2015 Vol. 32, No. 3

Stable isotope composition for atmospheric water vapor in the forest ecosystem of Mount Tianmu
NIU Xiaodong, JIANG Hong, WANG Fan
2015, 32(3): 327-334. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.001
[Abstract](4851) [PDF](760)
Stable isotope techniques, one of the most effective techniques for understanding carbon and water relationships in terrestrial ecosystems, are commonly used domestically in agricultural but not in forest ecosystems. To establish long-term continuous observations with flux towers in forest ecosystems and to reveal stable isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor for regional characteristics in ecosystem water balance research, a subtropical evergreen and deciduous broadleaf mixed forest observation tower was established for Mount Tianmu in Zhejiang Province. The tower detected hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and had an in situ measurement system based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS). Also multi-layer gradients for temperature and humidity, wind speed, and radiation using conventional meteorological instruments were operational from December 2012 onward. Based on data observed from August to September 2013, the stable isotope composition of atmospheric water vapor influencing factors and their relationships were analyzed. Results showed that atmospheric rainfall, air temperature, soil temperature at 5 cm soil depth were important environmental factors in the forest ecosystem in Mount Tianmu; the air temperature and water vapor stable isotope composition were fitted in a linear relationship, while the soil temperature at 5 cm soil depth were fitted in a polynomial relationship with water vapor stable isotope composition, and also the statistics showed that the correlation was admirable. Thus, compared to agricultural ecosystems, water vapor stable isotope composition factors in this forest ecosystem had little influence.[Ch, 13 fig. 17 ref.]
Chlorophyll content in Phyllostachys violascens related to hyper-spectral vegetation indices and development of an inversion model
LI Yadan, DU Huaqiang, ZHOU Guomo, GU Chengyan, XU Xiaojun, SUN Shaobo, GAO Guolong
2015, 32(3): 335-345. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.002
[Abstract](2499) [PDF](608)
Reflectance data and relative chlorophyll content for Phyllostachys violascens at leaf scale were measured during the growth period from April, 5th to June, 18th using a portable Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) field spectrometer and a hand-held Chlorophyll Content Meter (CCM)-200. Correlation analyses were conducted between hyper-spectral vegetation indices and chlorophyll content based on the data. Then individual univariate linear inversion models were developed for chlorophyll content and hyper-spectral vegetation indices, such as red edge indexes GM, Vog3, double difference index DD, modified normalized differential vegetation index mND705, modified simple ratio mSR705, and Red-edge positions (REP). Also multivariate linear models for selected hyper-spectral vegetation indices and chlorophyll content were tested. Multivariate linear models are designed in two methods, strategy A is based on the 20 Phyllostachys violascens samples, and each data for the sample is the average for all the 14 times. On the contrary, strategy B is based on the data of 14 times, which average the 20 samples for each time. Results over the entire growth period showed (1) significant (P<0.01) correlations between chlorophyll content and hyper-spectral vegetation indices, GM (r = 0.866 3), Vog3 (r = 0.927 4 ), DD (r = 0.880 6), mND705 (r = 0.917 9), mSR705 (r = 0.924 9), and REP (r =0.895 4). At the end of the growth period, all vegetation indices had a favorable relationship with chlorophyll content, showing as the high correlation coefficients, although some indexes perform bad in most other time periods;(2) Using the univariate linear model, correlation for hyper-spectral vegetation indices and chlorophyll content showed r > 0.85. The multivariate linear models of the six hyper-spectral vegetation indices listed above and chlorophyll content using two strategies, both accurately predicted chlorophyll content of Phyllostachys violascens [with correlation coefficients between predicted values and measured values that were all above r = 0.89]. The multivariate linear models can be used to predicte chlorophyll content in the leaf of Phyllostachys violascens. Considering the calculate method, strategy B is more fit for the dynamic change of chlorophyll content for Phyllostachys violascens at leaf scale. [Ch, 4 fig. 2 tab. 45 ref.]
Distribution pattern for regeneration of a middle to young cut-over Larix gmelinii forest
YU Bao, ZHANG Qiuliang, WANG Liming, SA Rula
2015, 32(3): 346-352. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.003
[Abstract](1687) [PDF](484)
Update the location and scope as determined in the young stand Daxingan Mountains Xingan Larch and birch mixed forest over cutting and replanting measures more science, discusses the relationship between the regeneration pattern, location update and location in the tree. Cut-over forests of Larix gmelinii (larch), Betula platyphylla(birch), and Populus davidiana (poplar) were used with six aggregated indexes in test stands. Distribution of regeneration patterns was also aggregated. A correlation analysis of relative coordinates for diameter D10 cm was conducted. Results showed that the L. gmelinii forest with D10 cm was significantly correlated (correlation coefficent was -0.564-0.895, P =0.000-0.036) to regeneration location and pattern. The regeneration pattern was also affected by stand structure, the types of trees in the quadrats, and their mutual differences. Larch with D10 cm accelerated regeneration of Japanese white birch; whereas, Japanese white birch with D10 cm inhibited regeneration of larch. Regeneration layers, from top to bottom, had a vertical ladder distribution with B. platyphylla, then L. gmelinii, and then P. davidiana. The average forest height changed as follows: 13.7% to 75.0% (birch), 12.8% to 72.8% (larch), and 27.8% to 61.9% (poplar). In the future, spatial patterns should be adjusted so the D10 cm parameter controls forest regeneration patterns, and for replanting so the D10 cm tree location and pattern choice, litter thickness, soil seed inaccessible locations as replanting position, and the position of potential natural regeneration avoid overlap thereby saving costs, promoting forest regeneration, and providing a more reasonable structure.[Ch, 1 fig. 6 tab. 15 ref.]
Intraspecific competition in a Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation with different age and diameter classes
CHAO Lin, HONG Tao, LI Jian, CHEN Can, HONG Wei, WU Chengzhen
2015, 32(3): 353-360. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.004
[Abstract](5641) [PDF](555)
To test the hypothesis that stand age and diameter class in a Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation affected competition intensity, Hegyis distance-dependent competition index model and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used in the analysis for and discussion of the relationship between stand age, diameter class, and competition intensity. Results of the ANOVA demonstrated a highly significant effect (P<0.01) of both stand age and diameter class on competition intensity. The average intraspecific competition intensity between 10 and 25 years decreased with increasing stand age, and after 25 years continued to decrease but at a decreasing rate. With an increase in diameter class from 0-20 cm, the average intraspecific competition intensity also decreased, but it exhibited little variation when larger than 20 cm. The exponential function IC = ae-bx could be used to represent changes in competition intensity for stand age and diameter class with ICi = 73.761 3 D-0.978 3. Thus, competition intensity was closely related to stand age and diameter class providing an important basis for scientifically and effectively carrying out the management of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations.[Ch, 3 fig. 2 tab. 36 ref.]
An old-growth community dominated by Cinnamomum camphora in Daixi Town of Huzhou City, China
CHEN Jianming, FU Liufang, QIAN Xinjiang, ZHANG Fenyao, XIE Wenyuan, CHEN Feng
2015, 32(3): 361-368. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.005
[Abstract](2724) [PDF](531)
The eco-environment, flora, community features, and conservation value of an old-growth community dominated by Cinnamomum camphora in Daixi Town, Huzhou, Zhejiang Province were studied. Results indicated that this community located on a flatland with water networks in the northern part of Zhejiang Province had a complex and diversified floristic composition of 219 vascular plant species belonging to 70 families and 166 genera with temperate elements predominating. The C. camphora dominated community had the classic appearance of an evergreen broadleaf forest with the dominant life forms classes being from Phanerophytes followed by Hemicryptophytes and Therophytes. The community vertical structure was complex with stratification divided into tree, shrub, and herb layers along with interlayers. Dominant species were C.camphora, Celtis sinensis, Aphananthe aspera, and Zelkova scheioleriana. The C. camphora age structure belonged to the growth type and tended to be stable. Overall, the community was rich in biodiversity and valuable for its ecology, landscape, science, research, and cultural opportunities. [Ch, 1 fig. 6 tab. 14 ref.]
An ecological security early warning simulation city based on the CA Model in Huaxi District of Guiyang City, China
YI Wuying, SU Weici, ZHOU Wenlong, TANG Jingang, ZHANG Fengtai
2015, 32(3): 369-375. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.006
[Abstract](2171) [PDF](423)
Ecological security early warning refers to forecasting, analyzing, and evaluating the influence of human activities, such as construction, resource development, on the ecological environment and helps to determine trends and speed of change in regional ecological and environmental ecosystems. To provide reference materials for rational land use, regional urbanization, and ecological development for Huaxi District in Guiyang City, an ecological security early warning system was designed that combined ecological security and landscape ecology theories. Using inspection data from 2000 and 2010, Thematic Mapper (TM) images, the main data source, were combined with statistical data from socio-economic, demographic, traffic, and slopes of Huaxi District. Employing landscape fragmentation, isolation, dominance, and vulnerability, an ecological security warning index was developed for an ecological security early warning simulation that incorporated remote sensing (RS) and graphical information systems (GIS). Results showed an ecological security situation that was in a state of flux with no pattern of change. With accuracy above 90%, the ecological security warning index simulation value was 2.36 in 2020 rising to 2.50 in 2030 meaning a deterioration in ecological security. Thus, this study could provide information to help maintain ecological security and to avoid ecological risk during industrialization and urbanization of Huaxi District.[Ch, 2 fig. 1 tab. 21 ref.]
Range precision in forestry with Reflectorless Total Station
SU Yingzhang, XU Wenbing, ZHANG Guoli, MA Cancan, LIANG Dan, FANG Yapan
2015, 32(3): 376-383. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.007
[Abstract](1815) [PDF](561)
The Reflectorless Total Station, a convenient and efficient instrument for distance measurement used more in construction surveying than in forestry, was employed to determine the influence of different factors, such as trees, walls, distance, and angle of incidence, on precision distance measurements in forestry and to determine its feasibility for use with forest surveys, a Reflectorless Total Station (SOKKIA SET1X Total Station) with trees and walls as survey targets was tested. Experimental results on precision of distance measurements showed that (1) the material quality of a wall had little effect, its error is about 0.5 mm; whereas, (2) different tree species has varying degrees of bark roughness, it had the most influence to precision distance. For example, maximum error reached 2.769 mm with a measuring distance of 20 m. (3) Surface color of the target object revealed that the darker the color the greater the influence with 1 mm of error for a 20 m distance. (4) The stability of reflected signals had an error proportional to the distance with close to 5 mm measurement error for 100 m. (5) When the angle of incidence was over 20, at 20 m the error was close to 2 mm. (6) for target trees with rough bark, randomly selected target points should be obtained to improve the precision of the distance measurement.[Ch, 2 fig. 6 tab. 17 ref.]
Forest volume estimation based on spectral and textural information from the Landsat 8 satellite
WANG Yueting, ZHANG Xiaoli, YANG Huiqiao, WANG Shuhan, BAI Jinting
2015, 32(3): 384-391. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.008
[Abstract](2469) [PDF](608)
On the Jiangle State Forest Farm of Fujian Province forest volume was obtained by field investigation and by Landsat 8 observations that utilized band spectral values, vegetation indexes, derivatives of bands, and optimal textural measurements derived from the panchromatic band using varied window sizes. Through multiple regression analysis, volume estimation models were produced with independent variables of 1) only spectral factors and 2) combined spectral factors and textural volume. Then, validation was conducted using field survey data to test and compare model prediction accuracy. Experimental results showed R2 = 0.727 6 for the spectrally based volume estimation model and R2 = 0.857 5 for the combined model. Model prediction accuracy was 79.8% for the single spectral based volume estimation model and 86.0% for the combined model. Therefore, the improved prediction accuracy using textural information from the panchromatic band with images of Landsat 8 for forest volume estimation and application of this procedure should be considered when determining forest volume.[Ch, 3 fig. 6 tab. 22 ref.]
Based on WebGIS platform developing remote sensing information systems of forest canopy density inversion
YAO Zhi, ZHANG Xiaoli
2015, 32(3): 392-398. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.009
[Abstract](3524) [PDF](550)
With Landsa 8 OLI data, field investigation of the sample data and the ASTER GDEM elevation data as the foundation, this paper views Jiangle County, Sanming City, Fujian Province as the study area, and selects the stepwise-linear regression model, the backward-linear regression model and partial-least squares model to study the crown density distribution of the study area. On the ArcGIS Server for the. NET development (ADF) platform, this system combines with the spatial database technology, and sets up a distributed information system on forest crown density inversion which is based on B/S model, so that this system can carry out basic GIS operations, data query, the model factor calculation, forest canopy density model implementation, data editing and output functions, etc. Basically the system can meet the regional forest resources structure parameters analysis especially the unity of the crown density information management and processing requirements, and supports a platform for structural parameters, data normalization management and forest resources sharing services for Jiangle County, Sanming City.[Ch, 6 fig. 15 ref.]
Combustion properties of Chinese fir densified by phenolic resin impregnation and compression
ZHANG Weigang, BAO Binfu, DU Chungui, ZHANG Hong
2015, 32(3): 399-403. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.010
[Abstract](2949) [PDF](866)
For efficient utilizing of fast-growing Chinese fir, make it to densified Chinese fir(Cunninghamia lanceolata) which immersion by phenolic resin and followed by compression. Using a cone calorimeter to test the combustion characteristics of densified Chinese fir, studying on combustion performance like heat release rate, total heat release, smoke production rate, total smoke rate, CO yield, effective heat of combustion, and mass loss rate with EN ISO5660-1. Results showed that densified Chinese fir after increasing density, the total heat released reached 160.98 kWm-2, and afterward this peak decreased quickly with no peak heat release after 20 s. But non-densified Chinese firs second peak heat release appeared at 400 s. The heat release rate, total smoke rate, and effective heat of combustion for densified Chinese fir were all lower than non-densified. Smoke production with the non-densified material had a second peak at 300 s and lasted about 100 s; however, densified Chinese firs second smoke production peak was delayed 6 minutes. For densified Chinese fir the total smoke rate was also postponed and reduced; whereas the peak CO yield was delayed 70 s. Additionally, sustained release time of densified Chinese fir decreased from 60 s of the non-densified material to 35 s and then declined rapidly. Thus, Chinese fir after densified showed excellent combustion properties. [Ch, 9 fig. 11 ref.]
Enhancing mold-resistance of laminated bamboo curtain lumber using three non-native bamboo species
AN Xin, QIN Daochun, JIN Xiaobei, LI Yuyao
2015, 32(3): 404-409. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.011
[Abstract](2154) [PDF](503)
Laminated bamboo curtain lumber (LBCL) was manufactured from Dendrocalamus hookeri, Bambusa teres, and Yushania alpina all from Nepal or Ethiopia, and was coated with commercial mold inhibitors, 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC), Tung oil, or nitro-cellulose lacquer to improve anti-mildew capabilities. In the laboratory, resistance of both coated and uncoated LBCL to blue-stain and mold fungi was evaluated using China National Standard GB/T 18261-2000. Results showed that the uncoated LBCL had no anti-mildew capabilities according to areas of mold infection. Bamboo species had little influence on mold resistance with LBCL(P<0.05); whereas, treatment methods had a strong effect on the mold resistance(P<0.01). LBCL made of B. teres had slightly better resistance to Botryodiplodia theobromae than the other two bamboo species(P<0.05), but LBCL coated with 3% IPBC and lacquer was basically resistant to B. theobromae and Trichoderma lignorum. The most effective treatment method that was an LBCL with 5% IPBC and lacquer coating provided 100% resistance to B. theobromae and T. lignorum was the most effective.[Ch, 2 fig. 4 tab. 16 ref.]
Effect of three flame retardants on the performance of PE wood plastic composites flooring
GONG Yingchun, REN Haiqing, TANG Zhengjie, WU Zhangkang, HUANG Wei
2015, 32(3): 410-414. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.012
[Abstract](2175) [PDF](511)
To improve application of wood-plastic composites (WPC), a new type of environmental material, and to promote safety, the effects of three kinds of flame retardants (A, B, and C) on mechanical properties and combustion performance of PE wood plastic composite flooring were compared to unprocessed wood plastic composite flooring and analyzed. Results showed that after adding flame retardants, the 24 h water absorption rate, the bending failure load, and the smoke density of WPC flooring met the GB/T 24508-2009 and GB 8624-2006 standards. Compared to unprocessed WPC flooring, the oxygen index increased from 25.2% to 34.4%, the 24 h water absorption rate increased from 47.0% to 152.0%, and the bending failure load decreased from 10.5% to 27.4%. Retardant C had the maximum oxygen index and bending failure load for treated WPC flooring; retardant B had the minimum 24 h water absorption rate and smoke density. Overall, flame retardants improved the flame retardation properties of WPC flooring but negatively influenced mechanical properties; meanwhile, smoke from fire with WPC flooring was the main cause of casualties, so this toxic smoke requires further study. [Ch, 4 fig. 1 tab. 19 ref.]
Cambium generation and cellulose physical structure by growth stage and plant sex in ‘Yunma No. 1’ hemp stalk
WANG Qiwei, WU Ning, DU Guanben, WU Zhangkang, LI Xiaoping, XU Bao
2015, 32(3): 415-419. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.013
[Abstract](2092) [PDF](448)
To know the growth status, the physical properties of cellulose in hemp stalk better and provide more information for use it. Wide angle X-ray diffraction and a microscope were used to study the influence of growth stage and plant sex on cambium generation activity and the physical structure of cellulose in the industrial hemp stalk of Cannabis sativa Yunma No. 1with 4 strains of hemp samples. Samples from healthy, no rot, no breaking of industrial hemp, close to the ground for the collection. Results over the whole hemp stalk fiber growth period showed that relative crystallinity of the hemp fiber exhibited a greatly change (P-value was 0.039 0). For the growth period of 19-35 d, cell size was 0.230-0.245 nm, and from 42-186 d, cell size was basically unchanged (P-value was 0.086 2) with a decline of about 0.137 nm. For the same growing time, slightly more (P-value was 0.000 1) female plant cell layers than male were noted. From 77-91 d, the degree of relative crystallinity in male plants was higher (P-value was < 0.05) than female plants, but from 98-186 d it was higher (P-value was 0.058 8) in female plants. Cell size of male and female plants from 77-186 d was 0.136-0.150 nm. Thus, there was no strong relationship for cell size among growth period, cell layers, and relative crystallinity (The correlation coefficients between those were -0.518 0, -0.551 7, and -0.829 1 respectively). [Ch, 1 fig. 3 tab. 13 ref.]
Difference analysis using an FTIR spectrum for individual walnuts
YANG Jingyi, XIA Yufang, XIE Zhaojun, TAO Xingyue, DING Xiaoxia
2015, 32(3): 420-425. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.014
[Abstract](1856) [PDF](531)
To determine an efficient, rapid, and safe measurement for walnuts containing chemical substances, 11 individual Juglans regia walnuts from Hezhang and Puding in Guizhou Province were tested using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS). A correlation analysis between FTIR absorbance ratios from the FTIR spectra [D(1658)/D(3010), D(1747)/D(3010), and D(1100)/D(3010)] and those from a conventional quantitative chemical analysis was employed. The relative ratios of the peaks in the spectra of the 11 individual walnuts were tested using ANOVA(t=11, n=5)and SNK to show differences in contents for various seed components. Results of the ratios among the main components in the walnuts obtained from the FTIR spectra were in favorable agreement with those from a conventional quantitative chemical analysis and had significant correlation coefficients (r>r0.01(9)=0.735). The relative ratios of the peaks in the spectra of the 11 individual walnuts showed various components in the seeds all had significant differences using ANOVA(P=0.01). So, as an easy, fast, and direct technique, FTIR spectroscopy could be used to characterize components and their relative content of plant seeds and could provide a theoretical foundation for breeding and revealing genetic relationships of walnuts in Guizhou. [Ch, 2 fig. 4 tab. 16 ref.]
Automatic image classification and retrieval by analyzing plant leaf features
YAO Fei, YE Kang, ZHOU Jianhua
2015, 32(3): 426-433. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.015
[Abstract](2446) [PDF](479)
The objective of this article is to present a novel conceptual framework for discerning tree species from plant leaf digital images and to assess its applicability. In order to make huge numbers of plant species discernable, some concepts and methodologies of image classification and retrieval were comprehensively and innovatively employed in this framework. For example, according to the concept of image retrieval, a semantic dictionary for partitioning broad-leaf plants was created based on the differences between species in leaf shape and leaf margin. Each sample plant was represented by the images photographed from one of its leaves. By following principles of image classification, several descriptors for each splitting node in the semantic dictionary were designed and tested. Then, by imitating the retrieval method, the similarity probability, which means the probability that a new node member belonged to a certain plant species, could be properly assessed through calculating the variance of attribute between the new one and the known plant species. Finally, the objective mentioned before could be achieved. The classification results revealed that all newly explored descriptors, such as the area ratio of leaf patch to its convex hull, the length to width ratio, the second-order fitting coefficient of the leaf edge, and the location index of the widest site of a leaf were applicable to classification of broad-leaf plant species and high classification accuracy could be expected with some example combinations of them. Altogether, 31 plant species were classified into eight leaf nodes, and then their specific species were determined quite accurately by assessing the similarity probability. The overall classification accuracy assessed by confusion matrix method was usually better than 94.2%. These results verified that the conceptual framework combining image classification and retrieval was reasonable, effective, and accurate for discerning plant species from digital leaf images.[Ch, 6 fig. 9 tab. 14 ref.]
Behavioral responses of the yellow-spined bamboo locust, Ceracris kiangsu, towards solutions of ammonium bicarbonate and sodium chloride
FANG Rong, WU Hong, WANG Haojie, ZHANG Wei, GENG Xiansheng, SHU Jinping
2015, 32(3): 434-439. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.016
[Abstract](11395) [PDF](529)
To better understand the mud-puddling behavior of Ceracris kiangsu (Orthoptera: Oedipodidae), the yellow-spined bamboo locust, an important bamboo pest in south China, the behavioral responses of female C. kiangsu adults to solutions of sodium chloride (1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 gL-1) and ammonium bicarbonate (1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 10.0, 25.0, 50.0, 75.0, 150.0 gL-1) were studied using a video recording system for observing and recording the puddling behavior. Also, field trapping was conducted to test mud-puddling behavior to the solutions of sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate with different concentrations, respectively. Results showed that a 1.0 gL-1 sodium chloride or a 1.0 gL-1 ammonium bicarbonate concentration were sufficient to stimulate puddling behavior with female C. kiangsu adults. Also, adult visits to the sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate solutions increased significantly as the solution concentration increased (ANOVA, P<0.05). Female adults of C. kiangsu preferred visiting and feeding on filter paper treated with solutions of 75.0 gL-1 ammonium bicarbonate (ANOVA test, P=0.032) or 10.0 gL-1 sodium chloride (ANOVA, P=0.043). Much more female adults were trapped by ammonium bicarbonate solution than that trapped by sodium chloride solution (ANOVA, P<0.01), and field trapping indicated that volatiles played an important role in mud-puddling behavior of C. kiangsu. [Ch, 7 fig. 18 ref.]
Seed predation by rodents in northwest Yunnan Province
YANG Xiaolan, GONG Hede
2015, 32(3): 440-445. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.017
[Abstract](2066) [PDF](515)
To determine the possible effects of plant species, seed density, habitat, and time on seed predation, a survey was conducted for two years on seed predation of 54 species in two habitats of northwest Yunnan Province. Artificial seed deposition were conducted in the field to collect the seed predation data. At each habitat in both years, the sample size for each density level per species was 30, i.e. 5 replications in each of the 6 experimental days. Results demonstrated that (1) the average seed predation rate in 2005 (17.4%) was much lower than in 2006 (66.6%) (ANOVA, P<0.001). Also, (2) seeds suffered much more predation in the less disturbed habitats (46.2%) than in the heavily disturbed habitats (33.9%) (ANOVA, P<0.001), but (3) seeds suffered similar predation in both high (40.3%) and low densities (39.8%) (ANOVA, P = 0.519). (4) Seed predation rates strongly differed among species(ANOVA, P<0.001) with no relationships being found between seed length/weight and seed predation (Spearmans rank correlation, P>0.05). Finally, (5) effects of seed coat hardness on seed predation existed in 2006 (ANOVA, P = 0.007), but not in 2005 (ANOVA, P = 0.325). From our results, it seems that seed predation by rodents may be affected by varied factors which should be more considered in the future studies. [Ch, 2 tab. 34 ref.]
Study on field investigation of ecological images
SHEN Zhiguo, LI Qinpu
2015, 32(3): 446-452. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.018
[Abstract](1892) [PDF](428)
In the field of modern social science study, it is an important way to mirror the ecological environment and the state of social development by the typical images after catching, recording, reflecting on and judging those images. From the angle of ecology, the research adopted field investigation and focused on agriculture, environment and rural space to explore the relationship between ecological environment and peoples living conditions and the possibility of expressing the images by professional standards. [Ch, 10 fig. 12 ref.]
Application of Taoist aesthetics of space in vest-pocket
TIAN Zhuowei, CHEN Chuwen
2015, 32(3): 453-457. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.019
[Abstract](1993) [PDF](466)
Vest-pocket as a new landscape form plays an important role in meeting the need of residents daily activities which is worth studying. After anglicizing the Taoist idea of aesthetic we found the idea of nihility over realistic,Dao follow the way as itself, naturalness if beauty has high instructive value in garden designing. Vest-pocket should aimed at meeting the needs of its users, creating place like home with natural facilities and humane scale spaces. As a tentative we use Taoist aesthetic guide our design in the case of Hangzhou Leifeng Memorial. [Ch, 3 fig. 13 ref.]
Review of nondestructive detection of wood and wood products based on hyperspectral imaging technology
ZHOU Zhu, FANG Yiming, YIN Jianxin, ZHOU Suyin, LUO Ruisen, ZHENG Jian
2015, 32(3): 458-466. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.020
[Abstract](2503) [PDF](783)
Wood nondestructive detection is an important technology to increase wood utilization rate and optimize forest resources. As an advanced nondestructive detection technology, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) integrates conventional imaging and spectroscopy to attain both spatial and spectral information from an object. It has the advantages of non-destructively detecting both physical, morphological characteristics, and chemical information of the object in many fields. This paper introduced the hyperspectral imaging technology, including its principles, equipment, image acquisition, processing methods and etc. Furthermore, recent advances in the application of HSI to wood and wood products quality assessment such as defect identification, physical-mechanical properties detection and constituent analysis were reviewed comprehensively for the first time. The review indicated that HSI had good application prospects in the nondestructive detection of wood and wood products. [Ch, 4 fig. 51 ref.]
Technology advances of ecological restoration and environmental remediation of heavy metal mines
YAN Wenbo, LIU Dan, PENG Danli, LI Song, CHEN Junren, YE Zhengqian, WU Jiasen, WANG Hailong
2015, 32(3): 467-477. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.021
[Abstract](15674) [PDF](1160)
During the process of the exploitation of heavy metals mines in China, both vegetation, landscape, land and water are all destroyed in varying degrees due to long-term neglection of ecological environmental protection and restoration. Heavy metal pollution result in soil quality degeneration which seriously threats human health and the natural ecological system. In this article, the ecological restoration technology of heavy metal mines area was reviewed. Three major repair measures involving geological engineering, vegetation restoration and soil remediation were covered, and seven technology categories and eighteen control techniques were put forward. Furthermore, the technical process scheme for the heavy metal pollution of mining ecological restoration is established, which is used to provide reference for mine ecological environment management including the investigation of pollution situation, the application of remediation techniques, and subsequent maintenance and development in the early stages of repair, preliminary stage as well as the later stage. In conclusion, the heavy metal pollution of mining requires building different fix models according to its status. Meanwhile, it also needs to strengthen the research of analysis in early stage, risk assessment in later period and comprehensive utilization. Accordingly, we are able meet the goal to restore the mine effectively. [Ch, 2 fig. 1 tab. 63 ref.]
Scientific notes
Bambusa textilis var. fasca shooting and young bamboo growth rhythm
ZHANG Wei, LIN Zhenqing, YANG Qianyu, CHEN Zheyong, XIE Jinzhong
2015, 32(3): 478-482. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.022
[Abstract](2070) [PDF](549)
To utilize Bambusa textilis var. fasca, a cold-resistance sympodial bamboo species scientifically, the natural shooting and young bamboo growth rhythm of B. textilis var. fasca in Jianou, Fujian Province was observed every two days. Shooting period was determined with an ordered sample cluster analysis and height-growth was simulated with the Logistic and Richards models. Results showed that the natural shooting period of B. textilis var. fasca lasted from mid-May to early November, and the highest rate of adult bamboo formed was 85.5% in mid-July. A three stage shooting period was noted: an initial stage (mid-May to early June), an abundant stage (mid-June to mid-September), and an ending stage (late September to early November). In the abundant stage, shoot number was 80.7% of the total, and the rate of adult bamboo formed was 70.7%. The earlier the bamboo shoots emerged (June and July), the longer their height-growth period was (116 d); the average height of young bamboo with an August shooting period was 7.8 m. The Logistic and Richards models, simulated the slow-fast-slow law for height-growth well. The beginning culm sheath abscission time for young bamboo with shooting periods in June, July, August, and September was late July, late August, early September, and mid-October, respectively. The beginning culm branch extraction time for shooting periods in June and July was late September but for a shooting period of August was mid-October. New culms with shooting before mid-August could complete the whole process of burgeoning branches and leaves in the same year; whereas, a shooting period later than mid-August meant completion the following April to May. New culms with a shooting period in the ending stage rarely dropped sheaths or burgeoned new branches and subjected to low temperature and freezing easily in winter. This study has laid a foundation for silviculture and seedling breeding of B. textilis var. fasca [Ch, 4 fig. 14 ref.]
Selection of shiitake residue substrate size formula screening for Pinus tabuliformis container seedlings
WU Yajing, BI Jun, LI Qiuyan, GAO Hongzhen
2015, 32(3): 483-487. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.023
[Abstract](2031) [PDF](488)
To select a suitable formula for shiitake (Lentinula edodes) residue size content growing with Pinus tabuliformis, growth of P. tabuliformis was compared with different size shiitake residue by analysis of variance and multiple comparisons. Results showed that a particle size ratio of 2-5 mm,0.5-2.0 mm,<0.5 mm was 1:3:1 shiitake residue provided the highest P. tabuliformis seedling quality index of 0.024, the largest crown dry weight and biomass indexes, and the most comprehensive evaluation results. With 2-5 mm,0.5-2.0 mm,<0.5 mm a particle size ratio of 1:3:1 for the residue as the matrix, the growth conditions of P. tabuliformis were best. So particle size ratio of 1:3:1 shiitake residue was best as the matrix for Pinus tabulaeformis planting. [Ch, 4 fig. 5 tab. 12 ref.]
A new record of Aspleniaceae from Zhejiang Province, China
MA Dandan, CHEN Zhenghai, ZHANG Fenyao, XIE Wenyuan, CHEN Feng
2015, 32(3): 488-489. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.03.024
[Abstract](2338) [PDF](556)
Camptosorus sibiricus Rupr. and the genus Camptosorus of Aspleniaceae were newly recorded from Zhejiang Province, which were found in Siming Mountain of Ningbo City. The voucher specimens are preserved in the herbarium of Zhejiang A F University (ZJFC). [Ch, 6 ref.]