2015 Vol. 32, No. 5

Articles
A research on consumers’ willingness to pay for low-carbon floor to the scenario simulation of carbon labeling floor
PENG Weiliang, GU Lei, HU Chenpei, ZHOU Pengfei, HONG Minghui, LI Cuiqin
2015, 32(5): 655-660. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.001
[Abstract](2116) [PDF](686)
Abstract:
Based on scenario simulation data of consumers willingness to pay (WTP) for low-carbon harvested bamboo (wood) products in four regions including Anji County, Linan City, Hangzhou City and Shanghai City, the research had a statistic description of consumers willingness to pay for low-carbon harvested bamboo (wood) products in terms of consumers different gender, different regions, different ages, different levels of monthly income, different education, different occupations and different awareness of low carbon products, and used Ologit model to conduct an empirical analysis of the determinants of consumers WTP. The results indicated that region, age, monthly income, education and awareness of low carbon products had significant influences on consumers willingness to pay; gender and occupation had no significant influences on WTP. The paper concluded with the suggestions to improve consumers WTP and promote the development of low carbon society. [Ch, 6 tab, 11 ref.]
Ecological stoichiometry of Phyllostachys edulis leaves with extensive and intensive management
GU Honghao, WENG Jun, KONG Jiajie, YE Xiaomeng, LIU Yongjun, QI Lianghua, SONG Xinzhang
2015, 32(5): 661-667. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.002
[Abstract](3393) [PDF](673)
Abstract:
Studying ecological stoichiometry is an approach to understand the response of plants to environmental change. To determine management patterns and their effect on ecological stoichiometry with Phyllostachys edulis, an experiment was conducted by respective sampling to observe the effects of extensive and intensive management patterns on ecological stoichiometry with Phyllostachys edulis leaves for a stand in subtropical China. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least significant difference (LSD) tests were used to test the statistical significance of differences between two management types of plantations. Results showed that, compared to extensive management, intensive management significantly increased C and P content of leaves from both 1-year-old and 3-year-old bamboo (P<0.05), as well as N content from 3-year-old bamboo (P<0.05). Management level significantly affected C, N, and P content (P<0.01) as well as C ∶ N, C ∶ P, and N ∶ P ratios of leaves (P<0.05); Phyllostachys edulis age also had a significant effect on C and P content as well as the C ∶ N and C ∶ P ratios of leaves (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the interaction of management level and age only significantly influenced N content and the C ∶ N ratio of leaves (P<0.01). Findings indicated that with the two management patterns, N limited Phyllostachys edulis productivity, and that increasing N by fertilization would facilitate growth thereby contributing to more accumulation of biological carbon.[Ch, 2 fig. 4 tab. 26 ref.]
Silicon distribution in bamboo stands of different ecotypes
LIU Leilei, ZHOU Guomo, SONG Zhaoliang, GAO Peijun, LI Zimin
2015, 32(5): 668-674. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.003
[Abstract](2827) [PDF](725)
Abstract:
To provide scientific references for understanding the role of phytoliths in biogeochemical carbon sequestration, organs (leaf, branch, culm, stump, root, and rhizome) of ten representative bamboo species belonging to three bamboo ecotypes (mix, scatter, and cluster) were sampled at the Jiyong Plantation Experimental Site at Zhejiang A F University. The biological Si cycle in bamboo ecosystems was studied based on the above-ground biomass production and silica accumulations in bamboo organs. Results showed that the Si content of the organs in different bamboo species significantly ranged from 1.77 gkg-1 to 63.10 gkg-1 with leaf > branch > stump > root > rhizome > culm (P<0.01). For the three bamboo ecotypes, Si distribution was mixed > scattered > clustered; additionally, mean Si storage and fluxes of Si for bamboo ecotypes were mixed > scattered > clustered. Based on the analytic results of this study, we find that the mean flux for phytolith carbon sequestration in bamboo ecotypes was scattered > mixed > clustered. Furthermore, for China the rate of phytolith carbon sequestration in scattered bamboo was 5.46 times greater than clustered bamboo and 35.7 times greater than mixed bamboo. Thus, this study highlights that increasing the area of bamboo planting and electing a scattered bamboo ecotype characterized by bamboo species with high carbon content in phytoliths would increase atmospheric CO2 sequestration. However, further research should be systematically carried out to identify silicon and carbon cycles in national and global soil-bamboo systems. [Ch, 3 fig. 1 tab. 34 ref.]
Forest tree spatial characteristics of a coniferous, broad-leaf mixed forest on Mount Tianmu
FAN Peipei, WEI Xinliang, GUO Ruyi, TANG Mengping
2015, 32(5): 675-682. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.004
[Abstract](1922) [PDF](543)
Abstract:
To understand characteristics of forest tree spacing in a coniferous, broad-leaf mixed forest on Mount Tianmu and to provide a theoretical basis for sustainable forest management, fifteen 30 m 30 m fixed plots were established to measure characteristics of all trees over 5 cm DBH. The forest crown was used for a spatially segmented scale to generate a Voronoi Diagram, to determine the spatial unit between trees, and for statistical analysis of differences with various scales of tree spacing. Results showed that single tree spacing had large differences, with an average of four to five trees in a group. The spatial area was stable for dominant species of Castanopsis sclerophylla, Castanea henryi, and Quercus acutissima, but large spatial difference were found with Pinus massoniana, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Quercus fabric, and Symplocos caudata. DBH influenced spatial area, but not the nearest-tree number. The range of nearest-tree number for target trees was 3 to 13, with the mode being 5, 6, and 7, and the mean was 6. Overall, Mount Tianmu was a well-established, mixed forest, with a relatively stable community structure.[Ch, 8 fig. 2 tab. 25 ref.]
Interannual variation of forest cover and albedo in Northern China
ZHAO Jiujia, ZHANG Xiaoli
2015, 32(5): 683-690. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.005
[Abstract](2308) [PDF](913)
Abstract:
Northern China (above the 35 N latitude) with its vast landmass and a fragile ecological environment has an ecological security affected by variations in forest coverage and albedo. To evaluate the result of ecological development in northern China, land cover types and albedo product data from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) were collected from 2003 to 2012. Then, spatial and statistical variation of forest coverage and albedo and their relations during a typical summer time phase for this area were analyzed using a spatial and temporal analysis method with the window size of 1 km1 km and the nearest neighbor sampling method. Results indicated that (1) the forest coverage rate increased from 8.5% to 10.3% with a net increase of 1.6% over the 10 years, the forest degradation rate was 1.4%, and the forest rate of increase was 3.0%. The evergreen coniferous forest had the fastest growth rate of 0.002 2 per year, and the mixed forest had the greatest growth of 1.3% during the 10 years. Forest coverage rates in all three climatic zones in the study area were higher in 2012 compared to 2003: from 22.2% to 25.9% in the temperate monsoon climatic zone, from 2.0% to 2.9% in the temperate continental climatic and from 1.0% to 1.4% in the mountain plateau climatic zone. Also, forest variation mainly existed in the Big and Small Xingan Mountains and Changbai Mountain Area, followed by Beijing and surrounding provinces, Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia, and the western Xinjiang area. (2) Albedo in the temperate monsoon climatic zone remained unchanged at about 0.150 0. Albedo in the temperate continental climatic and the mountain plateau climatic zones decreased annually to about 0.190 0-0.200 0, and decreased in the mountain plateau climatic zone. (3) Forest increase and degradation mainly occurred between different types of vegetation coverage (forest, grass, and farmland), so albedo variation in summers over the 10 year period was small for unchanged forests (0.007 0), increased forests (-0.003 9), and degraded forests (-0.008 9). Thus, an increase in forest area reduced the albedo for a bare soil surface, and reduced albedo when the coverage changed from other types to evergreen coniferous forest and shrub, indicating that the evergreen coniferous forest and shrub type decreased the albedo, which in turn meant a better energy balance. [Ch, 5 fig. 5 tab. 12 ref.]
Temporal and spatial variation for vertical column density of tropospheric NO2 over the Yangtze River Delta from 2005 to 2013
GAO Cheng, ZHANG Chao, YU Shuquan
2015, 32(5): 691-700. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.006
[Abstract](2027) [PDF](432)
Abstract:
Product data from DOMINO version 2.0 for January 2005 to December 2013 was used to analyze the temporal and spatial variation for vertical column density of tropospheric NO2 (TroNO2) over the Yangtze River Delta of China. Results showed that (1) the mean annual TroNO2 vertical column density was 9.72 1015 moleccm-2, the compound growth rate was 2.10%, and growth was 2.6 1014 moleccm-2. (2) Concentration of the TroNO2 column over 9 years indicated a maximum concentration in winter, followed by autumn, spring, and summer. (3) Primarily human activity but also climate influenced the TroNO2 column concentration. (4) The TroNO2 column concentration in northern Jiangsu and the central parts of southwest Zhejiang steadily increased over nine years; whereas it remained stable in southern Jiangsu and northeast Zhejiang. Thus, even with abnormally low temperatures and an arid climate contributing to the apparent increase in the Yangtze River Delta, the TroNO2 column concentration seemed acceptable for domestic economic development. [Ch, 4 fig. 3 tab. 43 ref.]
Heat resistance of Salvia splendens with salicylic acid added and high temperature stress
GONG Zhongxing, HE Yong, ZHU Zhujun
2015, 32(5): 701-707. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.007
[Abstract](2565) [PDF](452)
Abstract:
To increase heat resistance with Salvia splendens, one of the most important bedding plants in south China where high summer temperatures decrease its growth, this study measured the effects of high temperature (39 ℃ day/30 ℃ night) on heat damage indexes, relative electric conductivity (REC), antioxidant enzyme activities, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in two cultivars of Salvia splendens: Hangtian No. 5 and Zhanwang. The experimental design consisted of a control (25 ℃, day and night) and three treatments (high temperature, 0.01 molL-1 SA spraying, combination of high temperature and SA spraying) was arranged in a randomized, complete block design with 3 replicates, giving a total of 48 plants, and statistical assays were carried out by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SAS software. Results showed that by the 6th day compared to control plants, spraying with SA significantly (P<0.05) decreased the heat index inHangtian No. 5andZhanwang. Also with high temperature stress, SA significantly decreased (P<0.05) leaf relative electrolyte leakage increases for both cultivars. Furthermore, SA increased (P<0.05) ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) activities as well as soluble protein content more in the heat sensitive cultivar Hangtian NO. 5 than Zhanwang. In addition, SA treatment along with high temperature stress significantly (P<0.05) decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities and increased maximum efficiency of Photosystem Ⅱ (Fv /Fm) in both cultivars. These results indicated that the increase in heat tolerance using SA could be related to the enhancement of antioxidant enzyme activity and the decrease of oxidative damage and photo-damage of PS Ⅱ with high temperature.[Ch, 8 fig. 20 ref.]
Physiological characteristics of adaptability for two ground-cover chrysanthemum cultivars with shading
LEI Yan, LI Qingwei, LI Wenguang, JING Shan, CHEN Junyu
2015, 32(5): 708-715. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.008
[Abstract](1887) [PDF](522)
Abstract:
To determine the physiological adaption of two shade-tolerant, ground-cover Chrysanthemum grandiflorum cultivars, a greenhouse experiment was conducted with four shading treatments (transmittance of 25%, 50%, 85%, and 100%) with C. grandiflorumJinbuhuan and C. grandiflorumMeihong. Light response curve for each plant were measured by LI-6400. For each treatment, three leaves (i.e. three replicates) were selected and alternatively. Results showed that with increased shading, the plant height, leaf area, flower diameter, internode length, and total chlorophyll content (chlorophyll a + b) of the C. grandiflorum cultivars increased significantly (P<0.05); whereas, crown width, stem diameter, specific leaf weight (SLW), ratio of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b (chlorophyll a/b), number of flowers, and number of branches decreased (P<0.05). Photosynthetic light compensation point (LCP), photosynthetic light saturation point (LSP), and dark respiration rate (Rd) also decreased (P<0.05)as physiological adaptability to light decreased. Moderate shading (85% transmittance) improved photosynthetic capacity and reduced photo inhibition; even with 25% transmittance, normal flowering occurred. However, physiological adaption of cultivars varied according to the range of ecological adaptation to light intensity with C. grandiflorumJinbuhuan being broader than C. grandiflorumMeihong. [Ch, 2 fig. 6 tab. 24 ref.]
Photosynthetic physiological response of Bretschneidera sinensis seedlings to light intensity
YE Feiying, CHEN Zilin, ZHENG Weicheng, LIU Julian, ZHOU Yuhong, ZHANG Jianyu, PAN Chengchun, JI Guohua
2015, 32(5): 716-721. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.009
[Abstract](2148) [PDF](504)
Abstract:
Bretschneidera sinensis, an endemic species in China and one Chinas national first-level protected wild plants, is a particularly rare, severely endangered, and protected plant whose conservation for biodiversity is needed. This study determined the effect of different light intensities on the photosynthetic physiological response of B. sinensis and offered some suggestions for conservation. The photosynthetic characteristics of B. sinensis seedlings grown outdoors were studied with different light intensities (1 450, 550, and 200 molm-2s-1). Results showed that daily changes in stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and photosynthetic rate with 1 450 molm-2s-1 were higher than with 550 and 200 molm-2s-1. As light intensity decreased, the maximum photosynthetic rate (Pmax), the light saturation point (LSP), the carboxylation rate (CU), and the maximum rate of carboxylation (Amax) all decreased. Therefore, light intensity should be considered carefully when biodiversity conservation of B. sinensis to be carried out. [Ch, 4 fig. 2 tab. 20 ref.]
Water potential with Phyllostachys edulis in its fast-growth periods
YUAN Jiali, WEN Guosheng, ZHANG Mingru, ZHANG Rumin, CAI Xianfeng, ZENG Yingying, LI Hongji, WEN Xing, ZHU Hong
2015, 32(5): 722-728. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.010
[Abstract](10474) [PDF](612)
Abstract:
To determine whether 1) water transport from mature to young Phyllostachys edulis bamboo and 2) water potential were key factors driving growth of young Ph. edulis in its fast-growth period, a PSYPRO water potential system with L-51A leaf water potential probes and PCT-55 soil potential probes were used to measure leaf and soil water potential at the physiological-ecological monitoring station of Zhejiang A F University. Analysis included analysis of variance(ANOVA), Turkeys test for multiple comparisons and a correlation analysis. Results for the period of rapid growth with new to six-year-old Ph. edulis bamboo showed that the water potential value significantly increased (P < 0.05) with an increase in age. Leaf water potential of same-aged bamboo was lower in the rapid growth period than before and after. However, among mature Ph. edulis, leaf water potential differences in the rapid growth period were not significant. Also, during the rapid growth period correlation of water potential to soil-leaf (P = 0.627), soil-atmosphere (P = 0.908), and leaf-atmosphere (P =0.716) were all highly significant (P < 0.01). Thus, existence of a strong water potential gradient meant that a key factor with mature Ph. edulis water transport to young Ph. edulis mainly relied on the water potential gradient for driving fast-growth.[Ch, 5 tab. 21 ref.]
Leaf color transformation and related physiological changes for five Camellia cultivars
GUO Weizhen, ZHANG Yali, WANG He, LIU Yan, FENG Shucheng
2015, 32(5): 729-735. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.011
[Abstract](1653) [PDF](500)
Abstract:
To study leaf color changes and their relationship to physiological indexes, five Camellia cultivars with 10-15 years of age were used to measure leaf color rate of change,the contents of photosynthetic pigments, anthocyanin, soluble sugar, and soluble protein. Leaves were measured every 30 d during the color-changing period. Results showed that in winter for old leaves of Mei Yu, 70% changed to a bronze red color; whereas for Xiao Fenyu 60% changed to an ochre color, both of them have high ormental value in winter. New spring leaves of the five cultivars were bright red with the red period lasting up to 1 month. Anthocyanin content was the key factor in leaf color change. In winter, soluble protein had no direct relationship on the photosynthetic pigments and anthocyanin; whereas, a positive relationship between soluble sugar content and anthocyanidin content was found with Mei Yu and Xiao Fenyu. Soluble sugar content for new spring leaves was lower than old winter leaves, and soluble protein content in spring leaves was higher than old winter leaves. [Ch,7 fig. 4 tab. 19 ref.]
Use of green waste compost as a peat surrogate in substrates for Anthurium andraeanum and Asplenium nidus cultivation
LI Yan, SUN Xiangyang, GONG Xiaoqiang
2015, 32(5): 736-742. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.012
[Abstract](1910) [PDF](478)
Abstract:
This study examined the possibility of using modified green waste compost (GWC) as a cultural substrate component for growth of Asplenium nidus and Anthurium andraeanum. Culture substrates were prepared by mixing modified GWC and peat at the volumn rates of 0% to 100%, 20% to 80%, 40% to 60%, 60% to 40%, 80% to 20%, and 100% to 0%. The study was conducted by 6 treatments, each with 3 replications. Results showed that GWC in the culture substrates increased bulk density and water-holding porosity(P<0.05 according to LSD test), but decreased total porosity and aeration porosity(P<0.05 according to LSD test). In most cases, GWC in the culture substrates reduced the organic carbon content(P<0.05 according to LSD test) and increased pH, electrical conductivity, and nutritive elements(P<0.05 according to LSD test). Compared to a peat control group, the most Asplenium nidus plants were obtained from 60% and 80% GWC-based substrates with increased fresh weight (11.9%-51.2%), plant weight (4.1%-5.1%), canopy (31.7%-43.1%), and chlorophyll (18.1%-14.8%)(P<0.05 according to LSD test). Also, compared to a peat control group, the most Anthurium andraeanum plants were obtained from 60% GWC based substrates with increased fresh weight (27.0%), plant weight (23.7%), canopy (13.1%), and chlorophyll (10.2%)(P<0.05 according to LSD test). The findings suggest that green waste compost can replace partly peat surrogate in substrates for Anthurium andraeanum and Asplenium nidus cultivation. [Ch, 2 fig. 3 tab. 15 ref.]
Species selection for ecological garden trees in winter cities
YU Botao, QI Mucun
2015, 32(5): 743-748. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.013
[Abstract](8540) [PDF](514)
Abstract:
Species selection was conducted for cities with cold winters because they are faced with ecological problems including forest resource degradation; air, soil, and water pollution; and urban planning problems concerning patterns and species types. In order to reduce the pressure faced by ecological environment, while improving the efficiency of greening, research on species selection is necessary. Based on the development needs of an eco-garden for a typical winter city, Harbin, 30 typical species were selected, and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was used to establish a comprehensive evaluation system depending on their functions(resilience function, ecological function, aesthetic function and economic function). According to the functions of these species, establish 18 evaluation factors, get the weights by expert scoring method, score the index factors of each species separately based on the survey about their characteristics and then calculate by substituting the score into the evaluation system. Results showed 14 Ⅰ-level species including Ulmus pumila, Populus alba Berolinensis, and Crataegus pinnatifida; nine Ⅱ-level species including Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Picea koraiensis, and Acer saccharum; and seven Ⅲ-level species including Quercus mongolica, Acer mono, and Tilia amurensis. Species were also ranked according to each function since the differences of demand focus of different green ribbons like parks, sidewalks, etc. Fifteen priority species were selected for the different criteria, and a selection mechanism was established considering species function, species level, and development needs. Using this mechanism, according to the species level and green demand, legitimately plan the urban greening in Harbin [Ch, 1 fig. 6 tab. 11 ref.]
Cloning, expression and purification of pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase regulatory proteins from Phyllostachys edulis
WANG Chaoli, ZHANG Zhijun, QU Yaping, WANG Lei
2015, 32(5): 749-755. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.014
[Abstract](1972) [PDF](671)
Abstract:
Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase regulatory protein (PPDK-RP) is a key protein in C4 photosynthesis and can modified enzyme activity of PPDK. For Phyllostachys edulis, an important economic bamboo species, cloning PPDK-RP gene and studying its functions had vital theoretical value and application for bamboo photosynthesis research. Firstly PeRP1 was successfully cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and afterward a multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis was conducted. Then for further study the crystal structure of the PeRP protein, the recombinant expression pe-SUMO vectors of PeRP were constructed and the protein was expressed in E. coli and purified by nickle beads column and size column. Results showed that the PeRP gene contained a 1.275 kb open reading frame (ORF) coding a 425 amino acid polypeptide, which contained the typical domain of UDF299 and was predicted as a number of kinase-PPPase superfamily. The multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of PeRP revealed that Phyllostachys edulis was a typical C3 monocotyledon. Expressed soluble PeRP1 protein had three forms--polymer, dimmers, and monomers in water soultion. These provided a foundation for the structure and function of RP.[Ch, 7 fig. 15 ref.]
Intergeneric cross-compatibility from pollen-pistil interactions of three Calycanthaceae species
WANG Wenpeng, ZHOU Lihua, ZHAO Hongbo, BAO Zhiyi
2015, 32(5): 756-762. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.015
[Abstract](1767) [PDF](511)
Abstract:
To breed new cultivars and increase breeding parent combinations, intergeneric cross-compatibility between Chimonanthus praecox and Calycanthus floridus var. glaucus, and between Chimonanthus praecox and Sinocalycanthus chinensis was analyzed by determining pollen-pistil interaction through fluorescence microscopy. To overcome the asynchronous flowering period, different methods,including low temperature and ultra-low temperature, were used to store pollen from these three species. Pollen viability in Chimonanthus praecox reached 12.7% after 3 months of crypreservation storage but was negligible for the other two species. When S. chinensis and Calycanthus floridus var. glaucus were used as female parents, pollen grains germinated and pollen tubes grew along the style. Pollen germination and growth characteristics between two intergeneric crosses were similar. About 6 h after pollination, pollen attached on stigmas and germinated 12 h after pollination; from 24 h to 36 h pollen tubes grew further along the styles reaching and entering the embryo sac at 48 h. Thus, Chimonanthus praecox pollen could be used as a male parent for crosses, and no barriers were found in the pollen-pistil interaction stage for crosses of Chimonanthus praecox and Calycanthus floridus var. glaucus or Chimonanthus praecox and S. chinensis. [Ch, 5 fig. 1 tab. 24 ref.]
Multi-site family trials and selection of superior families for Michelia chapensis
ZHANG Weihong, WANG Runhui, ZHENG Huiquan, YAN Shu, WEI Ruping, HU Dehuo, ZHI Yuyong, LUO Pingfeng, HUANG Xiaoping, WU Xiongguang, HE Hanbo
2015, 32(5): 763-769. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.016
[Abstract](1835) [PDF](491)
Abstract:
To select superior families of Michelia chapensis, trials on two families were carried out. Random complete block (RBC) design was used with 17 treatments in 2005 and 21 in 2006 and 10 replications. Analyses included an ANOVA, a correlation analysis, and a principal component analysis. Results from the ANOVA indicated that for the two families growth traits and quality traits were highly significant (P = 0.01). The correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation (P = 0.05) among growth traits (r = 0.40-1.00), among most quality traits (r = 0.29-0.73), and between growth and quality traits (r = 0.27-0.84). For the two trials family heritability reached the medium level (h2=0.09-0.64 and 0.41-0.81). Also, differences in genetic gain were large with volume having the greatest genetic gain, (as high as 11.35% and 34.91% when selective ratio is 10%). The realized volume gains between 11.73% and 29.24%. Four superior families suitable for timber and three superior families suitable as ornamentals were selected. [Ch, 2 fig. 7 tab. 15 ref.]
Process scheme of flat-pressure with hollow particleboard
ZHOU Ju, TONG Hongtuo, WANG Congcong, HUANG Yanwen, MAO Xinglai, QIAN Jun
2015, 32(5): 770-775. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.017
[Abstract](1497) [PDF](522)
Abstract:
Due to the existing defects with extrusion hollow particleboard, such as low longitudinal strength, demand for wood shavings. In order to improve these defects, we study used different specifications for shavings, entity density, and hollow hole distance input factor, along with flat-pressure, to make 30 mm hollow particleboard. Tests were performed on hollow particleboard and analysis of their main physical and mechanical performance was conducted. Results showed that in contrast to extruded hollow particleboard, the mechanical performance was greatly improved with flat-pressure hollow particleboard. In the test range: 1) the mechanical performance of the board made by rod-shaped wood shavings was best. 2) The higher the entity density, the higher number of the longitudinal MOR; the MOR of hollow particleboard with an entity density of 0.70 gcm-3 was nearly 3 times that of the entity density of 0.50 gcm-3. 3) The greater the hollow hole distance, the higher number of the longitudinal MOR. When the wood shavings were rod-shaped, the entity density was 0.70 gcm-3, and the hollow hole distance was 20 mm, then the MOR of the hollow particleboard was 8.24 MPa.[Ch, 5 fig. 3 tab. 9 ref.]
Growth stage and plant sex with chemical compounds of industrial hemp stalks
WU Ning, XIAO Rui, XU Yanping, DU Guanben, LI Xiaoping, SUN Fei
2015, 32(5): 776-782. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.018
[Abstract](2186) [PDF](565)
Abstract:
Studying the influence of growth stage and plant sex on chemical compounds of industrial hemp stalks could provide a reference for renewable fiber preparation and new energy. The cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents of industrial hemp stalks were tested by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and China chemical compounds analysis standard for paper making raw materials (GB/T 2677-1993). Results showed that growth stage had a significant effect (P<0.05) on cellulose content and lignin content of industrial hemp stalks but not on hemicellulose content. Meanwhile, plant gender significantly affected (P<0.05) cellulose content and hemicellulose content of industrial hemp stalks but not lignin content. For the entire growth period of hemp stalk, the range of cellulose content was from 380.8 to 525.0 gkg-1, of hemicellulose content was from 174.2 to 275.5 gkg-1, and of lignin content was from 109.8 to 235.8 gkg-1. As time increased, the mass fractions of cellulose and hemicellulose increased first and then decreased (The P value of cellulose was P =0.015 2 and hemicelluloses was P=0.945 9 with SAS software); whereas the mass fraction of lignin increased steadily (P<0.000 1 with SAS software). Also, synthesis of cellulose and hemicellulose was earlier than lignin. Differences between male and female gender became apparent by the 77th day of growth with cellulose (P =0.004 0 with SAS software) and lignin (P =0.123 7 with SAS software) contents of female plants being higher than male plants, and the hemicellulose content lower (P =0.001 0 with SAS software). Reasons for differences in the chemical compounds between male and female plants will require further study.[Ch, 6 fig. 1 tab. 21 ref.]
Heat with propiconazole to treat bamboo mold fungi
LIU Binbin, SUN Fangli, ZHANG Shaoyong, ZHOU Yueying, GU Yuanyuan
2015, 32(5): 783-788. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.019
[Abstract](2000) [PDF](480)
Abstract:
Bamboo can be exposed to high temperatures during drying, hot pressing, and boiling. To determine the mold resistance of bamboo using propiconazole (PPA) after high temperature treatment, new cuttings of four-year-old Phyllostachys edulis were used as material with PPA applied at 135 ℃ and 150 ℃ for 90 min. Both laboratory and field anti-fungi experiments were conducted on treated bamboo to evaluate resistance against mold fungi. Results showed that the resistance against mold fungi of 10.0 gL-1 heat treated PPAs improved about 40%-60% than unheated ones. The thermal analysis showed that the temperature of 150 ℃, which is commonly adopted by the bamboo industry, was below the decomposition temperature of propiconazole. FTIR results also showed that the high-temperature treatment did not affect the chemical structure of propiconazole. Thus, PPA treated bamboo processed below 150 ℃ would show good resistance against mold fungi. [Ch, 7 fig. 2 tab. 18 ref.]
Reviews
Research progress in plant aquaporins
WU Xue, DU Changxia, YANG Bingbing, FAN Huaifu
2015, 32(5): 789-796. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.020
[Abstract](2564) [PDF](867)
Abstract:
The entire growth and development process of plants are closely related to water conduction, and the aquaporins (AQPs) are significant in maintaining water balance of plants. AQPs promote the water flow among cells by changing the water permeability of plasma membrane. AQPs are not only the water selective channel proteins but also a type of multifunctional proteins which have many other physiological functions. AQPs play important roles in the physiological processes including transport of water and other substance, cell elongation and differentiation, stomatal movement. AQP genes can be expressed in all plant tissues: some expressions are induced by environmental factors or phytohormones; and others are organ specific expression or tissue specific expression. This paper reviewed the research advances in the structure, physiological function and gene expression of plant AQPs. [Ch, 52 ref.]
Origin and evolution of Xerinae
ZHENG Fangdong, BAO Qimin, LIN Lisi, ZHANG Shusheng, LIU Xi
2015, 32(5): 797-802. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.021
[Abstract](1934) [PDF](752)
Abstract:
The origin and evolution of Xerinae, a subfamily of squirrels, were chronicled revealing that their high biodiversity and wide distribution were due to the Africa-Eurasia Land Bridge and the Bering Land Bridge which facilitated dispersal and adaptive radiation. Both fossil and molecular evidence showed that Xerinae originated in Eurasia around the early-Oligocene epoch and soon evolved into three clades. Clade 1 dispersed to Africa via the Africa-Eurasia Land Bridge when it was first formed about 19 million years (Ma) ago. Since there was no competition from tree squirrels, Clade 1 gradually evolved into the Protoxerini. Clade 2 dispersed to Africa with the second formation of the Africa-Eurasia Land Bridge about 14 Ma evolving into Atlantoxerus and Xerus. Clade 3 was the ancestor of the Marmotini tribe; it evolved into Sciurotamias in Eurasia and simultaneously dispersed to North America via the Bering Land Bridge around the mid-Oligocene epoch. Following emergence of grass-dominated ecosystems in North America, this clade evolved into Tamias, Spermophilus, Marmota, and Cynomys. Tamias, Spermophilus, and Marmota re-occupied Eurasia in the Miocene period, and then Spermophilus and Marmota underwent their adaptive radiation in Eurasia. Xerinae thrived mainly because of morphological and behavioral variations that aided in adaptation to environmental change. During this course of evolution, ground dwellers like Marmota, Cynomys, and Spermophilus developed larger bodies with shorter tails; whereas, forest dwellers maintained slim bodies with relatively longer tails. [Ch, 2 fig. 53 ref.]
Scientific notes
Years of cultivation along with light and high fractions of soil organic carbon in a Carya cathayensis forest
SHENG Weixing, WU Jiasen, XU Jianchun, ZHANG Shaowei, CAI Jianrong
2015, 32(5): 803-808. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.022
[Abstract](2151) [PDF](521)
Abstract:
Forests of Carya cathayensis (Chinese hickory), a unique tree species with seeds that produce high-grade oil. Intensive management including heavy application of chemical fertilizer and long-term application of herbicides has resulted in serious soil organic carbon (SOC) decrea. To evaluate what kind of composition of SOC decrea, soil samples collected from intensively-managed forests (IMF) of 5, 10, 15, and 20 years were compared to samples of IMF forests newly converted (year 0) from an evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forest (EDBF). The results indicated that SOC, light fraction organic carbon (LFOC), and high fraction organic carbon (HFOC) decreased after converting an EDBE to an IMF. Compared to the EDBF, in the Chinese hickory forest with 20 years intensive management, there was a decrease in SOC (38.6%), LFOC (68.2%), and HFOC (26.0%). After 5 years of intensive management, LFOC/SOC decreased from 23.0% to 17.0%; whereas HFOC/SOC increased from 70.0% to 83.0%. The results demonstrate that LFOC is the main composition of SOC decreased after converting an EDBE to an IMF. [Ch, 3 fig. 2 tab. 26 ref.]
A difference analysis for Pb, Cu, Cl, and S with 15 species of landscape plant leaves in different functional areas of Nanjing
LIN Fang, ZHANG Jiayang
2015, 32(5): 809-814. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.023
[Abstract](1479) [PDF](504)
Abstract:
To reveal differences in atmospheric pollutants of garden plant leaves, lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chlorine (Cl), and sulfur (S) from Nanjing Chemical Industry Park (contaminated zone) and Nanjing Forestry University (clean zone) were determined and element accumulation and subordinative function value were analyzed. Results indicated that elemental pollutants from plant leaves in the contaminated zone compared with the clean zone had significant (P<0.05) or extremely significant difference (P<0.01). The content of four kinds pollution elements with the same garden plant leaves was different, the accumulation in Pterocarya stenoptera, Magnolia grandiflora, Acer palmatum, Koelreuteria paniculata, Platanus hispanica and Buxus sinica showed Cl>S>Cu>Pb, Ligustrum lucidum, Viburnum awabuki and Populus deltoides showed Cl>S>Pb>Cu, Sophora japonica, Broussonetia papyrifera, Aucuba japonica var. variegata and Prunus cerasifera showed S>Cl>Cu>Pb, Pittosporum tobira and Cinnamomum camphora showed S>Cl>Pb>Cu. Based on the content of four kinds pollution elements from high to low, different garden plants were sorted into three groups by using subordinative function value method: 1) M. grandiflora, S. japonica, Populus deltoides, Broussonetia papyrifera, and Pterocarya stenoptera; 2) K. paniculata, Prunus cerasifera, Acer palmatum, Platanus hispanica, and Pittosporum tobira; and 3) Buxus sinica, Aucuba japonica var. variegata, Cinnamomum camphora, Viburnum awabuki, and Ligustrum lucidum. Thus, garden plants for air pollutants had certain absorption and purification ability, and pollution elements content in garden plants leaves show obviously difference depending on function areas, element kinds and tree species.[Ch, 3 tab. 19 ref.]
The rDNA ITS diversity of mycorrhizal fungi with Cypripedium flavum
MIAO Fujun, JIANG Hong, WANG Hongqiu, YUAN Xiaolong, CHEN Jian, YANG Yuming, WANG Juan
2015, 32(5): 815-820. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.05.024
[Abstract](1838) [PDF](487)
Abstract:
Cypripedium plants, which are endangered by over-harvesting due to their high ornamental and medicinal value, use mycorrhizal fungi to guarantee cultivation and conservation. In order to explore the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi, the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences from mycorrhizal fungi of four C. flavum populations (Baishui River, Shika Snow Mountain, Tiansheng Bridge, and Napa Village) were amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Results showed a total of 336 distinct ITS-taxa of C. flavum obtained from clones of mycorrhizal fungi with populations from Baishui River (93), Shika Snow Mountain (90), Tiansheng Bridge (103), and Napa Village (80). Blast results of rDNA ITS sequences showed a rich diversity in mycorrhizal fungi systems with mycorrhizae belonging to Tulasnella, Corticium, Epulorhiza, and Rhizoctoia. Tulasnella fungi probably had host-specificity and growth-promoting effects on C. flavum. These results may provide a scientific basis for further conservation work of C. flavum and fungal manure development.[Ch, 1 fig. 3 tab. 24 ref.]