old Dalbergia odorifera in Nanning, Guangxi
LIANG Jianping, JIANG Junlin, QIN Wuming, WU Daonian, YAN Li, WU Min, JIANG Cui
2015, 32(4): 523-528. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.005
[Abstract](1953) [PDF](554)
To protect a precious redwood tree, Dalbergia odorifera, this study determined the growth rule for a 46-year-old D. odorifera from Liang Fengjiang Garden in Nanning, Guangxi. Results showed an average tree height of 18.7 m, DBH of 21.6 cm, and volume of 0.401 9 m3tree-1. Tree height followed an annual increment pattern of highlowhigh from the seedling stage to 35 years of age. Afterward a relatively stable growth in tree height occurred. DBH growth had two relatively obvious plateaus from years 14-28 and 32-46. Volume growth was high for a precious hardwood with heartwood in the most recent 8 years averaging a diameter of 10.8 cm. [Ch, 5 fig. 2 tab. 18 ref.]
Temporal variation for canopy transpiration and its cooling properties in a Quercus acutissima forest of suburban Nanjing
LIU Xin1, ZHANG Jinchi, XIE Dejin, ZHUANG Jiayao, SHAO Yongchang, ZHANG Shuifeng
2015, 32(4): 529-536. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.006
[Abstract](2032) [PDF](588)
Global warming and regional water resources shortage have become the focus of the global. Climate warming affects global hydrological cycles, and tree transpiration also affects climate warming. This study was conducted to analyze canopy transpiration of Quercus acutissima and to determine its cooling effect on surrounding environments. Continuous observation of the sap flow density and environmental factors, such as solar radiation, air temperature, air relative humidity, soil temperature, soil water content, used a sap flow meter and a mini weather station in Nanjing Dongshanqiao Forest Farm. Maximum sap flux density, peak daily sap flux density, transpiration heat flux, solar energy, consumed-energy coefficient, and canopy transpiration cooling was conducted according these data. Six trees of different diameter grade were observed. Results indicated that 1) the maximum sap flux density appeared at 13:00; the greatest peak daily sap flux density was 18.78 gcm-2h-1 in August, and the lowest was 13.49 gcm-2h-1 in June. 2) Canopy transpiration summed from May to October was 237.52 mm with the highest month being July. 3) July also had the greatest transpiration heat flux (154.97 MJ m-2) and solar energy (489.65 MJm-2). The coefficient of consumed-energy for canopy transpiration was highest in August (35.8%) and lowest in October (25.8%). 4) Canopy transpiration cooling from Q. acutissima was highest in July (3.07 ℃), and during the growing season, canopy transpiration reduced the average temperature (2.35 0.53)℃h-1 per 10 m3 air. According to the transpiration and its cooling effect, we could choose suitable afforestation design in order to alleviate global warming and heat island effect [Ch, 6 fig. 1 tab. 28 ref.]
Community characteristics and soil nutrients in different green space types of Zhuji City, Zhejiang
XU Yiming, ZHANG Chao, KU Weipeng, Yilita, YU Shuquan
2015, 32(4): 537-544. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.007
[Abstract](2524) [PDF](524)
To provide a scientific basis of green space planning and construction of the plant diversity for Zhuji and other cities which in similar climate type, plant diversity, community structure, and soil nutrients were studied in four types of urban green space: parkland, residential green space, natural woodlots, and Accessory greenbelt, of Zhuji City, Zhejiang Province. Analysis included use of the Shannon-Wiener and Simpson's indexes. Results showed that the study area included species from 51 families of 100 genera and 170 species; indigenous tree species from 49 families with 88 genera and 107 species accounted for 62.94% of the total species. Tree species revealed a greater number of Cinnamomum camphora; shrub species were predominantly Pittosporum tobira and Camellia. Compared to the three other kinds of urban green space, natural woodlots had the lowest similarity, but similarity with shrub species was much higher. No differences in tree species diversity among the four types of urban green spaces were found; the Shannon-Wiener index and Simpsons index were about the same: a ranking for Shannon-Wiener diversity was parkland (1.46)>residential green space (1.45)>natural woodlots (1.37)>work-unit attached green space (1.29); whereas, the ranking for Simpsons index was residential green space (0.67)>parkland (0.66)>work-unit attached green space (0.60)>natural woodlots (0.58). For community structure, tree species in natural woodlots were densest with a smaller average DBH resulting in fewer understory shrubs; tall trees in parklands contributed to the lowest density and the greatest average DBH. The highest content of organic matter was in natural woodlots followed by the Accessory greenbelt, parkland, and residential green space. Therefore, urban green space should increase the use of fine native species and the variety and number of shrub species, and fertilization management specifically in the future.[Ch, 1 fig. 9 tab. 25 ref.]
Uptake, accumulation, and distribution of the main elemental nutrients in Dendrocalamopsis oldhami
YE Jing, TAO Lihua, KE Hejia, XIANG Tingting, WU Jiasen
2015, 32(4): 545-550. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.008
[Abstract](2489) [PDF](507)
Dendrocalamopsis oldhami is an important dual-use product providing wood and bamboo shoots. To improve sustainable bamboo management for long-term benefits, the uptake, accumulation, and distribution of the main nutrients in the above-ground parts of D. oldhami were studied. In January 2013, plant samples of different aged leaves, branches, and culms of D. oldhami were collected in Cangnan, Zhejiang Province to analyze nine elemental nutrients, namely N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu. Results showed that the nutrient content was leaves > branches > culms. Total nutrient accumulation in above-ground parts was 621.07 kghm-2 with culms (344.04 kghm-2) > leaves (158.81 kghm-2) > branches (118.22 kghm-2). The nutrient accumulation amount was N>K>P>Mg>Ca>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu. Maximum N accumulation was 354.28 kg hm-2 accounting for 57.0% of the total accumulation in the above-ground parts. Since the net organic production of a D. oldhami forest required 12.92 kg of the main nutrition elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) per ton with 58.0% of that being N, to promote growth an increase of N fertilizer is required. [Ch, 4 fig. 4 tab. 19 ref.]
Soil available nutrients and rice yield with silicon and phosphorus fertilization
SUN Ying, WANG Xudong, WANG Ying, PAN Wujie, LU Rongjie, RUAN Zhongqiang, TU Wenwen
2015, 32(4): 551-556. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.009
[Abstract](1729) [PDF](458)
It had been confirmed that silicon(Si) could enhance P efficiency in paddy soil, but the interactional effect of different ratio of Si and P fertilization was rarely documented. Therefore, the study aims to understand the effects of fertilization with different ratios of Si and P on soil fertility and rice yield. Three levels of Si and P fertilizers treatments were carried out through a pot experiment(0, m and h mean light, moderate and high treatments respectively), nine different treatments included Si0P0, Si0Pm, Si0P0, SimP0, SimPm, SimPh, SihP0, SihPm, SihPh. Sodium silicate and calcium dihydrogen phosphate were used as Si and P fertilizers respectively. Each treatment had five replications and random arranged. After rice harvest, soil samples (about 1 kg fresh weight) were collected from each pot, air dried and sieved through a 2 mm stainless steel screen, then stored for pH, available nitrogen(N), phosphorus, potassium(K) and silicon analysis. Rice yield components were also determined. The data was analyzed in Microsoft 2003, SPSS 18.0(ANOVA). Means were tested using the least significant difference(LSD) with a significance of P<0.05. The soil pH value was significantly increased with the amount of P fertilization when compared with Si0P0 treatment under light and moderate Si level, but showed no difference under high Si level. Under the same P level, the soil pH value was significantly increased with the application amount of Si. Under moderate Si level, the content of available N was significantly increased with the application amount of P, whereas, the amount of Si fertilization showed no significant effect on available N under the same P level. The available P was significantly increased with the application amount of Si under the same P level. The highest available P content occurred with treatment SihPh. Under moderate Si level, the available K was significantly increased with the application amount of P, but showed no difference under light and high Si level. Available Si was significantly increased with light and moderate P application. Under light and moderate Si or P level, the rice dry matter weight increased significantly with the application amount of Si or P. Rice grain yield increased significantly with the P application amount under light and moderate Si application. The highest grain yield for the nine treatments occurred with SimPh which increased by 74.78% compared with Si0P0. In this pot experiment, application of moderate Si with P fertilization could enhance the soil pH, available N, P, K and Si, rice dry matter weight and grain yield in paddy soil. There had significant interaction between different amount of Si and P applying. [Ch, 4 tab. 13 ref.]
Cloning and functional analysis of the psbD gene in Pseudosasa japonica f. akebonosuji
XU Bingqing, AN Miaomiao, JIANG Keyi, XU Lili, YANG Haiyun, ZHOU Mingbing
2015, 32(4): 557-565. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.010
[Abstract](3638) [PDF](850)
Photosystem Ⅱ (PSⅡ) of a plant chloroplast is an important protein complex in light-dependent reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis with the psbD gene encoding the center protein D2. Until now, psbD gene in Pseudosasa japonica f. akebonosuji still would not been sequenced and reported. In order to analysis the psbD gene structure and the potential relation of psbD gene function and leaf color variation, in this study the genomic DNA of Pseudosasa japonica f. akebonosuji was extracted and the full-length psbD gene sequence (Pj-psbD) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The expression pattern for Pj-psbD was detected by the fluorescence quantitative PCR technique in three different growth (S1, S2 and S3) stages using green, stripe and albino leaves of P. japonica f. akebonosuji leaves with three material replicates and three expriements replicates. Results showed that the Open Reading Frame (ORF) of Pj-psbD was 1 059 bp long encoding 352 amino acids with a relative molecular weight of 39.59 kD and an isoelectric point of 5.34. In the Pj-psbD polypeptide chain, there were six transmembrane domains, plus multiple photosynthesis domains and other function sites. Among the three colors of leaves the psbD expression level in the three growth stages of the albino leaves was highest with more than 2-4 times than those of the according three growth stages of the green leaves. The continuously increasing expression levels of the gene along with leaf growth and development for the three types of leaves could meet the formation needs of the chloroplast, and the high psbD expression level in the albino leaf could be the protection mechanism that inhibits light damage in the photosynthetic system. [Ch, 8 fig. 1 tab. 25 ref.]
Growth and physiological characteristics of Cymbidium hybridum ‘Shijieheping’ in peanut hull media
SUN Yan, YANG Xiuzhen, QIAN Lu, LI Hui
2015, 32(4): 566-571. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.011
[Abstract](1990) [PDF](614)
To choose suitable substitute-media of tree bark for Cymbidium hybridum Shijieheping, six-month-old seedlings were planted with the same cultural practices for 10 months in 10 media: ck1 (pine tree bark), B1 (80% (v/v) tree bark + 20% peanut hulls), B2 (50% tree bark + 50% peanut hulls), B3 (45% tree bark + 45% peanut hulls + 10% peat), B4 (20% tree bark + 80% peanut hulls), B5 (15% tree bark + 75% peanut hulls + 10% peat), ck2 (peanut hulls), M1 (80% bark + 10% peat + 10% cymbidium stones), M2 (40% peanut hulls + 40% bark + 10% peat + 10% cymbidium stones) and M3 (80% peanut hulls + 10% peat + 10% cymbidium stones). Results indicated that compared with other groups, seedings planted in both M3 and M2 developed significantly in growth indexes, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, dark respiratory rate, and survival rate. Thus, for industrial production of C. hybridum Shijieheping in northern China, peanut hulls with addition of cymbidium stones and peat could be used as an ideal culture media to replace tree bark. [Ch, 5 fig. 4 tab. 14 ref.]
Biological seed characteristics of Camellia chekiangoleosa
YE Xin, XIE Yun, RU Huasha, HONG Shuanghua
2015, 32(4): 572-577. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.012
[Abstract](1997) [PDF](607)
Fresh Camellia chekiangoleosa seeds, having a habit of dormancy, were harvested as test material. Seed morphological characteristics and germination characteristics were analyzed by measuring morphological characteristics, 1 000-grain weight, water content, water absorption properties, and seed viability. The influence of seed soaking temperatures on seed germination was also determined. Three treatments including untreated, shelled, and etched, were employed to study water absorption properties, and the 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) method was used to test seed viability. Seed germination was tested in a 24 h period with six seed soaking temperatures from 25-65 ℃, control group was tested in a 24 h period with 20 ℃ seed soaking temperatures, and each group maintaied the same temperature for 6 hours. Results showed that the water absorption ability of shelled seeds was better than untreated and etched seeds. The 1 000-grain weight was 1 177 g, water content was 41.3%, and seed viability was 85.0%. Morphological characteristics identified included seeds having a dark brown skin with hard cutin. The seed consisted of an exopleura, an endotesta, and an embryo with the embryo having a germ, hypocotyls, a radicle, and cotyledons that were fat. Seed average length was 18.6 mm, average width was 15.8 mm, and average thickness was 11.7 mm. The test for germination characteristics showed that soaking seeds 24 h in 25 ℃ water was beneficial with a seed germination rate of 73.0%, which was higher than the control group. [Ch, 3 fig. 2 tab. 14 ref.]
Detection and identification of mulberry bacterial wilt and its pathogen using Fourier transform infrared spectra
LUO Jinyan, YANG Chunlan, CHEN Lei, WANG Li, MAO Shengfeng, LI Bin
2015, 32(4): 578-584. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.013
[Abstract](1554) [PDF](677)
To rapidly identify a newly emerging mulberry wilt disease in Zhejiang Province, this study compared Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of Enterobacter mori and Ralstonia solanacearum, which cause similar disease symptoms on mulberry. First, FTIR spectra were taken on E. mori and R. solanacearum, and then a comparison of mulberry branches infected with and without E. mori was performed based on FTIR spectra. Results for E. mori and R. solanacearum in the 4 000.00 - 500.00 cm-1 region showed 5 similar peaks with 3 of the similar peaks differing in intensity. Peaks at 1 399.10 and 1 079.45 were specific to E. mori; whereas, peaks at 2 973.49, 1 724.42, 1 380.60, 1 278.67, 1 185.12, 1 132.03, 1 100.51, and 979.31 cm-1 were specific to R. solanacearum. The FTIR spectra for healthy and infected mulberry branches showed 5 similar peaks in the 4 000.00 - 500.00 cm-1 region with 4 of the similar peaks differing in intensity. Peaks at 1 643.92 and 1 407.31 cm-1 were specific to infected branches; whereas, peaks at 1 635.83, 1 506.36, 1 423.59, 1 374.97, 1 328.57, and 1 108.82 cm-1 were specific to healthy branches. This study indicated that Fourier transform infrared spectra could provide a simple, intuitive, and fast technology for rapid detection and identification of mulberry bacterial wilt. [Ch, 2 fig. 3 tab. 19 ref.]
Toxicological effects of camptothecin to Botrytis cinerea
MAO Shengfeng, ZHOU Xiang, FAN Wenchun, ZHANG Liqin, YE Jianren
2015, 32(4): 585-589. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.014
[Abstract](1833) [PDF](485)
In order to ascertain the toxicology effects of camptothecin to Botrytis cinerea, growth rates were determined by the application of different concentrations of camptothecin inhibition of mycelial growth and cell well structure of B. cinerea. The results showed that camptothecin concentration 3.13 mgL-1 can strongly inhibit the mycelial growth, inhibition rate 45.49% antibacterial rate of significant differences. In the scanning electron microscope, camptothecin treated by B. cinerea, mycelial cells rupture, perforation, shriveled, growing point of collapse, cytoplasmic extravasation. In vivo effects of camptothecin on B. cinerea showed that camptothecin against B. cinerea has a significant protective effect. [Ch, 1 fig. 3 tab. 14 ref. ]
Combustion properties of sliced bamboo plywood with chemical loading
WANG Shuqiang, PANG Xiaoren, HUANG Chengjian, SHEN Daohai, ZHANG Weigang, LI Yanjun
2015, 32(4): 590-595. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.015
[Abstract](1637) [PDF](536)
In order to restrain the combustion of the sliced bamboo plywood and its products, which were used as decorating materials, significantly the materials above should be treated with fire retardant to increase their safety security. The effect of temperature, time, and dipping concentration on the chemical loading of sliced bamboo veneer were tested by thermostatic bath utilizing complex fire retardants at constant pressure. Combustible properties and mechanical properties of the fire-retardant sliced bamboo plywood were also determined using oxygen index and bonding strength tests. Results showed that the best impregnation conditions were 60 ℃ for 8.0 h at an impregnation concentration of 300.0 gL-1. Combustible properties of heat release rate, total heat release quality, and smoke release rate, decreased as chemical loading increased; however, residual material quantity and light time increased. The oxygen index of the treated plywood increased; when the chemical loading was 8%, the oxygen index reached the B1 fire-retardant grade as per JISD 1322-1977. Although bonding strength decreased with an increase in chemical loading, the national standard for Class Ⅱ plywood was maintained. So, it was feasible that Sliced Bamboo plywood could be manufactured by the impregnation process under atmospheric pressure. [Ch, 6 fig. 2 tab. 12 ref.]
Analysis on the determinants of Phyllostachys edulis’s input-output efficiency
FU Shuangshuang, XU Xiuying, WU Weiguang
2015, 32(4): 596-602. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.016
[Abstract](1969) [PDF](502)
Improving forestry input-output efficiency is significant for increasing farmers income and developing economy in mountainous areas. This paper took the bamboo production in Longyou County, Zhejiang Province as an example, and conducted a two-stage analysis: measuring bamboo farmers input-output efficiency with DEA and comparing the input-output efficiency of bamboo plots with different scales to identify the optimum scale; analyzing the factors affecting the bamboo farmers technical efficiency with the Tobit model on the basis of the measured production efficiency to find out the main determinants. The results indicated that the production efficiency of bamboo famers in Longyou county was comparatively low: average value of comprehensive technical efficiency, net technical efficiency and scale efficiency being 0.448, 0.569 and 0.789 respectively. The ratio of bamboo income to total household income and site quality of bamboo plot had a positive impact on comprehensive technical efficiency, while the number of bamboo plots had a negative impact on comprehensive technical efficiency. The comprehensive technical efficiency of transferred plots was lower than that of non-transfer plots.[Ch, 1 fig. 4 tab. 17 ref.]
Energy intensity, industrial structure and selection of low-carbon policy
XU Yabin, LI Lanying, ZHOU Zigui, ZHANG Yong, HUANG Yujie
2015, 32(4): 603-610. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.017
[Abstract](1917) [PDF](497)
Climate change is increasingly serious, and analysing the determinants of carbon emissions and studying carbon emission reduction is significant. The research used additive decomposition method of LDMI to build a factor decomposition model of carbon emissions from the energy consumption and conducted an empirical analysis of above scale industrial industries from five aspects including energy intensity, industrial structure, energy structure, economic output and the employed population scale. The results revealed that energy intensity and industrial structure had significant negative effects on carbon emissions; while economic output and the employed population scale had strong positive effects; energy structure had no significant negative effect on carbon emissions. Of the industrial industries in Anhui, electricity and heat production and supply industry, coal mining and dressing industry, petroleum processing, coking and nuclear fuel processing industry, ferrous metal smelting and rolling processing industry, non-metallic mineral products industry were the main industries affecting industrial carbon emissions. To reduce carbon emissions, policy suggestions on, reducing energy intensity, adjusting industrial structure and reducing the proportion of five industries were proposed. [Ch, 4 fig. 5 tab. 14 ref.]
Landscape evaluation and function analysis of roadside linear green space
LI Huawei, MU Bo, LEI Yakai, TIAN Guohang
2015, 32(4): 611-618. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.018
[Abstract](7055) [PDF](832)
Linear green space is an important part of urban green synthesis. Through a field survey of space situation and social service function of linear green space on Wenlao Road, Zhengzhou City of Henan Province and an evaluation of landscape comprehensive quality with analytic hierarchy process, the paper pointed out the existing problems of linear green space in terms of community level and urban spatial form, and proposed to increase the cultural and psychological functions of green space to improve the style and features of green landscape and enhance the comfortable degree. The paper also explored the functions of urban linear green space, its roles in the healthy and sustainable development of cities and development perspective in the process of urbanization, to provide advices and references on the scientific development of urban green system planning. [Ch, 2 fig. 7 tab. 16 ref.]
Characteristics of plant landscape of traditional academy gardens in Zhejiang
FANG Shuli, ZHANG Mingru, MENG Meng, ZHANG Lin, WANG Xin
2015, 32(4): 619-624. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.019
[Abstract](2214) [PDF](608)
Ancient Chinese academies tended to have garden environment. Plants were an indispensable element for academy to meet the demands of learning, residence, travel and other functions. Combining reviewing literature with investigation, this paper analyzed plant landscape of traditional academies in Zhejiang from natural landscape, artificial landscape and its culture, in order to restore the real garden environment of traditional academy. Characterized by the fun of nature, ingenuity of artificiality and elegance of culture, plant landscape of traditional academy in Zhejiang created the unique space and culture environment. The design idea of combining education with landscape also had great significance to the construction of modern campus. [Ch, 3 fig. 1 tab. 26 ref.]
Research progress on invasion mechanism and prevention strategy of Alternanthera philoxeroides
WANG Ying, LI Weihua, LI Dan, ZHANG Zhen
2015, 32(4): 625-634. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.020
[Abstract](2160) [PDF](766)
Alternanthera philoxeroides is a global malignant invasive weed. It has shown a tendency to spread and cause severe damage to economic and ecological environment in China. This paper reviewed the recent researches on the invasion of A. philoxeroides, elaborated its invasion mechanism from biological characteristics and its ability to exploit environment, indicating the characteristics of its morphology, reproduction, phenotypic plasticity and adaptability contribute to its successful invasion, and form a single dominant populations in the invaded area. The research analyzed the prevention strategy from four aspects including physics, chemistry, biology and ecology, and put forward the respective recommendations for the existing problems in the research on invasion mechanisms and prevention: strengthening the use of soil animals and soil microbial biological control methods to carry out the biocontrol research on invasive plants, while carrying out exploration and practice of ecological alternative control strategy. [Ch, 67 ref.]
Research on nitrogen circulation and management of bamboo: a review
YE Lisha, CHEN Shuanglin, GUO Ziwu
2015, 32(4): 635-642. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.021
[Abstract](2076) [PDF](551)
As one of forest resources, bamboo forest not only has important economic values but also provides important ecosystem services including soil conservation, water conservation, carbon fixation and oxygen release. Bamboo cultivation has been a focus of research in recent years. Fertilizing is an important measure to improve bamboo cultivation. As one of the major factors affecting the growth of bamboo, nitrogen has great influences on the growth and development of bamboo. In order to provide scientific theoretical basis for bamboo nitrogen input, this paper summarized nutrient diagnosis of bamboo, nitrogen balance of bamboo, nitrogen absorption and utilization of bamboo, environmental impacts on bamboo nitrogen, and put forward the following focus areas for further research on bamboo nitrogen: nitrogen cycling of bamboo, the influence of nitrogen forms on bamboo growth, bamboo soil nitrification inhibitors based on the quality assurance of the bamboo shoots, environmental safety based nitrogen input, and development and application of exclusive controlled-release fertilizer of bamboo nitrogen. [Ch, 52 ref.]
Scientific notes
Water depth ecological amplitude of Alternanthera philoxeroides based on coverage and plant height in the Caohai Wetland
LIAO Xiaofeng, LONG Xiuqin, LI Anding, XIE Yuangui
2015, 32(4): 643-647. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.022
[Abstract](1890) [PDF](591)
To provide a reference for invasive techniques and prevention concerning Alternanthera philoxeroides, plant height and coverage of invasive A. philoxeroides in the Caohai Plateau Wetland ecosystem were surveyed at different water depths using a quadrat survey method with setting 45 temporary plots(1 m1 m) radomly and achieving 29 samples of data. Then, the water ecological amplitude of A. philoxeroides was determined using the Gaussian Model. Results showed that (1) based on plant height, the optimal ecological amplitude interval was[-0.73 cm,69.99 cm], and plant height reached the maximum at 34.63 cm. (2) Based on coverage, the optimal ecological amplitude interval was [9.55 cm,67.29 cm], and coverage reached the maximum at 38.40 cm. (3) Based on coverage and plant height, the optimal ecological amplitude interval was [9.55 cm,67.29 cm], and the growth of A. philoxeroides reached the best at 37.53 cm. (4) In Caohai Wetland habitats, A. philoxeroides adaptability to water depth increased although it decreased with coverage and plant height. An ecological amplitude with a greater depth successfully provided protection from invasion in the Caohai Wetland ecosystems. Overall, the adaptability of A. philoxeroides to water depth provided new ideas for controlling wetlands. [Ch, 2 fig. 1 tab. 18 ref.]
Rooting capabilities for Taxodium ‘Zhongshanshan’ 302, 118, and 405
WANG Ziyang, XU Jianhua, LI Huogen, YU Chaoguang, YIN Yunlong
2015, 32(4): 648-654. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.04.023
[Abstract](2073) [PDF](500)
To explore the asexual rooting capabilities among clones selected at 1979, 1993, 2004, respectively, the rooting rate, rooting number, length and basal diameter of the maximum root were compared among three clones of Taxodium Zhongshanshan302, 118, 405 with different treatments of water control, 1 000 mgL-1 indole acetic acid, 1 000 mgL-1 naphthyl acetic acid, 2 000 mgL-1 indole acetic acid, 2 000 mgL-1 naphthyl acetic acid, 1:1 mixture of 1 000 mgL-1 indole acetic acid and 1 000 mgL-1 naphthyl acetic acid, 1:1 mixture of 2 000 mgL-1 indole acetic acid and 2 000 mgL-1 naphthyl acetic acid. Results showed that: 1) The rooting rate of T. Zhongshanshan 302 was significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of T. Zhongshanshan 118 and T. Zhongshanshan 405 in control condition or treatment with 2 000 mgL-1 indole acetic acid, while significantly lower(P<0.01) in the rest of treatments. The percentage of cuttings with rooting number more than four of T. Zhongshanshan 302 was significantly lower (P<0.01) than those of T. Zhongshanshan 118 and T. Zhongshanshan 405 in 1 000 mgL-1 naphthyl acetic acid, 2 000 mgL-1 naphthyl acetic acid, 1:1 mixture of 2 000 mgL-1 indole acetic acid and 2 000 mgL-1 naphthyl acetic acid, while significantly lower(P<0.05) in 1 000 mgL-1 indole acetic acid, 1:1 mixture of 1 000 mgL-1 indole acetic acid and 1 000 mgL-1 naphthyl acetic acid. 2)Compared to the control, the rooting rate for all three clones were significantly greater(P<0.05) for each hormone treatment, excepting 1 000 mgL-1 indole acetic acid, 1:1 mixture of 1 000 mgL-1 indole acetic acid and 1 000 mgL-1 naphthyl acetic acid; the percentage of cuttings with rooting number more than four for all three clones were significantly greater(P<0.05) for 2 000 mgL-1 naphthyl acetic acid. Overall, there were significant differences in rooting capabilities among the three clones. And the rooting rate and rooting number for all three clones could be improved by hormone treatments. Among the 7 treatments, the treatment with 1:1 mixture of 2 000 mgL-1 indole acetic acid and 2 000 mgL-1 naphthyl acetic acid gained the highest rooting rate and the largest rooting number. [Ch, 4 fig. 1 tab. 21 ref.]