2015 Vol. 32, No. 6

Screening of a cellulose-decomposing strain from bamboo stand soils and optimization of its cellulase production
JIANG Yujian, LI Xinxin, SUN Feifei, YU Xuejun
2015, 32(6): 821-828. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.001
[Abstract](1792) [PDF](779)
Cellulose, the most extensive and abundant renewable resource in nature with an annual worldwide accumulation of photosynthetic plant cellulose materials of 1012 t of which an estimate of 89% has been used unreasonably (such as in direct burning), should be produced by more effective cellulolytic microorganisms to transform these renewable resources into available energy. At present, although important research about screening cellulolytic microorganisms has been conducted, few studies on isolating and screening cellulose-decomposing microorganisms from bamboo stand soils have been described. This research isolated and screened efficient cellulolytic microorganisms from bamboo stand soils based on the size of transparent circles and the activity of carboxymethyl-cellulase (CMCase). An efficient cellulose-decomposing fungus, J6-1, was obtained and preliminary morphological observation identified it as Penicillium (Strain J6-1). On the basis of single-factor experiments, the orthogonal experiment of 4 factors at 3 levels was then taken to optimize the liquid fermentation conditions conditions of cellulase production. And the hereditary stability of cellulase produced Strain J6-1 was evaluated by the cellulase activity analysis of 5 consecutive generations. Experimental results showed that the optimum conditions for cellulase production were as follows: 15.0 gL-1 straw powder as carbon, 3.0 gL-1 yeast extract as a nitrogen source, a 10% inoculation quantity, fermentation at 40 ℃, and an initial pH of 5.0 for 5 d. After optimization of strain J6-1, the highest activity of carboxymethyl-cellulase (CMCase) was 41.82 16.67 katL-1 and filter paper enzyme activity (FPAase) was 17.26 16.67 katL-1. Thus, these characteristics of high cellulose activity could be subcultured serially, and strain J6-1 could be used for further practical application.[Ch, 3 fig. 3 tab. 34 ref.]
Spatio-temporal variation for vegetative NPP in the lower-middle reaches of the Yangtze River based on MODIS data
WANG Lin, JING Yuanshu, ZHANG Yue
2015, 32(6): 829-836. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.002
[Abstract](1666) [PDF](474)
Vegetative net primary productivity (NPP) is an important indicator of terrain ecosystem quality. In order to improve the comprehension on vegetation response to human activity and global changes, spatio-temporal characteristics of NPP in the lower-middle reaches of the Yangtze River from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were analyzed by GIS technology. Then influential factors affecting these characteristics were explored in the lower-middle reaches of the Yangtze River from 2001-2010. The linear regression coefficients among different annual NPP maps were used to assess the changing trend of NPP and a correlation analysis was also used for the analysis. Results showed that the annual NPP varied from 420 to 670 gm-2a-1, with an average of 562 gm-2a-1. With respect to inter-annual variation, NPP decreased in most regions, but only 7% regions reached the significance level (P<0.05). In regards to spatial distribution, NPP in the southern parts of the region seemed to be higher than in the northern parts, and NPP in coastal regions was higher than inland areas. The correlation analysis revealed that vegetative NPP was significantly sensitive to climate changes (P<0.05) with annual NPP positively correlated to temperature (r = 0.49) and sunshine duration (r = 0.19) but negatively correlated to precipitation (r = -0.22). In addition, land cover type transformations also played an important role with vegetative NPP variation. This paper proved that the concentrated human activities and cliamte changes severely affected the natural ecosystems, and might give a deep impression on carbon cycles. [Ch, 4 fig. 1 tab. 26 ref.]
An ecological sensitivity analysis based on GIS in Fuyang District,Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, China
CHEN Shan, JIANG Wenwei, CHEN Yao, WANG Xudong
2015, 32(6): 837-844. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.003
[Abstract](8211) [PDF](522)
To provide a scientific basis for urban planning and development, an ecological sensitivity analysis, frequently used in urban ecological development, was conducted in Fuyang District of Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province. Six factors were selected to evaluate ecological sensitivity namely: land use type, slope, aspect, elevation, buffer zone of rivers, and vegetation cover index (NDVI) with ecological sensitivity being classified into five sensitivity grades: extreme, strong, moderate, slight, and non-sensitive. Factor weights were also calculated using an analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Based on a spatial principal component analysis from geographical information system (GIS) and a factor superposition analysis were used for evaluation. Results for spatial distribution showed that ecological sensitivity in Fuyang District was very high with the area percentage of the five grades being extreme-7.14%, strong-18.95%, moderate-33.98%, slight-20.17%, and non-sensitive-19.76%. A land-use strategy for the different ecological sensitivity regions was presented. [Ch, 2 fig. 2 tab. 21 ref.]
Mechanical damage on secondary metabolites from Artemisia frigida leaves
LIU Mengmeng, JIA Li, ZHANG Hongqin, ZANG Xiaolin, ZHANG Rumin, GAO Yan
2015, 32(6): 845-852. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.004
[Abstract](1501) [PDF](496)
To determine the effects of feed intake and trample damage on secondary metabolites of Artemisia frigida, A. frigida from Inner Mongolia grassland was potted in the laboratory and treated with different degrees of mechanical damage (light, moderate, severe, and a control group without damage). Then chemical components of the leaves were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed that with mechanical damage treatment the total amount of secondary metabolites increased within a certain time range. Secondary metabolites with light damage increased gradually and peaked at 24 h; moderate and severe treatments increased rapidly, peaked at 6 h, and then declined. Increases in species of secondary metabolites were visible when treated with light and moderate damage, but a decrease appeared with severe damage. The main components of secondary metabolites were terpenoids which accounted for more than 80% of the total. The terpenoid content when compared with the control increased 59% with light damage, 54% with moderate damage, and 67% with heavy damage. The increase of 8-hydroxylinalool was greatest; however, phenols, alcohols, aromatics, and ketones also increased. [Ch, 5 fig. 1 tab. 23 ref.]
Growth performance and adaptability of Betula platyphylla offspring in the period of young forest
LIU Yu, XU Huanwen, LI Zhixin, JIANG Jing, PENG Rusheng, SHANG Fuqiang, ZOU Jianjun, TENG Wenhua, LIU Guifeng
2015, 32(6): 853-860. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.005
[Abstract](1891) [PDF](426)
Multi-point testing of tree progeny, an important link in the study of tree suitability and stability, was used to determine the height and ground diameter of Betula platyphylla (birch) for six triploid families and four diploid families planted at four sites: Shangzhi, Huinan, Linghai, and Dandong. 3 years ago a multi-point conjoint analysis was used for differences in height between sites. Results of the multi-point conjoint analysis of height and ground diameter showed that differences in height between the sites were highly significant (P<0.01). Also, ground diameter for the Dandong and Linghai sites was significantly different (P <0.05). Families 314 and 319 were excellent triploid families at the Shangzhi site; at Huinan they were 318 and 320; at Linghai: 314, 316 and 320; and at Dandong: 316, 318 and 319. Then, tested families were divided into three types according to their productivity index and genotype grouping methods. The first type included high yield-instability families 202, 314 and 320. 201, 318 and 319 belonged to the low yield-stability type. The low yield-instability type contained families 203, 204 and 315. Excellent families selected from all sites belonged to the first and second type. This study not only provided a reference for early popularization of birch triploid families, but also formed an important basis for alterations of high generation triploid seed orchards. [Ch, 3 fig. 6 tab. 24 ref.]
Effects of gibberellins on flower bud formation and fruit quality in Camellia oleifera
WEN Yue, SU Shuchai, MA Lüyi, WANG Xiangnan, YANG Shaoyan
2015, 32(6): 861-867. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.006
[Abstract](2010) [PDF](473)
To explore the effects of different concentrations of gibberellins (GAs) on flower bud formation and fruit quality in Camellia oleifera, foliage spray experiments were conducted using GA solutions at different concentrations before the physiological differentiation period of Camellia oleifera flower buds. The test material was the high yield Xiang-Lin series. Results indicated that different concentrations of GA decreased the number of new shoots, with the 100 mgL-1 treatment being highest at 38.6%; The 200 mgL-1 treatment had the best effect on the distance between nodes which increased by 8.5%; The 300 mgL-1 treatment had the best effects on flower bud formation and fruit quality; with an improved new shoot length of 9.4% , an increase in the composition of long shoots of 49.2%, and increases in flower bud size (23.1%) and weight (5.3%). The 300 mgL-1 treatment also improved flower bud differentiation and fruit quality with a flower bud differentiation of 0.38, fruit weight of 20.06 g, seed weight of 10.20 g, kernel weight of 9.10 g and kernel rate of 45.4%. With 29.2%, 60.5%, 62.9%, 70.7% and 6.4% more than that of the control.[Ch, 2 fig. 5 tab. 26 ref.]
Monthly yield for PR107 clones of Hevea brasiliensis at different tapping ages
WU Chuntai, LIU Hanwen, MA Zhengyu, LI Weiguo, ZENG Rizhong
2015, 32(6): 868-874. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.007
[Abstract](3681) [PDF](535)
To explore the change rule of dry rubber yields in Hevea brasiliensis rubber tree clone PR107 for alternating months, production yields over 5-12 months were measured and analyzed for trees with 20 tapping ages. Results showed that the monthly dynamics of dry rubber production per tree and dry rubber yield per hectare for 18 tapping ages exhibited double peak curves; whereas, two were multi-peak curves. Dry rubber yield per hectare per month was closely related to dry rubber production per tree per month for eight young and middle-aged as well as twelve old-aged PR107 clones (P<0.01). There was also a close relationship in May between dry rubber production per tree per month and dry rubber yield per hectare per month for young and middle-aged PR107 clones (P<0.01), a strong relationship in July and December (P<0.05), and mostly no relationship in other months (P>0.05). Thus, changes in harvesting times have a strong effect on dry rubber yields in PR107 clones of H. brasiliensis at different tapping ages. [Ch, 5 fig. 1 tab. 11 ref.]
Phyllostachys violascens model optimization for bamboo shoot firmness using near-infrared spectroscopy
ZHOU Zhu, ZHENG Jian, WANG Yunxiang, ZENG Songwei
2015, 32(6): 875-882. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.008
[Abstract](3055) [PDF](462)
To develop a calibration model for rapid, accurate and nondestructive determination of bamboo shoots firmness with Phyllostachys violascens by using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology. The diffuse reflectance spectra of bamboo shoot were obtained in the wavelength range from 800 to 2 632 nm. Different informative variable selection methods were first calculated with the full spectra being pretreated using a standard normal variate (SNV) transformation. Analyses with backward interval partial least squares (biPLS), synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS), genetic algorithm (GA), successive projections algorithm (SPA), Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination (MCUVE), and competitive adaptive reweighed sampling (CARS) were compared. Then CARS and SPA were used on the spectrum to select wavelengths in proper order. The performance of the models were tested using a correlation coefficient for cross-validation of calibration (rcv), root mean square error for cross-validation of calibration (RMSECV), the correlation coefficient of prediction (rp), and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP). Results showed that BiPLS combined with CARS and SPA obtained a total of 25 wavelengths or only 1.6% of the full wavelengths. The rcv, RMSECV, rp, RMSEP by biPLS-CARS-SPA were 0.984, 0.300 Ncm-2, 0.926, 0.625 Ncm-2, respectively. The good performance demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy coupled with the biPLS-CARS-SPA algorithm could be used successfully to analyze bamboo shoot firmness and revealed that the biPLS-CARS-SPA algorithm was superior to other wavelength selection methods. [Ch, 6 fig. 3 tab. 20 ref.]
Distribution and migration patterns of Egretta garzetta in Zhejiang Province
LI Huixia, XU Aijun, FANG Luming, ZHOU Keyu
2015, 32(6): 883-889. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.009
[Abstract](4956) [PDF](709)
To study distribution characteristics and migration laws of Egretta garzetta from the angle of statistics and to plot migration routes, daily monitoring data of wild animal epidemic sources and disease systems for birds of Zhejiang Province were collected. Monitoring data for the five years from 2010-2014 were analyzed by combined K-means clustering distribution to preliminarily plot two migration routes. Results indicated a northward migration path in spring of Yinzhou, NingboShangyu, ShaoxingYuhang, HangzhouDeqing, Huzhou; Yinzhou, Ningboover the sea; Sanmen, Taizhouover the sea. The Southward migration path in autumn was Deqing, HuzhouYuhang, HangzhouShangyu, ShaoxingYinzhou, NingboSanmen, Taizhou. Then data from Deqing Monitoring Station was selected to develop a regression equation of environmental factors that influenced changes in the number of E. garzetta. Above analysis of E. garzetta activities showed patterns of migration timing, migration paths, and quantity changes in Zhejiang Province. [Ch, 5 fig. 5 tab. 15 ref. ]  
Design and implementation of an integrated forest resources information system
LAI Chao, FANG Luming, LI Ji, , ZHOU Changhe
2015, 32(6): 890-896. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.010
[Abstract](2350) [PDF](513)
Forest resources management is faced with relatively scattered forest resource management data, and relatively independent information systems of different linkages which has been detrimental to overall management of and decision making in forest resources. To integrate scattered data and independent systems, more than 10 running application systems and research on the Forest Resources Information Integration Mechanism were considered to design and implement an Integrated Forest Resources Information System. The system was developed by Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) architecture based on Model-View-Controller (MVC) pattern, Visual studio 2010, ArcGIS Server, and Mssql with a comprehensive analysis of user demands, data, and security in China, having been put into use at Longquan Forestry Bureau in Zhejiang Province. The resulting system combined 77 items on 15 management aspects including forest rights, felling, afforestation, ecological forests, and forest resource inventory that produced a broad expression of information. This new system could comprehensively and systematically express forest resource conditions, portray forestry production and management operations, and provide a unified platform for information sharing and collaborative supervision in forest resource management. [Ch, 8 fig. 12 ref.]
Factors for Phyllostachys edulis timber glass transition temperatures
HUANG Mengxue, ZHANG Wenbiao, ZHANG Xiaochun, YU Wenjun, LI Wenzhu, LIU Xianmiao, DAI Chunping, WANG Sunguo
2015, 32(6): 897-902. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.011
[Abstract](2129) [PDF](684)
To provide a theoretical basis for bamboo softening and flattening, a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMTA) was used at various initial moisture contents (MC) (0%, 15%, 30%, 60%, and water saturation), radial positions (outer, median, and inner layers), ages (3, 5, and 7 years old), and heights (2.5 m, 4.0 m, 5.5 m) to study the glass transition temperature (Tg) of Phyllostachys edulis bamboo. The test were performed between 30.0-260.0 ℃ with heating rate 5 ℃min-1, and amplitude 5 m and a frequency of 3 Hz. Results showed: that (1) with an increase of MC at 50.0-250.0 ℃, Tg decreased from 217.3 ℃ to 113.0 ℃. Initial MC changes at lower levels (<15% MC) had a greater effect on Tg than moisture content changes >15% MC. (2) The Tg for the outer, median, and inner layers of bamboo along the radial direction showed little differences under the same age, initial MC, and height; maximum difference in Tg was 12.0 ℃ and minimum was 0.5 ℃. (3) With identical radial positions and initial MC, different ages and the heights did not affect bamboo Tg which had differences of less than 5.0 ℃. This study showed that an increased initial MC was good for bamboo softening and will, thus, help make full use of materials in the production process. [Ch, 4 fig. 2 tab. 22 ref.]
Silylated Pinus kesiya and Betula alnoides wood surfaces using hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) plasma deposition
XIE Linkun, WANG Hongyan, GUAN Cheng, DU Guanben
2015, 32(6): 903-908. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.012
[Abstract](2604) [PDF](631)
Pinus kesiya and Betula alnoides wood surfaces were silylated for different times using hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) plasma deposition. The wettability, element composition and their chemical bonding information, and surface morphology of the wood surfaces before and after modification were measured and analyzed using contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the hydrophobicity property of B. alnoides was better than that of P. kesiya. The contact angle increased gradually with an increase in treatment time and attained a maximum value with a 9 min treatment [P. kesiya = (131 7.2) and B. alnoides = (138.8 1.7)]. With a 12 min treatment the contact angles decreased slightly. When deposition time was 9 min, the wood surface Si content for P. kesiya was 18.80% and for B. alnoides was 17.82%. Furthermore, the structure of the polymerization polymer films was mainly composed of SiC and SiCHx(x = 1,2,3). After plasma coated HMDSO was applied to wood surfaces, a grain structure formed on the cell wall surface of P. kesiya; whereas a bar-like structure formed on B. alnoides. [Ch, 8 fig. 1 tab. 19 ref.]
Plant protein based adhesive for particleboard
LI Guangrong, GU Zhongchun, LI Junzhang, DU Yeyun
2015, 32(6): 909-913. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.013
[Abstract](1580) [PDF](446)
To prepare a plant protein-based, biomass adhesive particleboard for interior fixtures (including furniture) to be used in dry conditions. Through the single factor test, the way and the parameters of the adhesive stired were studied, and the influence of the hot press time, press temperature and pressure on the physical and mechanical properties of the particleboard was studied by orthogonal test. Results indicated that the horizontal mixer design was used to stir the adhesive at 200 rmin-1 for 5-8 min, hot process parameters: 6 min press time, 180 ℃ temperature, and 2.550 MPa pressure. Appearance quality and properties of particleboard met the requirements for GB/T 4897.1-2003 and GB/T 4897.3-2003 standards. Properties of the particleboard: density 0.74 gcm-3, static bending intensity 16.8 MPa, internal bond strength 0.49 MPa, surface bonding strength 1.01 MPa, 2 h absorbing water thickness expansion rate 1.8%, free formaldehyde emission 14.0 mgkg-1. Additionally, the free formaldehyde emission of the particleboard contained in wood shavings. Thus, it would be feasible to prepare this new particleboard using this technology. [Ch, 5 tab. 8 ref.]
Properties of wood plastic composite with different photo-stabilizer and/or zinc borate
LI Huiyuan, ZHOU Dingguo, WU Qinglin
2015, 32(6): 914-918. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.014
[Abstract](1810) [PDF](544)
The research compared the material durability of wood plastic composites (WPCs) consisting 20 g kg-1 zinc borate (ZnB) and ultraviolet light absorber (UVA) and ZnB synthesis to examine the impacts of ultraviolet light stabilizer on the material durability. Ultraviolet light stabilizers include ultraviolet light stabilizer (HALS) and ultraviolet light absorber (UVA). Durability of WPCs can be tested by their surface color, wettability and bending strength. The results are as follows: Ultraviolet light was most destructive to the properties of materials for the first 500 hours UV exposure; the light stabilizers were effective in preventing the damage of UV light to WPCs; the mechanical properties of the materials would improve with the increased amount of photo-stabilizer. 2% UVA/ zinc borate (ZnB) and ultraviolet light stabilizer is more effective than hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS)/ultraviolet light absorber (UVA) and ZnB synthesis to endure the destruction of ultraviolet light to WPCs. [Ch, 1 fig. 4 tab. 10 ref.]
Spatial patterns of ancient villages in Xishan National Forest Park based on a settlement suitability analysis
WANG Junwei, TANG Xiaolan
2015, 32(6): 919-926. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.015
[Abstract](2092) [PDF](411)
Settlements, an important field of research for relationships between humans and the land, has shown a severe threat to ancient villages located in Xishan National Forest Park because of rapid increases in forest tourism. To provide suggestions for improvement of the ancient village in Xishan National Forest Park, Landsat 7 remote sensing images and a digital elevation model of Xishan Forest Park were used as the main data sources for elevation, slope, aspect, distance to rivers, land cover, and distance to roads. Evaluation of settlements was based on a GIS spatial stacking analysis module combined with landscape pattern theory. Analysis and optimization of the settlement patch distribution included landscape patterns of Area-Weighted Mean Shape Index (AWMSI), Mean Patch Size (MPS), and Patch Size Standard Deviation (PSSD) indexes. The results showed that (1) only 263.34 hm2 accounting for 3.13% was most suitable for settlements; whereas, 3 973.68 hm2 was not suitable accounting for 47.17%. (2) For landscape patterns AWMSI, MPS, and PSSD indexes were minimum in the most suitable areas, but these indexes were maximum in the most unsuitable areas. (3) For settlement patches located in unsuitable areas, reasonable optimization measures should be taken to adjust settlement structure on the basis of protection. (4) In the ancient village of Dongcun, buildings with first-class, second-class and third-class architectural features located in the most suitable and relatively suitable areas; However, fourth-class buildings composed of illegal and temporary buildings mainly occupied relatively suitable areas for settlement. It can be inferred from these results that the most unsuitable area is much larger than the most suitable area in Xishan National Forest Park. Most of the present settlement patches were reasonable and should be well preserved. Appropriate area can be an alternative building site for settlement development in the long run. [Ch, 3 fig. 4 tab. 16 ref.]
Mountain park landscape space site selection based on mountain morphological characteristics
YAN Jun, ZHA Yangsheng, LIANG Huilin
2015, 32(6): 927-932. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.016
[Abstract](2119) [PDF](416)
Urban mountain parks are good places for people to get away from the city noise and relieve the tension and pressure caused by the fast tempo of city life. From the angle of morphological characteristics analysis, this paper took the Stone Mountain Park in Xiangshan Town, Maanshan City as an example, to have a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the determinants including mountains space morphology, space attribute, space area, and the terrain slope and the relationship between the mountain morphological characteristics and landscape space of urban mountain city park, and to search for the correspondence between them. The research aimed to coordinate the mountain morphological characteristics and landscape space construction of urban mountain parks, provide theoretical basis for the site selection of park landscape space. The guideline should be reducing construction quantity, adjusting to local conditions, and building low-carbon and sustainable urban mountain park landscape. [Ch, 3 fig. 7 tab. 9 ref.]
Factor decomposition study of farmland change in Zhejiang Province
WU Houchun, WANG Chengjun, FEI Ximin
2015, 32(6): 933-939. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.017
[Abstract](1778) [PDF](445)
In order to identify the causes of changing situation of farmland and the cause of land shortage in the process of economic development, and find effective solutions to the loss of farmland, the research used Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method to analyze the socio-economic data and land use data of Zhejiang Province between 1995 and 2013. A factor analysis model was built to analyze the index factors including the land use structure, the land use intensity, per capita GDP and population. The results indicated that, by the end of 2013, the cumulative effect of the land use structure and the land use intensity was negative; the cumulative effect of per capita GDP and population factors was positive. Judging by the yearly effect, land use intensity was the biggest factor of reducing farmland; the per capita GDP had strong inhibitory effect on farmland reduction. The paper put forward rigid land policy to reasonably improve the pattern of economic development and the utilization efficiency of land resources in Zhejiang Province, and provide feasible urbanization plans and policy implications for farmland change in Zhejiang Province.[Ch, 1 fig. 3 tab. 15 ref.]
Solid waste management and resource strategies in the developed rural region
CHEN Yonggen, ZHOU Chuanbin, ZHU Huifang, WANG Rusong
2015, 32(6): 940-946. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.018
[Abstract](1588) [PDF](536)
The on-site treatment of organic solid waste and using it as a resource in rural areas has become one of top concerns. This research took Yangshanfan village, a tourism hotspot located in Tonglu County of Hangzhou City as an example, and used the field questionnaires and sampling method to analyze the characteristics of solid waste generatiou, residents willingness to use waste as resource and the resource recycling strategies of organic solid waste. The main results were as follows: (1) The gross household solid waste in Yangshanfan village was 0.29 kgperson-1d-1, in which about 52.5 per cent (0.15 kgperson-1d-1) was organic solid waste; and waste from mushroom cultivation was 180 ta-1 as the main agricultural organic waste. (2) Most residents were willing to carry out garbage sorting if the facilities were available. 94.6 per cent of the residents were willing to use the organic compost produced with the organic waste. 47.6 per cent of the residents were willing to share part of the running costs of composting facilities. (3) A strategy consisting of source-sorting and on-site treatment of both easily degradable part of household solid waste and agricultural organic waste was recommended. The strategy is estimated to create great ecological benefits.[Ch, 4 fig. 22 ref.]
Seasonal fluctuation characteristics and determinants of tourist flows of Mount Tianmu scenic area
CAI Bifan, TAO Zhuomin, ZHANG Mingru, LI Tao, LU Senhong
2015, 32(6): 947-957. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.019
[Abstract](4983) [PDF](563)
Seasonal fluctuation is one of the challenges for the management of forest scenic areas. To understand the seasonal fluctuation characteristics and determinants of the tourist flows in Mount Tianmu, guide the effective monitoring of tourists flows, guarantee quality of visitors experience, and adopt promotion measures for narrowing the season difference, the research examined the annual tourists data of Mount Tianmu between 1997-2013 and the monthly tourists data between 2005-2013, with Gini index, seasonal index, TRAMO/SEATS method and HP filter, to study the tourist flow characteristics and cause mechanism of seasonal fluctuations of the forest scenic area. The results were as follows: (1) Affected by the institutional reform on the operation and management, the evolution of annual tourist flows of Mount Tianmu could be basically divided in two stages, the early development stage (1997-2004) and the rapid growth phase (after the enterprise franchise in 2005). Influenced by the two crises happened in 1998 and 2003, the tourist flows in these two years hit a record low. (2) The annual fluctuations of the tourist flows were characterized by three peaks and three troughs, with an uneven seasonal distribution. Seasonal differences were significant, summer being the busy season and winter the low season. (3) Weather conditions, public holidays system, tourists travelling habits were all important determinants of seasonal fluctuations of Mount Tianmu tourists flows. Whats more, the development stages of scenic areas and the ticket prices would affect the annual fluctuations of the tourist flows. Based on the fact that the weather conditions were the leading factor of fluctuations of tourist flows of forest scenic areas and the seasonal differences would be constant, the paper proposed that Mount Tianmu should not only ally with other scenic areas to form a large scale tourism industrial cluster to reduce the seasonal risks, but also enhance the features of natural resources of Mount Tianmu to develop a multi-drive tourism growth mechanism and promote sustainable development of forest scenic area.[Ch, 4 fig. 3 tab. 38 ref.]
Usefulness of online comments on different categories of forest products under circulation
YANG Wujian, TANG Lihua, WU Yaiyu
2015, 32(6): 958-965. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.020
[Abstract](1635) [PDF](493)
Online comments are a determinant of consumers willingness to buy forest products and therefore an important reason for the online circulation of forest products. Consumers get lost in the mass online comments. Through experiments, this research examined the interrelationships among sentiment polarity of online comments (positive and negative ones), product categories (searched products, experienced products and credence products), and perceived usefulness of online products comments. The results indicated that the negative comments played a more influential role than positive comments with regard to searched products and credence products; the sentiment polarity of comments on searched products had no significant differences in the perceived usefulness. When the comments were constantly positive, the categories of products didnt have a significant moderating effect on the perceived usefulness of comments; when the comments were constantly negative, products categories had an moderating effect on the usefulness of comments. [Ch, 7 tab. 14 ref.]
Research and perspectives of modeling methods and modeling tools of virtual forest tree growth
JIAO Xiang, ZHENG Jiaqiang, ZHANG Huichun, SU Mengmeng
2015, 32(6): 966-975. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.021
[Abstract](7812) [PDF](629)
The morphological structure of forest trees are affected by tree species or individual tree genetic factors (hormone signal and nutrient competition), site conditions, management measures and competition status of forest (light distribution, temperature, humidity, and agronomic measures). Mastering the mechanism study on the determinants of the forest trees growth process is very important for the forestry production and precision forestry research and practices. The real-time field survey of the determinants of the forest trees growth process is constrained greatly by time and space, and requires high test cost. Therefore, applying virtual technology to conducting the research on the forest trees growth has drawn great attention at home and abroad. This paper systematically reviewed 7 modeling methods and 10 modeling tools for studying the virtual forest tree growth, proposed the research prospect of forest tree cloud based on the simulation of dynamic growth of virtual forest trees, suggested on computer vision system based 3D forest trees modeling and the modeling tools, analyzed the models of forest trees growth in 4D to promote the research on the technology of the virtual dynamic growth of forest trees. [Ch, 1 fig. 54 ref.]
Research progress on urban storm and flood utilization
ZHU Weiwei, ZHENG Guoquan
2015, 32(6): 976-982. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.022
[Abstract](3196) [PDF](666)
This paper reviewed the concepts and connotations of storm and flood and storm and flood utilization to analyze and compare the theoretical system and engineering practices internationally and domestically. The research findings indicated that there were defects in comprehensive storm and flood resources management, runoff pollution control, storm and flood model application in China. The research established a theoretical framework and quantitative estimation index system on the basis of urban hydrology; the utilizing method combining geographic information science shall be highlights for the further study of urban storm and flood utilization. [Ch, 47 ref.]
Scientific notes
Economic traits of 5 cultivars of Camellia oleifera‘Ganzhou Oil’
SONG Xianglan, YANG Yilin, WANG Lanying, KUANG Xiansong, HU Xiaokang, WU Yanxu, ZHAO Xiaoqing
2015, 32(6): 983-989. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.023
[Abstract](2196) [PDF](502)
To provide a theoretical basis for optimization and rational allocation of seed so as to improve the economic traits for new Camellia cultivars of Ganzhou Oil No. 1-5, 8-10-year-old trees of these five cultivars were studied using research data from 2011 to 2013 as material. A correlation analysis of major economic traits of the fruits was conducted and evaluated. Results showed three main fruit shapes: peach shape, spherical, and orange shape and three main fruit colors: red, yellow, and blue. The larger the fruit was and the thicker the peel was, the less the 500 g fresh seed number. The average fruit shape index was 1.07. The order of fresh fruit oil content was Ganzhou Oil No. 3>No. 2>No. 4>No. 5>No. 1; and the order for oil production of 666.67 m2 was Ganzhou Oil No. 1>No. 2>No. 3> No. 4>No. 5. Fruit economic traits showed significantly positive correlations(P<0.01) for fruit diameter and pericarp thickness (r = 0.944 3), fruit shape index and the number of 500 g fresh fruit (r = 0.858 0), fresh fruit seed rate (r = 0.807 1),dry fruit seed rate (r = 0.849 7), 500 g fresh fruit and 500 g fresh fruit seed (r = 0.842 6), dry seed rate (r = 0.896 3),fresh fruit oil content (r = 0.837 4), 500 g fresh seed number and dry seed rate (r = 0.800 4), kernel oil content rate (r = 0.804 3), fresh fruit oil content (r = 0.946 4, P<0.01), fresh fruit seed rate and dry seed rate (r = 0.892 2), and dry seed rate and fresh fruit oil content (r = 0.917 8). Significant positive correlations(P<0.05) were also noted for fruit shape index and fresh fruit oil content (r = 0.650 6), the number of 500 g fresh fruit and fresh fruit seed rate (r =0.684 2), fresh fruit seed rate and fresh fruit oil content (r = 0.666 0), and seed oil content and fresh fruit oil content (r = 0.656 4). Significant negative correlations(P<0.01) for fruit tree height, 500 g fresh fruit seed number (r = -0.748 4), seed oil content rate (r = -0.812 4), fruit diameter and fruit shape index (r = -0.746 0), 500 g fresh fruit number (r = -0.977 0), 500 g fresh seed number (r = -0.932 3), dry seed rate (r = -0.863 9), fresh fruit oil content rate (r = -0.889 4), pericarp thickness and fruit shape index (r = -0.847 0), 500 g fresh fruit number (r = -0.958 9), 500 g fresh seed number (r = -0.872 7), fresh fruit seed rate (r = -0.803 3), dry seed rate (r = -0.981 3), fresh fruit oil content rate (r = -0.934 6). A significant negative correlation between fruit diameter and the seed kernel oil (r = -0.663 4, P<0.05) was also found.[Ch, 4 tab. 18 ref.]
Two newly recorded plants from Ningbo, China
FU Xiaoqiang, ZHANG Youfa, CHEN Zhenghai, LI Xiupeng, YANG Zifeng, LI Genyou
2015, 32(6): 990-992. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.06.024
[Abstract](1972) [PDF](655)
Two species from Ningbo of Zhejiang Province, China, Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) DC., Cornus kousa Buerg. ex Hance, are newly reported. [Ch, 2 fig. 11 ref.]