2015 Vol. 32, No. 2

Temperature inside mats of high-frequency, hot pressed, glued and laminated bamboo
NGUYEN Thi Huong Giang, ZHANG Qisheng
2015, 32(2): 167-172. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.001
[Abstract](2074) [PDF](724)
To obtain variation in the temperature law for glued and laminated bamboo (GLB), mats were hot pressed during two phases: fast heating and slow heating, with high-frequency at different moisture contents and amount of spreads. A statistical analysis on temperature variation inside the mats was conducted by Microsoft Excel software using ANOVA two-factor with replication analysis at a 95% confidence level. Results showed that when moisture content increased from 6% to 18%, the amount of spread increased from 200 to 300 gm-2, during the first phase, temperature inside the mats increased slowly with increasing moisture content below 12%, amount of spread below 250 gm-2, and pressing time, and increased sharply with moisture content above 12% and amount of spread above 250 gm-2; whereas, during the second phase temperature influence on moisture content and amount of spread inside the mats was very small at all conditions. Also during the second phase, the heating rate of the core layer decreased with an increase in pressing time. Optimum high-frequency hot pressing technological parameters for GLB manufacturing were as follows: amount of spread--300 gm-2, moisture content of bamboo splits--12%, and pressing time--7 min. It mean that temperature inside the mats are satisfactory, is necessary to make high quality of GLB in order to improve the performance of GLB.[Ch, 3 fig. 4 tab. 18 ref.]
Extraction methods for mycoprotein, a yeast-like symbiote isolated from brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, in rice
ZHANG Haiqiang, CHEN Jianming, ZHANG Juefeng
2015, 32(2): 173-180. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.002
[Abstract](2098) [PDF](600)
To select the most suitable cell breaking method for protein extraction of the yeast-like symbiote (YLS) isolated from brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, three cell breaking methods: ultrasonication, repeated freeze-thaw, and liquid nitrogen grinding, were used to extract the mycoprotein of susceptible- and resistant-imidacloprid strains of YLS. Analysis was conducted by Duncans new multiple range test (DMRT) and sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Results of observation using cell microscopic morphology showed that the breaking effect of the YLS cells treated with ultrasonication and liquid nitrogen grinding were greater than repeated freeze-thaw. After treatment, cells were uniformly distributed and thoroughly broken. Optimum culture time for mycoprotein extraction was 72 h. Protein concentration for the three methods was significantly different (fd=8, P<0.05) with ultrasonication highest, then liquid nitrogen grinding, and lastly repeated freeze-thaw. After being cultured for 72 h, protein concentrations for the susceptible strain were ultrasonication, 2.82 gL-1; liquid nitrogen grinding, 2.62 gL-1; and repeated freeze-thaw, 2.12 gL-1; protein concentrations for the resistant strain were ultrasonication, 2.64 gL-1; liquid nitrogen grinding, 2.53 gL-1; and repeated freeze-thaw, 2.05 gL-1. Electrophoresis showed that proteins extracted by ultrasonication had clear bands, greater abundance, and more protein; by liquid nitrogen grinding had partial protein degradation and unclear bands; and by repeated freeze-thaw had the least protein. Thus, the ultrasonication method was best for mycoprotein extraction of YLS from N. lugens, and in the future this will provide technical support for two dimensional electrophoresis protein experiments and separation of differential proteins. [Ch, 4 fig. 1 tab. 22 ref.]
Interannual variation characteristics for stand structures in the early stages of new moso bamboo carbon sink stands
CHEN Ting, SHI Yongjun, ZHOU Guomo, ZHENG Zerui, LI Chong
2015, 32(2): 181-187. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.003
[Abstract](2030) [PDF](514)
To determine a rule for interannual variation characteristics in non-spatial, structural stands of new moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) based on carbon sink (1-5 a). An 80 m 100 m fixed plot was established at a long-term, afforestation, fixed observation research site for carbon sequestration. Linear regression and correlation were used for the analysis. Results showed that 1) stand density, DBH, and culm height were the dominating factors for interannual component changes, and these increased with bamboo age. 2) In the young stand, stand density (N) increased with stand year (y) with a fitted regression equation of: N=17.214y2+309.21y- 217.4, R2=0.981 1. 3) The allometric equation for mean DBH and stand year (y) fitted with linear regression was DBH=0.015 7y2+0.727 9y+1.598 0, R2=0.756 5 The linear regression for the relationship between culm height (H) and stand year (y) was projected to be H=0.108 5y2+0.429 9y+2.155 3, R2=0.723 2. Therefore, in the young moso bamboo stand, stand density, DBH, and culm height all had a positive relationship with age. [Ch, 4 fig. 8 tab. 20 ref.]
Research on the characteristics and dynamics of acid deposition in Mount Tianmu
ZHENG Shiwei, JIANG Hong, TANG Minzhong
2015, 32(2): 188-194. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.004
[Abstract](5649) [PDF](458)
With the rapid development of industry, pollution of the atmospheric environment becomes much more serious. Due to increasing atmospheric acid deposition in China, this research at the foot of Mount Tianmu, located in the more developed industrial area of delta of the Yangtze River, was conducted from August 2012 to September 2013 to collect rainfall and analyze its pH, CE, NH4+-N, NO3- -N, and SO42-concentrations, to explore the present status and characteristics of atmospheric acid, provide data support for the protection of the ecological environment of Mount Tianmu area. Results implied that the rainfall in Tianmu district belongs to the typical acidic precipitation, the annual average of rainwater pH was 4.81, and pH of rainwater shows seasonal variation: high in summer and low in winter. The range of SO42-/NO3- ions ratio in samples was 4.13-8.89, which indicating that SO42- contributes greater to the acidity of acid rain in the region. CE values, NH4+-N, NO3--N and SO42- concentration of the rainwater change regularly over time in study area, generally expressed as: their concentrations are higher in autumn or winter and lower in summer. During the study period, the amount of total inorganic nitrogen of atmospheric wet deposition in Tianmu area was 5.25 kghm-2a-1, the average concentration of inorganic nitrogen monthly precipitation was 1.109 mgL-1. NO3--N and NH4+-N concentration in rainfall samples showed a linear relationship, as well as the concentration between NO3--N and SO42-. And their correlation equations are y=1.392 0x-0.315 5, R2 = 0.768 and y = 0.180 3x + 0.013 8, R2 = 0.886 6; There is a close relationship between NO3- concentration of rainfall samples and OMI satellite troposphere concentration of NO2 vertical column. And the correlation varies in different seasons, generally expressed as: the correlation was positive in autumn and winter, while becoming negative in spring and summer.[Ch, 4 fig. 1 tab. 19 ref.]
Soil nutrients and microorganisms with simulated acid rain stress and Cryptomeria fortunei litter
WANG Dan, MA Yuandan, GUO Huiyuan, GAO Yan, ZHANG Rumin, HOU Ping
2015, 32(2): 195-203. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.005
[Abstract](2026) [PDF](540)
To clearly show the effects of acid rain stress and litter on soil nutrient content and soil microorganism numbers, rhizosphere soil of Cryptomeria fortunei seedlings was tested with combinations of simulated acid rain (pH 3.0, 4.0, and 5.6) and litter (L1-400 gm-2, L2-500 gm-2, and L3-600 gm-2). Results showed that soil nutrient content and the quantity of bacteria and actinomyces decreased for the acid rain treatment; whereas, fungi increased with pH 3.0 > pH 4.0 > pH 5.6. Also, soil N, P, K, and quantity of microorganisms increased as litter increased (L3 > L2 > L1). For pH 5.6 + L2 and pH 4.0 + L2 treatments no significant differences in soil N, P, and total K were found, but available K significantly increased (P < 0.01). With the pH 3.0 + L2 treatment, total N, available N, total P, and total K significantly decreased (P < 0.01) as did available P (P < 0.05). For the pH 5.6 + L2 treatment, soil bacteria and actinomyces significantly increased (P < 0.05). With the pH 3.0 + L2 treatment, soil bacteria and actinomyces significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Also, for pH 4.0 + L2 and pH 3.0 + L2 treatments fungi significantly increased (P < 0.01). Thus, litter could alleviate the influence of acid rain on soil nutrient content and microbe quantity. [Ch, 6 fig. 45 ref.]
Soil properties and poplar growth with pig manure biogas slurry
XU Li, ZHOU Wei, YU Yuanchun, WANG Mei, HOU Wenjun, XU Changbai, DAI Cheng
2015, 32(2): 204-207. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.006
[Abstract](2258) [PDF](534)
As scale and intensity increase with development of the animal husbandry industry, use of manure biogas slurry from livestock biogas slurry projects also increases. To counter any possibility of water eutrophication and environmental pollution from direct emissions of pig manure biogas which is rich in N, P, K, and other nutrients, the effects of pig manure biogas slurry applied on soil properties and growth of a poplar (Populus) plantation were studied. The biogas plant of COFCO carnivorous (Jiangsu) Co. Ltd produced the slurry. Results showed that 1 125 m3hm-2 biogas slurry fertilization (C5) increased soil organic matter (28%), total N (35.5%), available P (62.3%), and available K 33.5%. Also, biogas slurry fertilization below 450 m3hm-2 was detrimental to poplar growth. [Ch, 2 fig. 1 tab. 13 ref.]
Flower scent composition of Osmanthus fragrans ‘Yanhong Gui’‘Yu Linglong’ and ‘Hangzhou Huang’, and their emission patterns
HOU Dan, FU Jianxin, ZHANG Chao, ZHAO Hongbo
2015, 32(2): 208-220. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.007
[Abstract](2207) [PDF](657)
To interpret the fragrance type of different cultivars in Osmanthus fragrans, flower scent components and emission patterns in Yanhong Gui, Yu Linglong, and Hangzhou Huang were analyzed by means of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Results showed that the major characteristic scent compositions are similar among three cultivars including linalool, -ionone and -ionone, while the relative content were different. For all cultivars, the odour activity values (OAVs) of linalool reached a peak at full-blossoming stage then decreased gradually; whereas, OAVs of -ionone decreased gradually with the flower opening. For Yanhong Gui and Hangzhou Huang, the OAVs of -ionone decreased gradually during flower opening, and in Yu Linglong a low-high-low pattern emerged. In addition, the relative content of some terpene and ester components increased gradually during flower opening. Special scent components such as -Decalactone, cis-Linalool oxide, and trans-Linalool oxide were also noted. According to sensory judgment, Yanhong Gui had a light and sweet fragrance, Yu Linglong had a strong and sweet fragrance, and Hangzhou Huang had an elegant and fresh fragrance. Thus, the major characteristic scent components were similar among the three cultivars, but variations in OAVs for the characteristic scent compositions during flower opening and the appearance of some special scent components for certain cultivars most likely caused differences in scent fragrance and emission patterns. [Ch, 5 fig. 4 tab. 34 ref.]
Cloning and expression analysis of a floral related MADS-box gene BlMADS1 from Betula luminifera
ZHAO Chuanhui, ZHOU Houjun, TONG Zaikang, LIN Erpei, HUANG Huahong, NIU Mingyue
2015, 32(2): 221-228. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.008
[Abstract](1987) [PDF](371)
As a highly conserved transcription factor family in plants, MADS-box genes play important roles in floral development and regulation of other developmental processes. However, few floral related MADS-box genes have been characterized in Betula luminifera. In this study, a MADS-box gene, BlMADS1, was cloned from Betula luminifera by using homologous cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. Afterward expression analysis was also conducted. Results of the sequence analysis indicated that BlMADS1 probably had two different transcripts--one was 1 150 bp in length and contained a 765 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 254 amino acid residues. This protein was a typical MADS-box protein belonging to the AP1/SQUA subfamily. The other transcript contained an insertion of 162 bp at the 3-terminal. The ORF of this transcript was only 690 bp in length encoding 229 amino acid residues with a truncated C terminal, which may have been caused by introns alternative splicing. The expression analysis also indicated that BlMADS1 was expressed in all tissues, but showed different expression patterns on its two transcripts during inflorescence development. During male inflorescence development, the highest expression of both these two transcripts was detected in the germinating male inflorescence; whereas, during development of the female inflorescence, the highest level of BlMADS1L was shown in the germinating female inflorescence buds and the highest level of BlMADS1S was found in the developing female inflorescence. Our study provides basic knowledge about MADS-box genes in Betula luminifera, and will be facilitate further investigation of BlMADS1s function and regulation mechanism in future. [Ch, 6 fig. 1 tab. 27 ref.]
Analysis of ESTs associated with oil metabolism in seeds of Carya cathayensis
HUANG Yinzhi, ZENG Yanru, ZHOU Qin, XIA Guohua, HUANG Youjun
2015, 32(2): 229-236. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.009
[Abstract](1913) [PDF](511)
Carya cathayensis is an important oil species with dry nuts that are high oil content, for which there must be some special oil-synthesizing mechanism. In order to explore the mechanism, random cloning and sequencing of cDNAs from a fatty acid metabolism-associated cDNA library, sequence assembly and annotation, Gene Ontology (GO)- and Arabidopsis thaliana-associated MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat)-based classification of assembled sequences, and protein analysis of fatty acid metabolism-associated cDNA sequences were performed. A total of 1 010 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was obtained, based on which 188 unigenes were assembled. There were 92 contigs and 96 singlets among the unigenes, which were classified into categories of cellular component, molecular function, and biological process based on classification of GO and found to overlap one another in functions. But against MIPS Functional Catalogue in Arabidopsis thaliana, these unigenes were classified into nine categories and 143 full-length cDNAs were obtained, from which 14 cDNA sequences were associated with metabolism of fatty acids. It had been found through proteomic analysis that 12 full-length fatty acid metabolism-related cDNAs had a phosphorylation site; they were all non-secretory proteins with no transmembrane domain and signal peptide except oleosins, belonging to certain protein family; and oleosins had different transmembrane domains and a signal peptide, belonging to a super oleosin family. [Ch, 4 tab. 35 ref.]
Seedling growth of Symplocos ramosissima with manually controlled experimental conditions in the Ailaoshan Mountains, Yunnan Province
GONG Hede, YAN Teng, PENG Yihang, ZHENG Li, MA Yuewei
2015, 32(2): 237-243. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.010
[Abstract](1953) [PDF](547)
It is very important to study the seedlings growth under the condition of moisture and light. To observe the habitat preference of Symplocos ramosissima seedlings in the Ailaoshan Mountains, Yunnan Province, seedlings were transplanted in different environmental conditions. The basal stem diameter, height, leaf number, specific leaf area(SLA), root shoot ratio, relative mass growth rate, total dry weight and survival rate of seedling were measured both in forest habitats (including understory, gap center, and gap edge) and artificially created shading conditions outside of the forest. Results of early growth showed higher values in gap center than in gap edge and the lowest under the forest canopy. Artificial shading experiments revealed a positive relationship to an increase in light intensity; whereas SLA decreased. Also, visible light intensity increased. With artificial shading even for similar light intensities, seedling growth was better than in forest habitats. At a light level of 28.36%, seedling growth was highest at 38.00% soil moisture content, and at an 8.10% light level it was best at 48.0% soil moisture content. Early growth at 2.4% light exhibited no pattern with soil moisture. At 20.00% soil moisture (drought stress) and 28.4% light, seedlings grew slowly. Thus, low soil moisture and drought stress can inhibit the growth of seedlings, but seedling growth of S. ramosissima at low light levels was not sensitive to the soil moisture gradient. [Ch, 3 tab. 23 ref.]
Chemical reagents with Cyclobalanopsis glauca container seedlings
YIN Fangfang, LIN Xiazhen, NING Mengya, HU Lipeng
2015, 32(2): 244-250. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.011
[Abstract](1671) [PDF](489)
In order to understand the effects of different chemical reagents on the growth of Cyclobalanopsis glauca container seedlings, the chemical root control concentrations of CuSO4 40, 80, 140, 220 gL-1, ZnSO4 40, 80, 140, 220 gL-1, Al2(SO4)3 40, 80, 140, 220 gL-1, and 2,6-Dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline 0.04, 0.08, 0.14, 0.22 gL-1 were mixed with emulsion varnish and then coated on the inner wall of root control bags. These were compared to a treatment where the inner wall was coated on only with emulsion varnish. Then the effect of the chemical reagents on root configuration indexes, root activity, height, base diameter, biomass accumulation, and quality index of four-year-old Cyclobalanopsis glauca container seedlings were analyzed. Results showed that: (1) reagents of CuSO4, ZnSO4 and Al2(SO4)3 in the range of 0-140 gL-1 as well as 2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl) aniline in the range of 0-0.22 gL-1 regulated root growth and development of C. glauca, but reagent of 220 gL-1 ZnSO4had a negative effect on seedlings. (2) Root tips, volume, surface area, projected area, forks, and activity, as well as plant height, basal diameter, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and quality index treated with 140 gL-1 CuSO4 reagent significantly increased (P<0.05), whereas root average diameter and length of taproot significantly decreased (P<0.05). Seedlings treated with different chemical reagents showed improved root controling with the best treatment being 140 gL-1 ZnSO4. [Ch, 4 fig. 2 tab. 15 ref.]
Growth and flowering of Doritaenopsis using Ebb & Flow subirrigation system with nutrient solutions
FU Yanru, AN Zhengbi, SHI Dujuan, YU Xuan, HUANG Yuting, LI Haiyan, CUI Yongyi
2015, 32(2): 251-256. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.012
[Abstract](10020) [PDF](435)
In this study,Doritaenopsis Labios plants were cultivated by automatically recirculating Ebb Flow subirrigation system. Three different nutrient solution formulations of N1(NO3--N: 94.5 mgL-1; NH4+-N: 10.5 mgL-1; P: 60.2 mgL-1; K: 243.8 mgL-1; Ca: 180.0 mgL-1; and Mg: 60.0 mgL-1), N2(NO3--N: 94.5 mgL-1; NH4+-N: 10.5 mgL-1; P: 144.0 mgL-1; K: 205.1 mgL-1; Ca: 239.6 mgL-1; and Mg: 63.3 mgL-1), and N3(NO3--N: 115.5 mgL-1; NH4+-N: 7.0 mgL-1; P: 120.0 mgL-1; K: 243.8 mgL-1; Ca: 200 mgL-1; and Mg: 60.0 mgL-1) was used to study the effects on biomass accumulation and flowering characteristics. The results showed that all the three treatments of Doritaenopsis Labios plants could flowering. Whats more, the plants were treated with N3 nutrient solution performed better than N1 and N2 treatments, indicating that N3 nutrient solution was the most favorable for the growth of Doritaenopsis and can improve the qulity effectively. In addition, the study also showed that nitrate is more conductive for Doritaenopsis absorption. [Ch, 1 fig. 5 tab. 22 ref.]
Sap flow characteristics during the growing season for Cunninghamia lanceolata in red soil areas of Jiangxi Province
TU Jie, HU Liang, LIU Qijing, WEI Jun
2015, 32(2): 257-263. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.013
[Abstract](2149) [PDF](490)
As an excellent pioneer tree species, Cunninghamia lanceolata has been widely planted for ecological reforestation in red soil areas of subtropical China. To evaluate the ability of C. lanceolata for utilization and adjustment of available environmental water during reforestation in degraded red soil areas, and ultimately provide a theoretical basis for suitable tree species selection and stand structure configuration, sap flow velocity (Js) was measured with the thermal dissipation probe method at Qianyanzhou Experimental Station of Jiangxi Province. Also, several related environmental factors, including average net radiation (ANR), air temperature (Ta), and relative air humidity (RH) were recorded continuously using an automatic weather station. A correlation analysis, an analysis of variance (ANOVA), and a regression analysis were used on the data. Results showed that (1) Diurnal variations of sap flow displayed typical single-peaked curves on sunny days. Obvious seasonal dynamics were found mainly because of different starting times, peak times, and durations of time at relatively high levels of sap flow velocity. Furthermore, based on the same time point, sap flow velocity was much lower on rainy days than that on sunny days, and diurnal changes of sap flow exhibited strong differences due to intervals between precipitation. (2) The average monthly sap flow velocity follows the order of July(0.001 012 cms-1), June(0.000 999 cms-1), August(0.000 941 cms-1), September(0.000 930 cms-1), May(0.000 731 cms-1), April(0.000 628 cms-1), October(0.000 494 cms-1). (3) About a 1 h time lag existed between Js and ANR in a clockwise direction; and a 2 h time lag was found between Js and Ta, RH, and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in a counter-clockwise direction. Js was positively correlated with ANR (r = 0.495-0.781), Ta (r =0.752-0.878), and VPD (r =0.712-0.933), but negatively correlated with RH (r = -0.790--0.978); the ANOVAs were also significant. However, the influence of meteorological factors on Js differed. In the cases the time lag effect contained, multi-linear regression patterns between monthly Js and factors were all significant at F = 0.01 with the coefficients of determination (R2) as high as 0.95. [Ch, 3 fig. 2 tab. 32 ref.]
Allelopathy of aqueous extracts when intercropping in poplar rhizosphere soil
CHEN Lisha, ZHANG Jinchi, LU Qian, ZHUO Weijun, LI Meihua, LI Shichang
2015, 32(2): 264-271. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.014
[Abstract](1924) [PDF](447)
To explore the allelochemical activity of poplar root exudates and to provide a basis for constructing reasonable agroforestry systems, aqueous extracts of different successive poplar rhizosphere soils were diluted to different concentrations(100, 150, 200, 500, 800, 1 000 gL-1) for application on seeds and seedlings of lettuce, wheat, and corn with three replication every treatment. The study was conducted on continuous cropping in a poplar plantation in Da Shahe Forest Farm in Fengxian County, Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province. Results showed that when the aqueous extract of polar rhizosphere soil was at a low concentration, lettuce and wheat seed germination and seedling growth were promoted. With increasing concentration promotion decreased, and when a critical concentration was exceeded growth was inhibited. The inhibition further increased with increasing concentrations. For corn seed germination and seedlings the aqueous extract always inhibited growth. Above the critical concentration, germination rates gradually decreased with succeeding generations as did shoot and root length; whereas below the critical concentration they gradually increased. For both lettuce shoots and lettuce roots, negative allelopathic effects gradually increased with each generation. Comprehensive allelopathic effects of poplar root exudates on crop growth increased with each generation. The difference values between the highest and the lowest comprehensive allelopathic effect was 3.384 3-3.808 8. [Ch, 2 fig. 3 tab. 30 ref.]
Nutritional elements in organs of a Phyllostachys edulis stand during its fast growth period
ZENG Yingying, WANG Yukui, CAI Xianfeng, YU Xiaopeng, LI Hongji, YUAN Jiali, ZHANG Rumin, WEN Guosheng
2015, 32(2): 272-277. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.015
[Abstract](2379) [PDF](489)
To explain the relationship between the explosive growth of Phyllostachys edulis and nutrition accumulation, samples of different aged (1-, 3-, and 5-year old) Ph. edulis and their organs (leaf, branch, stem, and rhizome ) were collected in April, May and June from Linan County, Zhejiang Province in eastern China. The content of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were studied to determine any discrepancies among the different ages. Results showed that the average nutritional content for leaves (in gkg-1) of the same age during the fast growth period were N, 23.18; P, 2.51; K, 12.28; Ca, 4.08; and Mg, 0.96 with leaves being higher, in turn, than rhizomes, branches, and stems. During the fast growth period, N, P, and K concentrations in leaves were higher in April than in May and June; whereas branch, stem, and rhizome concentrations in April were lower than in May and June. Nutrient content in the same organ for different aged plants varied by month. In April, N, P, and K in leaves, branches, and stems were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in 1-year old stands than 3- and 5-year old; in May, as bamboo age increased, K in leaves significantly decreased (P < 0.05), but N in 1- and 3-year old leaves was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than 5-year old; in June, N and P in 1-year old leaves were significantly less (P < 0.05) than 3- and 5-year old, but in rhizomes were significantly greater (P < 0.05). From May to June, among different ages, Mg in leaves, branches, and stems was not significantly different (P > 0.05). This study indicated that in different organs of Ph. edulis, nutrients existed physiological integration of the fast growth period. [Ch, 4 tab. 15 ref.]
Biological characteristics of the Myrica rubra flower
SHEN Lifen, XIANG Weibo, FAN Caiting, JIN Peng, ZHOU Mingbing, XU Chuanmei
2015, 32(2): 278-284. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.016
[Abstract](2646) [PDF](630)
The purpose of this study was to determine the biological characteristics of the Myrica rubra flower. The external structure of the anemophilous M. rubra flower was observed with a dissecting microscope; then pollen viability and development of the internal structure were determined by the fluorochrome reaction and eosin staining. Results showed that the male flower had 8 to 20 anthers and every anther had four pollen sacs. Most microspore tetrads had a tetrahedral type configuration with only a few having a successive configuration. Most mature pollen grains had two nuclei and three germinal apertures; pollen vitality was more than 90%. The female inflorescence consisted mainly of the stigma, style, and ovary. The superior ovary had a single carpel and one room. Also, the orthotropous ovule had a single integument and a thick nucellus. [ch, 4 fig. 30 ref.]
An antioxidant system in cucumber seedling leaves with short term drought stress
DING Ling, WU Xue, DU Changxia, XU Yanli, FAN Huaifu
2015, 32(2): 285-290. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.017
[Abstract](10662) [PDF](545)
To determine the effect of short term drought stress on an antioxidant system in cucumber seedling leaves, the Cucumis sativus Jinyou No. 1 seedlings were cultured in a shanqi nutrient solution under drought stress simulated by 5% and 10% PEG 6000. A control, 5% and 10% PEG 6000 with three replications was used to compare superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH), soluble protein, malondialdehyde (MDA). Results after 24 h of treatment showed that compared to the control, SOD and GR activities as well as ASA and GSH content significantly decreased (P<0.05). However, soluble protein and MDA content significantly increased (P<0.05). Thus, short term stress resulted in acceleration of the membrane lipid peroxidation, and the enzymatic antioxidant system played a more active role in the process of antioxidant. [Ch, 3 fig. 21 ref.]
Variation of CO2 concentration and its controlling factors in Zhijin Cave, China
LUO Shiqin, Lǖ Wenqiang, LI Anding, LI Po
2015, 32(2): 291-297. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.018
[Abstract](2042) [PDF](471)
The Zhijin Cave is the first in the ten most beautiful China cave, which is famous of the beauty and vagar, and attract tourists from all over the world. For tourists health, it is necessary to protect the air quality in the cave. CO2 is an important influencing factor of the cave air quality, and it may bring adverse effects on the human body as the content is gathered to a certain. Therefore, it is very important to keep certain levels. Compared with historical data, this study is based on the monitoring data of Zhijin Cave for three years, to explore the change and factors of the CO2 in the cave. The result shows, the CO2 in the cave changes with the change of the visitors quantity, season, altitude, and the depth to structural opening. [Ch, 3 fig. 4 tab. 14 ref.]
Spatial-temporal distribution of mountain-climate tourism resources in Lin’an, China
WANG Guoxin, YANG Xiaona, SU Fei
2015, 32(2): 298-307. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.019
[Abstract](1951) [PDF](715)
Climatic data representing Linan City in Zhejiang Province was collected in 2012 from 15 meteorological stations. Data was analyzed and evaluated for spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of mountain-climate tourism resources using temperature humidity index (THI), wind effect index (K), lapse-rate of air temperature, and a high pressure equation. Then using a spatial overlay classification from GIS, the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of mountain-climate resources were determined. Results showed that 1) for a mountain climate the most comfortable time for tourist rest and recreation was from April to June and September to October at an altitude of 800-1 600 m. Meanwhile, July and August were relatively hot, so tourists could escape the heat at altitudes of 975-1 787 m for south facing slopes and 1 196-1 787 m for north facing slopes. November to March was the cold-winter-months period and was more suitable for skiing at altitudes of 621-1 787 m for north-facing slopes and 754-1 787 m for south-facing slopes. 2) Considering spatial distribution, tourism resources for the mountain-climate in Linan were mainly distributed over the middle and lower mountain areas, such as Yaotou, Tianmu, and Daming Mountains. 3)The spatial overlay classification from GIS showed no obvious mountain-climate characteristics in Linan below 621 meters. In a word, it will be convenient for us to emphasize the elevation factor and take advantage of its superior characteristics in the development process of mountain-climate resources. [Ch, 6 fig. 4 tab. 33 ref.]
Display characteristics on oil-sensitive paper for a hot fogging concentrate solvent
HOU Xiumei, XU Linyun, DAI Binhu, LIN Huan, HAN Jiang, HUANG Yajie
2015, 32(2): 308-312. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.020
[Abstract](1818) [PDF](456)
Thermal fogging technology has important features such as high efficiency, low chemical usage, and no water consumption. To conduct a theoretical analysis on composition and properties of a hot fogging concentrate solvent and to improve deposition distribution and suspension residence time for droplets of pesticide after thermodynamic atomization, six kinds of solvents (dimethyl formamide, cyclohexanone, glycerol, dimethyl phthalate, soybean oil, and 0# diesel) were chosen based on solubility, flash point, viscosity, specific heat, and surface tension, for an experiment. Droplet size and the amount of smoke were used as indexes for a comprehensive performance evaluation of the solvents on oil-sensitive paper. Results showed that dimethyl phthalate was favorable as a hot fogging concentrate solvent with advantages of clear display characteristics, better thermodynamic atomization, and no thermal decomposition loss. [Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 15 ref.]
Advances in primary auxin-responsive Aux/IAA gene family: a review
SIMA Xiaojiao, ZHENG Bingsong
2015, 32(2): 313-318. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.021
[Abstract](4806) [PDF](1295)
Members of Aux/IAA gene family are responsive to primary auxin induction. ARF is a kind of regulating auxin response gene expression to regulate auxin primary function of gene transcription. By combining its response elements with the specificity of ARF, Aux/IAA is a transcription function to regulate primary auxin-responsive gene. This paper reviewed the recent advances in the structural characteristics, regulation mechanism and biological functions of Aux/IAAs. Aux/IAAs consisted of four conserved domains: Domains Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ. Domain Ⅰ was responsible for the protein inhibition of Aux/IAAs. With a leucine motif, Domain Ⅱ was capable of rapid protein stability. Domains Ⅲ and Ⅳ were responsible for protein dimerization (homo- and hetero-dimerization). Aux/IAAs promoted the transcription of early genes by combining auxin response factors, and they regulated the expression of downstream genes in the process of auxin signal transduction. Different Aux/IAAs were expressed in different tissues and organisms. Also, the study of Aux/IAA mutants indicated that different Aux/IAAs had different functions due to differences in temporal and spatial expression and affinities with promoters of Aux/IAA genes to the ARF gene. Plant hormones and environmental factors also had important roles in regulating Aux/IAAs. [Ch, 43 ref.]
Scientific notes
Seed germination and cuttage of Adina rubella
GUO Weilong, YUE Chunlei, HU Guowei, SU Yan, CHAI Xiaojuan, JIN Shuihu
2015, 32(2): 319-323. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.022
[Abstract](3042) [PDF](583)
To explore reproduction methods of Adina rubella, an experiment with an orthogonal design was conducted to determine the effects on seed germination with treatments of concentration of gibberellic acid (GA3) (A1: 100 mgL-1, A2: 200 mg L-1, and A3: 300 mg L-1), treatment times (B1: 30 min, B2: 60 min, and B3: 90 min), and temperature (C1: 15-20 ℃, C2: 20-25 ℃, and C3: 25-30 ℃). Then, survival rate of cuttings was tested with treatments of cutting medium (A1: peat, A2: peat : sediment = 1:1, and A3: sediment), concentration of ABT (B1: 50 mgL-1, B2: 100 mgL-1, and B3: 200 mgL-1) and treatment time (C1: 30 min, C2: 60 min, and C3: 90 min). Results on seed germination showed that (1) GA3 concentration had the largest effect followed by temperature, and then treatment time. The optimal treatment was GA3 of A3, time of B1, and temperature of C1 with a germination rate of 75.6%. (2) For survival rate of cuttings, cutting medium had the greatest effect with the effects of immersion time and ABT concentration following. For this the optimal treatment was cutting medium- A2, ABT concentration- B1, and time- C1 with a germination rate of 91.0%. [Ch, 5 tab. 19 ref.]
Three newly recorded plants discovered in Zhoushan Islands, Zhejiang
GAO Haojie, CHEN Zhenghai, YE Xiyang
2015, 32(2): 324-326. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.02.023
[Abstract](2411) [PDF](463)
One newly recorded species to China, Stauntonia hexaphylla (Thunb. ex Murray) Decne., two newly recorded species to Zhejiang, Sedum formosanum N. E. Brown, Bothriospermum secundum Maxim., all found in Zhoushan islands, Easten Zhejiang are reported in this paper. [Ch, 1 fig. 23 ref.]