2015 Vol. 32, No. 1

Identification of wood-rotting fungi and their decay capability in six wood species
LUO Jingyi, FU Weirui, PAN Chengyuan
2015, 32(1): 1-10. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.001
[Abstract](2350) [PDF](808)
Wood-rotting fungi,one of the lignocellulose decomposers in nature,play an important role in the material cycle of the ecosystem. In order to clarify the relationship between wood decay capability of fungi and their lignocellulases activity,five kinds of wood-rotting fungi were identified in this study (namely Fusarium oxysporum, Trametes hirsuta, Fusarium proliferatum, Schizophyllum commune, and Pycnoporus sanguineus),based on morphological characteristics of sporophore,colony,mycelium,and conidium,and combined with sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 26S rDNA D1/D2. Also,lignases and cellulases activities were determined from the wood-rotting fungi. Biodegradation capability of the fungi to six different species of wood, including oak (Quercus mongolica), teak (Tectona grandis), merbau (Intsia biujga), Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and masson pine (Pinus massoniana), was evaluated through wood mass losses of pre-and post-treatments. Results showed that for all five species of fungi, laccase and manganese peroxidase exhibited higher activities than cellulases. After 12 weeks of the decay experiment, T. hirsuta caused the most decay with oak (mass loss of 69.16%). F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, and S. commune caused less than 3.00% mass loss with all six species of wood; whereas P. sanguineus caused 41.37% mass loss with oak but only 2.20% mass loss with teak. When comparing wood decay capability of fungi and lignocellulases activity,higher lignases and cellulases activity of the fungus did not mean it had higher decay capability on the wood.[Ch,5 fig. 2 tab. 36 ref.]
Mildew in bamboo flour treated with different solvents
LIU Binbin, ZHANG Shaoyong, ZHOU Yueying, LIN Jiayu1, SUN Fangl
2015, 32(1): 11-17. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.002
[Abstract](2223) [PDF](530)
To study the influence of bamboo extracts on mold properties of bamboo, bamboo flour was extracted using ultrasound with cold water, hot water, benzene/ethanol, ethanol/ether, 10 gkg-1 NaOH, and 10 gkg-1 HCl. The extracted bamboo flour was then used to conduct mold resistance tests against Trichoderma viride, Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus niger. Results showed that bamboo flour treated with cold water, hot water, benzene/ethanol, or ethanol/ether had similar resistances; whereas when treated with 10 gkg-1 NaOH and especially 10 gkg-1 HCl, the results were much better than the controls, the mold did not grow. The FTIR analysis of extracted bamboo flour showed that the characteristic peaks of polysaccharides, lignin, and hemicellulose had changed. The HPLC analysis of the sugar in bamboo and in ethanol/ether extracts showed that glucose and xylose contents were similar, but the antifungal effects were different. Thus, in addition to soluble sugars, other bamboo powder ingredients probably had some influence on fungal growth and reproduction.[Ch, 5 fig. 2 tab. 19 ref.]
A stress wave propagation velocity model of standing trees
LIU Guanglin, LI Guanghui, SUN Ye, FANG Yiming
2015, 32(1): 18-24. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.003
[Abstract](1973) [PDF](574)
To improve the feasibility of nondestructive stress wave testing of standing trees, stress wave propagation in healthy trees was analyzed using linear regression analysis and a mathematical model of the stress wave propagation velocity was established. Several experiments were carried out for healthy trees of different species, and simultaneously the tomogram imaging technology was used to validate the proposed propagation velocity model of the stress wave. Experimental results of healthy trees showed that the linear regression relationship between the direction angle , the velocity (vT) for the propagation direction, and the radial velocity (vR) could be expressed as vT/vR-0.22 + 1, and the coefficient of determination R2>0.95, which demonstrated that the proposed mathematical model was correct. [Ch, 6 fig. 3 tab. 12 ref.]
Isolation and expression of a cadmium-resistant gene (SaFer) from Sedum alfredii
ZHAO Ting, HAN Xiaojiao, LIU Mingying, QIAO Guirong, JIANG Jing, JIANG Yancheng, ZHUO Renying
2015, 32(1): 25-32. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.004
[Abstract](2844) [PDF](448)
Abiotic stress was a serious problem that affect plants growth and products. In plants, ferritin is a special iron storage protein closely related to stress. A cDNA from the Sedum alfredii cDNA library, designated as SaFer, was isolated and analyzed by homologous analysis and by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Then, cadmium-stress experiments were conducted to compare transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressed SaFer to a wild type. Results showed that SaFer cDNA was 1 117 bp long with an opening reading frame (ORF) of 759 bp. The ORF of SaFer encoded a polypeptide of 252 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of about 27.8 kDa, and the homologous analysis showed that it was most closely related to ferritin of Malus domestica with 76% identities. The length of the genomic sequence of SaFer was 1 702 bp and contained 7 introns. Expression profiles in roots were analyzed by qRT-PCR and the results showed that the transcription level of SaFer was enhanced after 12 h cadmium stress. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing SaFer displayed much higher Cd tolerance than the wild type which was further supported by physiological indexes such as SOD activity and electric conductivity. The results showed that SaFer could provide a glimpse into S. alfredii cadmium-tolerance and could contribute to the breeding of cadmium-tolerant plants. [Ch,9 fig. 1 tab. 23 ref. ]
Cloning and analysis of a MADS-like gene in Carya cathayensis
HOU Chuanming, ZHENG Yawen, WANG Zhengjia, XU Yingwu
2015, 32(1): 33-39. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.005
[Abstract](2057) [PDF](549)
MADS-box family genes play key roles in all phases of floral development. Based on a partial fragment acquired from 454 sequencing of Carya cathayensis (hickory) floral buds, a full-length of a MADS-like gene was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Afterwards, a quantitative real-time (qRT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, an amino acid sequence alignment, and a yeast one-hybrid assay were performed. Results of the sequence analysis revealed the open reading frame (ORF) of the CcMADS-like gene was 609 bp in length and encoded a protein of 202 aa. The protein presented typical characteristic of MADS-box family genes and contained MADS domain, I, K, and C, with the MADS domain was considerably conserved. The amino acid sequence alignment showed that the putative protein CcMADS-like gene had an identity to homologies of Arabidopsis thaliana (48%), Antirrhinum majus (65%), Populus deltoides (69%), and Populus trichocarpa (71%). The qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CcMADS-like gene in flower buds was much higher than in other tissues. The yeast one-hybrid showed that the CcMADS-like gene had an activation activity as a transcription factor. Overall, the qRT-PCR analysis suggested that CcMADS-like gene possibly participated in floral development of hickory. [Ch, 5 fig. 1 tab. 25 ref.]
Isolation and expression analysis of cellulose synthase genes in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata
PANG Jing, TONG Zaikang, HUANG Huahong, LIN Erpei, LIU Qiongyao
2015, 32(1): 40-46. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.006
[Abstract](2176) [PDF](461)
In this study, two full-length cDNAs encoding cellulose synthase (CESA) were isolated from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) using RT-PCR and RACE technology, and their sequence lengths were 3 235 bp and 3 876 bp, respectively. They were named ClCesA1 and ClCesA2, and the corresponding GenBank accession numbers were JQ844574 and JQ844575 respectively. The encoded proteins are composed of 992 and 1 092 amino acids, with theoretical molecular weight of 111 845.3 and 123 105.7 D, whose isoelectric points are 6.04 and 6.65, respectively. Amino acid sequences contain typical motifs of plant CESA proteins: a ring finger domain, two class specific regions CSRI and CSRII, two conserved regions CRI and CRII, cellulose synthase substrate binding domain D, D, D, QVLRW, and eight transmembrane regions. The expression analysis showed that ClCesA1 and ClCesA2 genes exhibited the high transcript abundance in stem, the corresponding expression levels in mature xylem were higher than that in cortex. The two genes had the lower expression levels in root and leaf. The further expression analysis was conducted using the dwarf Chinese fir with the specific wood properties. The results showed that the expression levels of ClCesA1 and ClCesA2 in the xylem of normal fir were about 2-12 times than that of the dwarf. Two ClCesA genes may be play important roles in the wood formation of Chinese fir. [Ch, 5 fig. 19 ref.]
Germination and vigor of sweet corn seeds with seed soaking time
PAN Binrong, REN Jingyu, ZHAO Guangwu
2015, 32(1): 47-51. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.007
[Abstract](2360) [PDF](630)
To improve seed germination of sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata), seeds of six cultivars (Nongtian 2, Nongtian 3, Tiandan 8, Tiandan 10, Jinyutian 1, Jinyutian 2) were soaked for 0, 4, 8, 16, and 24 h. A germination experiment (3 replicates for 100 seeds each chosen randomly and completely randomized design with treatments of 0, 4, 8, 16, and 24 h soaking) was conducted and vigor indices (electric conductivity and dehydrogenase activities) were analyzed (Electic conductivity test and TTC method used, respectively). Results showed that the most effective soaking time was 8 h. After 8 h soaking, germination for the six cultivars accelerated and germination rates were enhanced according to ANOVA analysis (P<0.05). For instance, germination rate of Jinyutian 1 seeds was improved by 109.3% and its mean germination time was shortened by 18.6%. Moreover, in the case of Jinyutian 1, the electric conductivity decreased and dehydrogenase activities improved according to ANOVA analysis (P<0.05). All the aboved results suggested that seed germination and vigor of sweet corn were significantly promoted after 8 h soaking. [Ch, 3 fig. 1 tab. 13 ref.]
Chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics with simulated acid rain and light intensity treatments for Dicranopteris dichotoma
Lv Chengxiang, ZHANG Mingru, ZOU Lingli
2015, 32(1): 52-59. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.008
[Abstract](2093) [PDF](468)
The effects of a light intensity gradient and acid rain on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and pigment content of Dicranopteris dichotoma were studied using treatments of four different light gradients (shading of 80%, 50%, 30%, and full sun) and pH levels (pH 3.0, pH 4.0, pH 5.6 and pH 7.0). Results showed that with pH 4.0 and pH 5.6 treatments, the actual photochemistry efficiency of PS Ⅱ(Yield), photochemistry efficiency of PS Ⅱ(Fv /Fm), potential activity of PS Ⅱ(Fv /Fo), chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb), total chlorophyll (Ct), and carotenoid (Car) content of D. dichotoma increased; whereas these parameters decreased with the pH 3.0 treatment. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Yield, Fv /Fm, and Fv /Foincreased with shading. Yield with 80% shading was significantly than 30% shading (P<0.05). Chla, Chlb, Ct, and Car content were also significantly greater (P<0.05). For pigment content and fluorescence parameters, the effects of light intensity and acid rain stress had no significant interactions, and light intensity had a significantly greater effect on the parameters than acid rain stress. Therefore, acidic liquids of pH 5.6 and pH 4.0 with shading of 80%, 50%, and 30% promoted chlorophyll content and fluorescence parameters, and as the degree of shading increased the chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters also increased.[Ch, 3 fig. 2 tab. 25 ref.]
Determination of five active components in Eucommia uimoides under simulated experiment of nitrogen deposition by dual-wavelength HPLC
AI Jianguo, DU Jiangli, ZHOU Aicun, JIN Songheng, SONG Xinzhang
2015, 32(1): 60-66. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.009
[Abstract](1986) [PDF](569)
A method for determination of pinoresinol diglucoside, aucubin, chlorogenic acid, geniposidic acid and geniposide in Eucommia uimoides under simulated experiment of nitrogen deposition by dual wavelength HPLC was established. Dual-wavelength HPLC was adopted performing on Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18 column (250 mm4.6 mm, 5 m) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile (A)-0.2% phosphoric acid (B) at flow rate of 0.8 mLmin-1. The gradient elution program was as follows: 0-12 min, 10%A; 12-25 min, 13%A; 25-50 min, 30%A; 50-65 min, 60%A. The detection wavelength was set at 203 nm for pinoresinol diglucoside and aucubin, and at 240 nm for chlorogenic acid, geniposidic acid and geniposide. The column temperature was 30 ℃. Results showed that pinoresinol diglucoside, aucubin, chlorogenic acid, geniposidic acid and geniposide all had a good linear relationship with their peak area values respectively. The five ingredients from bark and leaves of Eucommia uimoides had different response to the nitrogen treatments, and changing in the seasons. The method can be used for simultaneous determination of ingredients in Eucommia uimoides, and can be successfully applied to reflect the content changing of the compounds.[Ch, 3 fig. 6 tab. 13 ref.]
Species diversity based on sample size in a Pinus tabulaeformis mixed forest
DENG Hongjian, LI Weizhong, CAO Zhu, WANG Qing, WANG Guangru
2015, 32(1): 67-75. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.010
[Abstract](2386) [PDF](508)
Species diversity is a key indicator of community composition with its spatial pattern and basic causes being important components of species diversity research. To study changing trends in species diversity on various scales, for characteristics of species diversity at all forest layers based on different scales, and for relationships between tree structure and species diversity of undergrowth vegetation, a 1 hm2 plot of Pinus tabulaiformis mixed forest on Huanglong Mountain was utilized. Analysis was conducted with Richness, Pielou, Simpson, and Shannon-Wiener Diversity Indexes. Also, the relationship between density and mingling degree of tree layers as well as species diversity indexes of shrub and herb layers were analyzed with a grey relational analysis. Results showed that (1) as the scale increased, the Richness had no clear trend, whereas Simpson, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Diversity Indexes all stabilized after a certain scale, with their spatial variation decreased. (2) At scales of 5 000 m2 and larger, diversity index relationships between varying layers remained unchanged with the shrub layer having the greatest species diversity. The herb layer had the lowest species richness with higher uniformity for species distribution than tree layers. (3) The grey relational analysis showed that the structure of the tree layer was related to species diversity of the shrub and herb layers. The results showed that sampling scale should be taken into account when studying species diversity in a Pinus tabulaeformis mixed forest.[Ch, 2 fig. 3 tab. 30 ref.]
Population structure and regeneration types of Ilex spp. in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province
CAO Jing, YANG Tonghui, ZHANG Jianhong, XIA Chencheng, JIANG Xiaoli, DA Liangjun
2015, 32(1): 76-83. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.011
[Abstract](2223) [PDF](558)
The Ilex species has been recognized for potential role in landscaping. Most of the research focused on genetic, biological, chemical and propagation characteristics of the species. This study aimed to provide the ways to strengthen conservation measures and utilization for Ilex species based on age and population structure. The four sampling plots (each of 20 m 20 m size) were established in subtropical, evergreen broadleaf forests in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province. All woody species in the plots were identified and measured to quantify population structure and regeneration types. The complete randomized design (CRD) with sub-sampling of Ilex species in each sampling plot were used in this study. The four plots were used as replicates to represent different Ilex species in the study area. Results showed: 1) 61 woody species overall with a forest structure mainly consisting of a tree canopy layer and a shrub layer along with an herb layer. An emergent layer, consisting of Ilex micrococca, Pinus massoniana, and Acer acutum species within each plot, was found only in three plots. 2) The age structure of Ilex species in all studied plots were categorized into four types: (a) the increasing pyramid type--Ilex kengii, (b) the stable type--Ilex rotunda, (c) the mature type--Ilex chinensis, and (d) the decreasing type--Ilex micrococca. 3) Overall Ilex species grew very well, but Ilex micrococca, lacking saplings and sprouts, needed special attention along with Ilex chinensis which had very little regeneration. Thus, suitable artificial breeding and cultivation techniques should be applied for conservation of Ilex species and favorable breeding germplasm with necessary protection measures being utilized.[Ch, 2 fig. 2 tab. 30 ref.]
Stand spatial structure for an uneven-aged Cunninghamia lanceolata ecological forest
CAO Xiaoyu, LI Jiping, FENG Yao, ZHANG Caicai, FANG Xiaona
2015, 32(1): 84-91. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.012
[Abstract](2041) [PDF](416)
To optimize the spatial structure of a Cunninghamia lanceolata ecological forest and use of its ecological, economic, and cultural functions, nine permanent sample plots(20 m 30 m) at the Fushou Forest Farm in Hunan Province were analyzed for variation in spatial structure of uneven age-group stands using three spatial structure indexes: the mingling index, the neighborhood comparison, and the uniform angle index. Results showed an average mingling degree for juveniles of 0.19 which belonged to the transitional type between zero and weak mingling. The average degree of mingling for medium (0.09) and mature (0.04) trees was close to zero mingling. The average neighborhood comparison for stand DBH was juvenile (0.51), medium (0.52), and mature trees (0.52) which were close to the moderate state. The average stand uniform angle indexes were juvenile (0.37), medium (0.35), and mature (0.34) belonging to the transitional types of uniform and random distributions. Overall for the C. lanceolata stands, mingling showed that the ecological forest rating was low, and the stability of the stand structure was weak; the neighborhood comparison indicated that the number of trees in diameter classes was roughly equal; and the uniform angle index revealed poor horizontal distribution patterns in juvenile, medium, and mature stands. [Ch, 4 fig. 4 tab. 14 ref.]
N, P, K formulas for fertilization with young Phoebe bournei plantations in Fujian Province
OU Jiande
2015, 32(1): 92-97. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.013
[Abstract](2099) [PDF](491)
In order to improve the fertilization effectiveness of young Phoebe bournei plantations. A field experiment was conducted in Mingxi County of Fujian Province based on a D-saturated optimal design with three factors: N, P, and K. The growth effects for young P. bournei plantations were then examined with a frequency analysis and RCB. Results showed that N, P, and K fertilizer efficiency was positive for growth of tree height and crown width (with N>P>K) and for increasing diameter at ground-level (with P>N>K). The frequency analysis showed that compared to ck, the expected tree height was 120%, the expected diameter at ground-level was 120% and the expected crown width was 110%. In these experimental plots, optimum fertilization rates (in gtree-1) for young P. bournei plantations were 16.81-21.61 for N, 5.76-9.64 for P2O5, and 3.31-6.44 for K2O with a 95% confidence interval with a frequency analysis method; the best ratio of m(N):m(P2O5):m(K2O) was 3.94:1.57:1.00. Then providing the basis for scientific fertilization of P. bournei plantations.[Ch, 3 tab. 15 ref.]
Green-belt soil testing methods for porosity and the importance of porosity on soil fertility evaluation
WU Haibing, LI Aiping, FANG Hailan, HAO Guanjun
2015, 32(1): 98-103. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.014
[Abstract](2306) [PDF](813)
In order to discuss the influence of different testing methods for soil porosity and the importance of porosity on soil fertility. First, using typical green-belt soils and natural soils from Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, two soil porosity testing methods, the agriculture method (NY) and the forestry method (LY) were compared. Then, the former Shanghai World Exposition Site was used to evaluate the influence on the fertility of green-belt soils by the main physical properties. Results for green-belt soils showed that except for capillary porosity, total porosity and non-capillary porosity with the NY method was much higher than the LY method(P<0.05). For natural soils, no porosity differences were found when comparing the two methods(P>0.05). Thus, in green-belt soils, the LY method was more suitable for testing porosities. Results of the green-belt soil fertility evaluation showed that non-capillary porosity influenced soil fertility evaluation more than soil bulk density(P<0.01). To evaluate the fertility of green-belt soils, non-capillary porosity should be applied as an important index.[Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 22 ref.]
Evaluation of a forest soil environment based on collembolan diversity in Qingliangfeng of Zhejiang
CHENG Zhangfeng, GUO Rui, WANG Yiping, WENG Dongming, JIANG Chaoyang, LIU Wei, WENG Huajun
2015, 32(1): 104-109. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.015
[Abstract](2060) [PDF](544)
To understand the degree of forest soil ecosystem health in different habitats of the Qingliangfeng Forest in Zhejiang, the collembolan community in varying soil layers of three sample sites (the Longtangshan, Qianqingtang, and Gankeng plots) were tested from May to August in 2012. Analysis of the forest soil environmental and the diversity index of the collembolan community was conducted based on vegetation types and degrees of interference. Results revealed a total of 1 552 individuals collembolan present belonging to 8 families and 17 genera with groups and individuals from Longtangshan accounting for 39.5%, then Qianqingtang, and Gankeng having 28.7%. Individual density and the group number of soil fauna decreased with increasing soil depth. Analysis of the forest soil environment and the diversity index of the collembolan community was significantly greater (or less than) for vegetation types and degrees of interference. The total number and diversity index of the collembolan community were greatest with many plant species and a small disturbance and least with a single plant species and a serious disturbance.[Ch, 1 fig. 3 tab. 24 ref.]
Five pyrethroid pesticide residues for three kinds of traditional Chinese medicines using GC-MS
LIU Hongbo
2015, 32(1): 110-115. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.016
[Abstract](2788) [PDF](585)
Methods for residual determination by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of five pyrethroid pesticides in Chrysanthemum morifolium, Atractylodes macrocephala and Cornus officinalis were established. Cloud point extraction-back extraction was used as sample pretreatment method,and PEG 6000 was used as an extraction agent, isooctane was used as a back-extractant, a chromatographic column HP-5MS was used as an analytical column. Content was calculated by the external standard method using GC-MS. Results showed a linear range from 15.00 to 2 000.00 g kg-1 with favorable correlation coefficients (r=0.955-0.999). For the five pyrethroid pesticides, the limit of detection was 0.63-3.10 gkg-1 and quantitation was 2.10-10.31 gkg-1. At spiked concentrations of 50.00-500.00 gkg-1, recoveries ranged from 71.22% to 91.00%. This proposed method can be applied to determine pyrethroid pesticide residues in Chrysanthemum morifolium, A. macrocephala, and Cornus officinalis. [Ch, 4 fig. 4 tab. 19 ref.]
Insect species diversity, functional diversity, and their mutual relationship in a pecan stand
GU Jianqiang, CHEN Donghui, XU Kuiyuan, CHEN Youwu, WU Jiawei, ZHOU Jin, XU Zhihong
2015, 32(1): 116-122. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.017
[Abstract](2516) [PDF](699)
To determine relation of functional diversity with species richness, we investigated insect diversity of a pecan stand in Jiande, the sweep sampling and the route survey method were applied. Then, based on nine biological traits including ecological characters, four indexes of species diversity (Richness,Shannon,Simpson and Evenness) and six indexes of functional diversity (Functional richness, Functional attribute diversity,Modified FAD,Functional dendrogram,Convex hull hyper-volume,Functional specialization)were obtained. Also, two dimensions of insect diversity (species diversity and functional diversity) and the relationship between both dimensions were studied using the MSR index. 589 insect specimens collected in the survey, which were identified 160 species belonging to 11 orders. Results of the analysis by DPS 14.10,FDiversity and Excel 2003 revealed that: 1) advantage of orders were Homoptera, Coleoptera, and Lepidoptera; and the greatest species diversity and functional diversity were in an insect sub-community. 2) Also, the selected functional traits easily distinguished the functional diversity among the community. 3) FAD, MFAD, and FD indexes increased with increasing species diversity. belonging to MSR index (Monotonically increasing with Species Richness), in this case community will be more stable and the pests in the pecan stand will easily be suppressed in low density. Also, FAD and MFAD were similar. Thus, functional diversity in the pecan stand could be used as guidance for pest control.[Ch, 6 tab. 30 ref.]
Host preference of Phaedon brassicae for different vegetables
SHU Xiaohan, LIU Yahui, MIAO Yutong, WU Chao, SHEN Weilie, SUN Jiabin
2015, 32(1): 123-126. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.018
[Abstract](2481) [PDF](537)
he preference of Phaedon brassicae for 4 cruciferous vegetable hosts, including Brassica campestris, B. parachinensis, B. juncea and B. oleracea were studied in laboratory through comparing their feeding and oviposition preference. The results indicated that P. brassicae had significantly different preference of the 4 host plants. The oviposition preference performed in the same pattern as that of the feeding preference. When there were 4 plants available, P. brassicae preferred B. juncea most and B. oleracea least, which exhibited significant difference (P<0.05). Similar results were achieved by analyzing the number of the adults or the feeding areas on the plant, between which significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed. [Ch, 2 fig. 2 tab. 12 ref.]
Cost and benefit of Cunninghamia lanceolata carbon sequestration based on AR-projects
ZENG Cheng, SHEN Yueqin, ZHU Zhen, FENG Nana
2015, 32(1): 127-132. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.019
[Abstract](1903) [PDF](529)
Forest carbon sequestration is widely accepted as a significant strategy to mitigate climate change. Based on the basic principles of land use opportunity cost and net present value, and applied Bentez model of carbon sequestration and Cunninghamia lanceolata growth model, this paper analyzed the cost-benefit of carbon sequestration of afforestation projects in Zhejiang, Jiangxi and Fujian Provinces. The results indicated that when the opportunity cost of land use was considered and the interest rate was 5 per cent, the cost of carbon sequestration in Jiangxi Province was lower than that in Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces; in terms of the cost of carbon sequestration, Jiangxi Province was the most suitable place for carbon sequestration. The costs of carbon sequestration in three provinces were all sensitive to the interest rate and timber price. The lower the interest rate was, the higher the timber price would be, and the shorter the optimum rotation and the lower the carbon sequestration cost. The correlation among the cost of carbon sequestration, interest rate and timber price makes it possible to use policy tools to reduce the cost of carbon sequestration. [Ch, 3 fig. 3 tab. 16 ref.]
A peeling machine for Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’ nuts
ZENG Songwei, YU Weiwu, JI Changying, YE Bangxuan, XIAO Qinglai
2015, 32(1): 133-139. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.020
[Abstract](2394) [PDF](774)
An aril on the outside of the Torreya grandis Merrillii fruit must be removed when processing the Merrillii nuts. At present, the T. grandis Merrillii fruit is usually placed in rotten compost and peeled by hand. Since rotten aril cannot be reused, this is inefficient. In addition, decay allows aril liquid to seep into the shell producing spoiled nuts and reducing their quality and commercial value. Therefore, development of an automatic peeling device to improve T. grandis Merrillii production efficiency and make full use of its economic value, would be beneficial. Based on the physical parameters from three sources of T. grandis Merrillii (Shaoxing, Shengzhou, and Linan), and the data of stress and transmogrification obtained by experimentation of the locomotion and force. Peeling parts and equipment was designed and analyzed. A peeling experiment then showed a high production efficiency for this machine with a peeling rate over 98.5% and a breakage rate of less than 1.5%. Peeling efficiency depended on maturity of T. grandis Merrillii, motor speed, and spacing between the peeling strips and the rings of the wall. [Ch, 6 fig. 2 tab. 25 ref.]
Advance in washing technology for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils: effects of eluants and washing conditions
SUN Tao, LU Kouping, WANG Hailong
2015, 32(1): 140-149. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.021
[Abstract](2858) [PDF](856)
As an effective technology for rapid remediation of soils highly contaminated with heavy metals, soil washing has increasingly received attention in recent years. This paper provides an overview on recent advances in research on the efficacy of various eluants and washing conditions associated with the washing technology for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. Effect of eluants on washing efficiency of various fractions of heavy metals in soils, and the treatment and reuse of the spent washing solutions were discussed. How to treat and recycle waste washing solutions after soil being washed was discussed as well. Among the eluants applied in the global remediation practices, natural organic acids have been recognized as the most promising chemicals for soil washing, because of their low ecotoxicity and high biodegradability which have been considered as important criteria for eluants selection. Regardless of the eluant type, heavy metals in exchangeable and carbonate fraction are most likely to be removed, whereas those in residual fraction are relatively stable and difficult to be removed with soil washing. Directions for further research were also proposed to advance soil washing technology. [Ch, 4 tab. 70 ref.]
Scientific notes
Seed plant flora of Dongfushan Island in Zhoushan, Zhejiang Province
ZHU Hong, GE Binjie, YE Xiyang
2015, 32(1): 150-155. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.022
[Abstract](2360) [PDF](603)
As field survey, plant diversity, floristic composition, and characteristics of Dongfushan Island in Zhoushan, Zhejiang Provience, were studied. Region was made by route visual estimation method in March-May, 2013. The result showed 133 species of wild seed plants belonging to 53 genera and 101 families. The largest families ( 5 species) were ranked as Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Ranunculaceae, Moraceae, and Euphor-biaceae, and were mostly cosmopolitan occupying 11 of 15 distribution types found in China. Compared to similar latitudes, the total number of distribution type was relatively few than that of the similar latitudes. Here, the Pantropical Distribution and the North Temperate Distribution dominated, while the East Asian Distribution followed. For the total number of generae tropical components consisted of 60 genera, or 59.41% in the total genera, and the temperate components consisted of 41 genera, or 39.81%.The flora of coastal plants grew well, but there was a lack of precious ancient plants. Floristics were closely related to Japan, but naturalized plant species were increasing. The maximum value of discovery was two species distributed in mainland China reported were confirmed, and three species distributed in mainland China and 1 species distributed in Zhejiang Province were found. Thus, there was a transition from tropical to temperate zones with geographic complexity showing that island plant richness was less than the mainland. [Ch, 1 fig. 3 tab. 17 ref.]
Fire-retardant properties of an intumescent fire retardant coating for wood using 4A zeolite
ZHANG Lei, CHANG Xiaoya, WU Jing, WANG Mingzhi
2015, 32(1): 156-161. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.023
[Abstract](2055) [PDF](633)
To evaluate the effect of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and 4A zeolite on the fire-retardant properties of an intumescent fire retardant coating for wood, a coating was prepared with a mixture of synthesized melamine modified urea formaldehyde resin; APP, and 0, 1.00%, or 3.00% 4A zeolite. The coating was painted on fast-growing poplar wood, and then the fire retardant properties of the specimen were studied with a cone calorimeter. The 100 mm by 100 mm by 10 mm wood specimen were tested in a horizontal orientation. Flammability parameters, including ignition time, heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR), mass loss rate (MLR), mass ratio, and total smoke release were recorded simultaneously. Results showed that for coated wood, APP decreased HRR, THR, and MLR but increased the total smoke release rate. With addition of 1.00% or 3.00% 4A zeolite, the first peak of HRR (pk1-HRR), the second peak of HRR (pk2-HRR), THR, and MLR of the coated wood decreased. The fire propagation index (FPI) of the coated wood increased to 1.26 for 1.00% and 1.38 for 3.00%. Also, with the addition of 3.00% 4A zeolite and before 400 s, the smoke release rate was almost zero. 4A zeolite can be used as a synergistic agent for intumescent fire retardant coating for wood. [Ch, 4 fig. 3 tab. 16 ref.]
Callus induction and plant regeneration in Sinopodophyllum hexandrum
JING Ning, KANG Jin, ZHANG Yaohong, KANG Yongxiang
2015, 32(1): 162-166. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.024
[Abstract](3975) [PDF](555)
To protect and exploit the endangered medicinal plant Sinopodophyllum hexandrum,a rapid regeneration system of tissue cultue was established. The effects of cytokinins [thidiazuron (TDZ) and 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA)] and auxins [naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)] on callus induction, adventitious bud induction, and rooting were studied. Using mature embryos of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum as explants Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) + 0.5 mgL-1 TDZ was used to induced embryogenic callus from primary callus so that embryogenic callus developed into globular embryoid and heart-stage embryoid. Results showed differences in percentages for mediums causing callus induction for S. hexandrum with TDZ concentrations of 0.5 mgL-1 TDZ and 500 mgL-1 casein hydrolysate (CH) having the best callus induction rate of 97.8%. To avoid brownness of callus a medium of 160 mgL-1 glutathione (GSH) was used. The optimum medium for adventitious bud differentiation and proliferation was MS + 1.5 mgL-1 6-BA + 0.2 mgL-1 NAA + 500 mgL-1 CH with the highest induction rate of 53.3% and 5.2 multiple shoots. Two treatments of 0.5mgL-1 NAA and 0.5 mgL-1 IAA induced roots, but the most suitable medium was MS + 0.5 mgL-1 IAA having a rooting rate of 22.4%. The rapid propagation system of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum has been preliminarily established, which provide theory foundation for biotechnology breeding and technical guidance for large-scale production [Ch, 1 fig. 3 tab. 13 ref.]