2016 Vol. 33, No. 1

Carbon flux extraction for a Phyllostachys violascens ecosystem based on the flux footprint analysis
CHEN Liping, LI Pingheng, MO Lufeng, ZHOU Guomo, LI Jinrong
2016, 33(1): 1-10. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.001
[Abstract](2701) [PDF](910)
This study was conducted to explain distribution of the flux source area and the spatial representation of flux measurements for mixed Phyllostachys violascens (Lei bamboo) and non-Lei bamboo stands in Taihuyuan. Based on the Flux Source Area Model (FSAM), footprint and source area functions were calculated using the continuous flux measurement with the open-path eddy covariance system for the full-year of 2013. Carbon fluxes, according to the area occupied and the contribution of Lei and non-Lei bamboo stands, were separated from the measured eddy covariance flux measurement values to determine the monthly average carbon fluxes using the flux footprint analysis. Results showed that the area responsible for 90% of the surface influence was about 2.0 km 2.0 km and was centered at the flux observation tower. Few differences were noted in flux source area at the four cardinal directions; however, the flux source area was much greater in atmospheric conditions that were stable (having a range of 96.19-941.63 m) compared to unstable (with a range of 28.62-313.54 m). After separation of Lei and non-Lei bamboo stands, the total net carbon sequestration of the Lei bamboo ecosystem was 4.25 thm-2a-1, and when the underlying surface consisted of non-Ph. violascens stands, it was 6.65 thm-2a-1. Without separation, using the eddy covariance measurements as the Lei bamboo ecosystem flux value, total net sequestration was 5.46 thm-2a-1. This research could help with more accurate evaluations of carbon sequestration capacity in a Lei bamboo ecosystem. [Ch, 4 fig. 4 tab. 29 ref.]
Photosynthetic carbon fixation in Phyllostachys edulis during its fast growth period
LI Hongji, CAI Xianfeng, YUAN Jiali, ZENG Yingying, YU Xiaopeng, WEN Guosheng
2016, 33(1): 11-16. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.002
[Abstract](2982) [PDF](589)
To explain the relationship between the photosynthesis and the fast growth of Phyllostachys edulis, the photosynthetic carbon fixation characteristics of Ph. edulis during its fast growth period and relationships between the main ecological factors and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) were studied. Samples of different ages: Ⅰ(1-year old), Ⅱ(3-year old), and Ⅲ(5-year old); Ph. edulis were selected to determine the light response curve for different periods (prophase, metaphase, and anaphase) and to show the effect on Pn of factors such as light intensity (PAR), air temperature (Tair), relative humidity (HR), stomatal conductance (Cond), atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca), and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) using an Li-6400 Portable Photosynthesis System. Results showed that: (1) in the prophase photosynthetic carbon fixation capacity of the older ages (ⅡandⅢ) was stronger than the younger age (Ⅰ) with Ⅱ being the strongest. However, in the metaphase and anaphase, the 1-year old was strongest (P<0.05). (2) Photosynthetic carbon fixation capacity for leaves in different developmental stages differed with younger plants (Ⅰ) rising gradually and older plants (ⅡandⅢ) being minimal in the metaphase and stronger in the prophase and anaphase. (3) During the fast growth period, leaf photosynthetic carbon fixation capacity influenced variables in the order: Ci > Cond >PAR > Ca > Tair > HR. A positive relationship was found for Pn versus PAR, Tair, HR, or Cond, and a negative relationship was found for Pn versus Ca or Ci. This study indicated that the photosynthetic carbon fixation capability was very strong in the fast growth period of Ph. edulis with older plants being able to store and provide energy for new shoots.[Ch, 3 fig. 1 tab. 18 ref.]
Spatial structure and distribution pattern of natural Toona ciliata populations in the Enshi Region
WANG Yang, LENG Yanzhi, SU Changjiang, SONG Congwen, CHENG Dehua, CAO Yingnan, ZHANG Min, FU Cuilin
2016, 33(1): 17-25. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.003
[Abstract](2162) [PDF](593)
Toona ciliata is a key protected tree species at the second national level, its natural population acts as a dominant species in its existing community, is rarely seen in subtropical regions of China. This study was to research the structure of age class, the quantity dynamic conditions, the trend of development and the correlation between the distribution pattern and the structure of age class, the quantity dynamic condition of different Toona ciliata populations. Four sample plots were selected in the Enshi Region of Hubei. The sample plots, entirely covering 4 populations, were set up, each in 5 m 5 m grid, by using contiguous grid quadrate method, with T1 10 m 30 m, T2 20 m 20 m, T3 20 m 20 m and T4 10 m 40 m in size respectively. Based on field survey data, a specific life table was established, survival curve was determined, a dynamic estimation of the survival number for different age classes was made, and spatial distribution patterns of different Toona ciliata populations were analyzed to determine the causes of spatial structures and distribution patterns in different sampling plots. Analysis included Deevey curves, regression, ratio method of variance mean value with t test, Morisita indices (I) with F test and negative binomial parameter (K), patchiness index (m*/m), and mean crowding index (m*). Results of the human disturbance intensity for the four populations was T4 > T1 > T2 > T3 with dynamic indices (Vpi) of T1 = 23.8%, T2 = 34.1%, T3 = 27.8%, and T4 = 32.3% showing growth form. Also, the qx values of different populations lagged in age-class with external disturbance intensities, and the life expectancy peak values (ex) varied as follows: T3 > T4 > T1 > T2. Survival curves did not agree with any Deevey curves, but 4 cubic functions represented a regression of the four survival curves: y=-0.121S3 +2.469S2-14.814S+31.071, y=-0.136S3 +2.162S2 -11.297S + 23.286, y=-0.287S3 +4.410S2 -19.992S +31.143, y=-0.058S3 +1.492S2-10.64S + 24.357; With 25 m2, 50 m2, and 100 m2 as sample sizes, a ratio of variance and mean value to t test, I with F test, and K all demonstrated that T1 and T4 populations had clumped distributions, but T2 and T3 had Poisson distributions. The m*/m varied with a sequence of T4 > T1 > T2 > T3; whereas, m* was T1 > T4 > T3 > T2. This research demonstrated that in a natural state, the Toona ciliata population was in growth form with a stable population susceptible to potential external disturbances and having a Poisson distribution, but with human disturbance a clumped distribution emerged that with proper human objective regulations, population regeneration, species protection, and maximum ecological effect could be enhanced.[Ch, 2 fig. 5 tab. 25 ref.]
Air anions concentration variation in Forest Park of Citrus Groves in Quzhou
ZHANG Jianguo, XU Wenjun, CUI Huiping, MEI Yangyang, CAI Bifan
2016, 33(1): 26-32. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.004
[Abstract](1828) [PDF](545)
Evaluating the tourism environmental quality on the basis of aero anion is important to the development of scene spot and helping tourists selecting activities. We measured the environmental quality of the Quzhou Provincial Forest Park of Citrus Groves in Oct.10, 2010 to Spt. 9, 2012 by aero anion measuring instrument, and analyzed the relations between aero-anion concentration and environment factors. The result shows that the aero-anion concentration of Shiliangxi Barrage is the highest and followed by Quite Mountain Road, Courtyard, Citrus Touring and Rural Square,all of which are in the clean air class with the ICI>1.0. The monthly changing of the aero-anion concentration in the five sample plots is almost the same, with two peak value in January and September, but changing significantly in different seasons, with summer and autumn higher than spring and winter. The air quality grade is above B, except February and March. The concentration of PM10 is below the secondary standard NAAQS(GB 3095-1996)(150 gm-3), meeting residential standard. A correlation analysis showed an significant (P<0.01)positive correlation between air anion concentration and temperature and relative humidity, a significant (P<0.01)negative correlation between air anion concentration and particulate matter(PM10). [Ch, 6 fig. 5 tab. 12 ref.]
Heavy metal contamination and potential ecological risk for sediments in the Puyang River Basin prior to and post dredging
ZHANG Wei, CHEN Shurong, HOU Ping
2016, 33(1): 33-41. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.005
[Abstract](1673) [PDF](472)
Using 25 sediment specimen samples from five tributaries of the Puyang River as well as samples from 64 ecological dredging stations, heavy metal concentrations and their potential ecological risks to the sediments prior to and post dredging were determined. Elements As, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb were analyzed, and then data was plotted based on GIS to compare the pollution levels of different reaches. The index of geo-accumulation and the potential ecological risk index were employed to evaluate the pollution level of heavy metals in the sediments. Results showed that compared to before dredging, after dredging the heavy metal content had decreased one or two times. The potential ecological risk intensity caused by different metals was: As > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr > Zn. Analysis for degree of comprehensive pollution showed that Xixi River had the most pollution among the tributaries; Puyang River had the lowest pollution and was rated a medium ecological hazard. After dredging, there is still the accumulation of heavy metals, the major pollutants is As. [Ch, 2 fig. 5 tab. 17 ref.]
Research on the potential fire behavior in Jiufeng National Forest Park of Beijing based on the Rothermel Model
WANG Kai, NIU Shukui
2016, 33(1): 42-50. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.006
[Abstract](1882) [PDF](543)
To minimize the loss of forest resources by preventing the onset and spread of forest fires, the potential behavior of surface fire in different fuel moisture conditions were studied based on the Rothermel Model in Jiufeng National Forest Park of Beijing. The Rothermel Model is a physical mechanism model which is based on the theory of combustion physics and the law of conservation of energy. BehavePlus 5.05 software was used with input fuel parameters including surface dead branches with different load delays, thickness layer of the fuel bed, moisture content, calorific power, wind speed, and slope, to calculate forest fire behavior indicator of four forest types: speed of propagation, heat per unit area, fire line intensity, and flame length. The results showed that the forest fire behavior indicators of four forest types decreased with increase of fuel moisture content and slope value. High strength of surface fire easily occurred in Pinus tabuliformis forest. Platycladus orientalis Franco forest had a potential of medium strength of surface fire. The Larix principis-rupprechtii was difficult to be burned, and had only a possibility of low strength of surface fire. Owing to more accumulation of surface fuel and convenient ventilation conditions in the stand, Quercus variabilis forest had a potential of medium strength of surface fire in condition of low humidity and drought, easily causing damage to stand structure. Therefore, in process of forest fire prevention, priority should be given to Pinus tabuliformis and Platycladus orientalis Franco forests to timely cleaning the undergrowth fuel and to dearease the fuel accumulation. [Ch, 5 fig. 3 tab. 19 ref.]
Growth and photosynthetic physiology for two groups of Phoebe bournei plus tree seedlings
JIANG Shunbang, ZHANG Yi, WEI Xiaoli, FAN Huihua, XU Xiaoqin, DUAN Ruyan
2016, 33(1): 51-59. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.007
[Abstract](1906) [PDF](477)
To understand variability in different plus tree seedlings of Phoebe bournei, seeds from 11 plus trees from Zhenghe, Fujian Province were compared to 13 plus trees from Jianou, Fujian Province for growth indices, photosynthetic rate, and transpiration rate of one-to two-year-old seedlings in a container seedling experiment. Results showed strong differences in height, ground diameter, biomass, photosynthesis, and transpiration among the progeny. Two-year-old seedlings were greater than one-year-old seedlings with average height of 56.4 compared to 29.3 cm [coefficient of variation (cv) of 27.6%], average ground diameter of 4.91 compared to 3.50 cm (cv of 14.8%), and average biomass variation of 27.965 compared to 5.985 g (cv of 37.6%). Two-year-old families compared to one-year-old had an average net photosynthetic rate of 5.122 compared to 2.081 molm-2s-1 (cv of 6.1%), average transpiration rate of 1.829 compared to 0.715 mmolm-2s-1 (cv of 21.9%), average water utilization efficiency of 12.31% compared to 4.36% (cv of 19.7%), and average light energy utilization efficiency of 3.703 compared to 2.224 mmolmol-1 (cv of 13.8%). The family seedling of No. 8 plus tree(J8) from Jianou, Fujian had the best growth performance in height, round diameter, biomass, net photosynthetic rate, water utilization efficiency, and light energy utilization efficiency. So the growth and physiology characteristics of plus trees from Jianou, Fujian were superior to Zhenghe, Fujian. Based on a selection rate of 20%, five plus trees(J8, J1, J13, J12, and J4) were chosen.[Ch, 6 tab. 23 ref.]
Effect of drought stress on physiological characteristics of three plants of Aceraceae
MAO Yongcheng, LIU Lu, WANG Xiaode
2016, 33(1): 60-64. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.008
[Abstract](1900) [PDF](721)
The effect of drought stress on physiological characteristics of three Aceraceae species, namely, Acer palmatum, Acer negundo, Acer palmatum Dissectum were studied, an experiment was conducted using 2-year-old seedlings with polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) simulated drought stress. Results showed that with the enhancement of drought stress intensity, the total biomass, above ground biomass, and root biomass of three plants of Aceraceae plants tend to decrease, while root-shoot ratio, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and proline content increased gradually; the peroxidase activity in Acer palmatum and Acer palmatum Dissectum increased first and then decreased, but continuously elevated in Acer negundo; the superoxide dismutase activity in Acer palmatum Dissectum increased first and then decreased, while the other two continuously elevated. Conclusions showed that three plants of Aceraceae seedlings adapt to mild and moderate drought stress through adjust its own biomass, MDA content, free proline content and improve protective enzyme activity; through membership function comprehensive evaluation and analysis, the drought tolerance of three plants of Aceraceae plants from high to low is: Acer negundo > Acer palmatum > Acer palmatum Dissectum.[Ch, 4 fig. 2 tab. 11 ref.]
Pollen-wall protein extraction and characteristics of Catalpa bungei
WANG Gaiping, XU Tao, FAN Lili, PENG Fangren, Lv Xin, CHEN Linyue
2016, 33(1): 65-70. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.009
[Abstract](1578) [PDF](537)
The research was conducted to further reveal the self-incompatibility that exists extensively Catalpa bungei and to evaluate the best way to extract pollen-wall protein of Catalpa, including the Catalpa bungei plants CB-1 from Yuntaishan National Forest Park of Lianyungang and CB-2 from Laoshan Forest of Nanjing and Catalpa fargesii f. duclouxii (CF) using incorporation and ultrasonication. Also, the content and component of pollen-wall protein from different varieties was compared by the Coomassie Blue Staining Method and SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Results showed that the relative optimization method to extract pollen-wall protein of C. bungei was ultrasonication with the optimal parameters being: ultrasonication at 400 W power for 3 s every 6 s for 3 rounds taking 120 duplications at an interval of 5 min. The optimal pH value to extract pollen-wall protein was pH 7.8(F>F0.05). For pollen-wall protein content, CF was higher(F>F0.01) than both CB-1 and CB-2. From the pollen of these three catalpas, 26 proteins were found. Molecular weight of the specific proteins for CB-1 were 53.8 kDa, 35.0 kDa, 23.4 kDa, and 26.5 kDa; for CB-2 they were 53.8 kDa, 38.5 kDa, and 23.4 kDa; and for CF they were 8.5 kDa and 26.5 kDa.[Ch, 6 fig. 1 tab. 18 ref.]
Selection of wheat having resistance to yellow mosaic virus and screen out SSR molecular markers having polymorphism between resistant and sensitive parents
WEI Wei, LI Junmin, SUN Liying, RONG Junkang, ZHOU Wei
2016, 33(1): 71-79. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.010
[Abstract](1718) [PDF](457)
Wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV), one of the most devastating diseases of cereals, also called wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV), has different effects on different cultivars of wheat. Breeding and growing resistant cultivars is one of the most effective method to defense WYMV. Selection of suitable parents for the formation of mapping population for QTLs mapping involved in WYMV is a basic work to breed new WYMV resistant cultivars. In this study, 527 different cultivars / lines of wheat from different districts at home and abroad were introduced and identified in disease plots with three different experimental plots and three replications each plot. Then polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers were screened out between resistant and sensitive parents which had a larger planting area than other wheat cultivars. Results showed that only ten of the 527 candidate materials had a relatively more stable WYMV disease resistance. Three WYMV resistant wheat cultivars out of ten resistant materials including Fengkang 1Shijiazhuang 72and Zhengmai 9023and two sensitive wheat cultivars with a wider planting area, Yangmai 158 and Yannong 22, were selected for further comparison. Higher polymorphic rates were obtained with the parental group of Fengkang 1 and Yangmai 158 (64.0%) and the parental group of Shijiazhuang 72 and Yangmai 158(63.3%) than other groups. Therefore, using WYMV resistant cultivars Fengkang 1 and Shijiazhuang 72, along with WYMV sensitive parent Yangmai 158 to form mapping populations would be more opportune for fine mapping of quantitative trait locus (QTLs) involved in WYMV resistance and map-based gene cloning. [Ch, 2 fig. 3 tab. 17 ref.]
Single nucleotide polymorphism of non-ε 14-3-3 genes in Shibataeeae
XU Zaien, YU Yu, LI Bingjuan, CHEN Hongjun, GUO Xiaoqin
2016, 33(1): 80-87. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.011
[Abstract](1470) [PDF](463)
To study the structure and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of non- 14-3-3 in Shibataeeae, homologue genes from five bamboo species, Hibanobambusa tranquillans, Indosasa shibataeaoides, Phyllostachys edulis, Shibataea chinensis, and Sinobambusa tootsik were cloned with gDNA and cDNA sequences being compared. Results showed five exons and four introns with CDS sequence lengths (in bp) of 789, 771, 789, and 786, respectively. There were 21, 19, 26, and 17 SNP sites in 14-3-3b, 14-3-3c, 14-3-3e, and 14-3-3f coding regions, with SNP frequencies (in bp) of 1SNP/38, 1SNP/41, 1SNP/30, and 1SNP/46, respectively. Nucleotide diversity () for SNPs was 0.015 21, 0.012 17, 0.010 98, and 0.009 16, in that order. The amino acid sequence identity for these same genes in different species was 99%. Four 14-3-3 putative proteins were hydrophilic, and their isoelectric point was distributed from 4.75 to 4.90 with the amino acids Ala, Ser, and Gly being abundant. Also, -helixs and random coils in these proteins were the most plentiful; whereas, -turns and extended strands were few. These results lay a foundation for deeper studies with biological functions of 14-3-3 in bamboo. [Ch, 3 fig. 3 tab. 27 ref.]
Growth, photosynthesis, and nutrition of Gynura divaricata with forest gap treatments
MAO Yuming, QIAO Weiyang, WU Kezhuang, YU Mukui, CHENG Xiangrong
2016, 33(1): 88-93. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.012
[Abstract](2360) [PDF](678)
It is important to construct a mixed forest-vegetable system to promote economic development in mountainous areas. To determine the size of forest gap impact on growth, nutrition characteristics of Gynura divaricate in a Chinese fir plantation of Kaihua, Zhejiang Province. Growth, photosynthesis, and nutrition of G. divaricata were studied in three habitats types having: a large gap (area from 12 m2 to 16 m2, average light intensity of 763 molm-2s-1), a small gap (area < 9 m2, average light intensity of 245 molm-2s-1), and no gap (average light intensity of 89 molm-2s-1); three or four gaps or no gap site for each treatment were randomly selected in this study. Results showed that the photosynthetic rate, plant height, ground diameter, number of branches, potassium (K), phosphorus (P), Vitamin C (Vc), and content of some water-soluble amino acids (e.g. valine, methionine, and lysine) for the large gap treatment were significantly greater than no gaps (P < 0.05). However, growth, photosynthesis, and nutrition with small gap treatments were not significantly different than those with no gap treatments (P > 0.05). Therefore, due to the forest gap influence on growth and nutrition of G. divaricata, it was not suitable to plant under Chinese fir plantations with a high canopy coverage (> 0.8) unless thinning was conducted to improve understory light conditions thereby allowing development of the mixed forest-vegetable system.[Ch, 2 fig. 3 tab. 23 ref.]
Soil factors influencing juvenile growth of Liriodendron chinense × tulipifera
ZHANG Yuan, LI Huogen, JIANG Xiangying, DAI Qisheng, ZHANG Huanchao, SONG Honglin, ZHANG Jingyi
2016, 33(1): 94-101. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.013
[Abstract](1855) [PDF](496)
To determine the impacts of soil factors on juvenile growth in years 1 through 8 for Liriodendron chinense tulipifera, thirty 8 m 8 m plots from 3 plantations having dozens of interspecies crosses were sampled for 9 soil characteristics including soil bulk density, pH, total and hydrolyzed N, total and available P, total and available K, and organic matter. Growth (height and DBH) of trees within a plot were also measured followed an random complete block (RCB) design with 3-4 replications. A correlation analysis and a (duncans multiple range test) were conducted. Results revealed differences of soil factors existing among the sites, slope positions, and soil layers in a site. Juvenile growth differed significantly among the sites (P<0.05) and blocks in a site (P<0.05). No significant correlation existed between ground diameter and available K (r =0.287-0.323, P = 0.081-0.124) during the first and second year; but height and DBH were significantly (P<0.05) and positively correlated (r = 0.369-0.711) with soil hydrolyzed N and available K for years 3 through 8 showing that hydrolyzed N and available K were the two critical soil indexes for growth. Thus, enhancing hydrolyzed N and available K could promote juvenile growth of Liriodendron chinense tulipifera and could provide guidance for tree selection and soil nutrition management in the juvenile stage of large scale afforestation projects.[Ch, 6 tab. 20 ref.]
Excellent families and plus trees of Taxus wallichiana var. mairei for landscaping
OU Jiande, WU Zhizhuang
2016, 33(1): 102-108. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.014
[Abstract](1847) [PDF](662)
To speed up the genetic improvement progress of Taxus wallichiana var. mairei. Based on landscape tree cultivation objectives, 35 landscape plus trees of T. wallichiana var. mairei were selected from five provinces of southern China, and plus tree family progeny tests were constructed in Mingxi County in Fujian Province. Considering growth and ornamental characteristics, a multi-objective decision method was adopted to select the best families by RCB design. Results showed abundant variations within T. wallichiana var. mairei and differences among families in height, diameter at breast height, crown width, length of shoot in current year growth characteristics, stem straightness, stem fullness, branch density of lateral branches in the current year, maximum length of lateral branches, degree of thick foliage, and number of lateral branches in the current year for ornamental characteristics. Change range of family broad heritability for growth and ornamental traits of 4-year-old seedlings from different families was 0.587 6-0.901 6; whereas, individual heritability of 4-year-old seedlings was 0.282 1-0.922 1. A positive relationship between height, diameter at breast height, crown width, length of shoot in the current year to maximum length of lateral branches, stem straightness, foliage thickness, and the number of lateral branches in the current year was found. Seven excellent families were preliminarily selected from the tested families with an average genetic gain for growth and ornamental characteristics of 0.46%-9.32%. Also, 30 excellent individuals were preliminarily selected from six excellent families, and their average genetic gain for growth and ornamental characteristics was 5.75%-28.75%. These selected families and individuals could be used for seed orchards or vegetative propagation.[Ch, 6 tab. 11 ref.]
Pinus massoniana pyrolysis: influence of temperature on yields and product properties
MA Zhongqing, ZHANG Qisheng
2016, 33(1): 109-115. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.015
[Abstract](2141) [PDF](668)
Pinus massoniana, a fast-growing wood species that is plentiful in China, could be converted into high-quality bio-fuel through thermal-chemical conversion technology. The objective of this study was to obtain useful data for effective design and operation of biomass pyrolysis technology fed by P. massoniana. In this study a fixed bed reactor was used to determine the influence of temperature (400, 500, 600, and 700 ℃) on yields and properties of slow pyrolysis products for P. massoniana. The components of bio-gas were analyzed by gas chromatograph (GC), the properties of bio-char were analyzed by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) methods, and the components of bio-oil were analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results showed that as the pyrolysis temperature increased, the yield of bio-gas increased from 40.00% to 46.50%; whereas, the yields of bio-char and bio-oil decreased from 26.50% to 24.00% and 33.50% to 29.50%, respectively. At 700 ℃, the lower heating value (LHV) of bio-gas reached its maximum value of 12.11 MJN-1m-3 with components of CO2(24.00%), CO(25.00%), CH4(15.50%), H2(25.50%), and CnHm (2 n4)(0.97%); also the maximum values for LHV (31.8 MJkg-1) and specific surface area (536.13 m2g-1) were attained. The main components in the bio-oil were acetic acid (5.30%), 1-hydroxy-2-butanone (4.10%), hydroxy-acetone (8.50%), phenol (2.70%), and methylphenol (3.90%) which could be important chemicals source by refining .[Ch, 3 fig. 3 tab. 18 ref.]
Combustion properties and bonding strength of plywood with a styrene-acrylic-SiO2 type adhesive
LIU Duo, HE Lihui, JIANG Nianchun, BAO Binfu, SHEN Zhehong, CHEN Hao
2016, 33(1): 116-121. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.016
[Abstract](1860) [PDF](550)
To determine how different particle sizes and additions of styrene-acrylic-SiO2 influenced the bonding strength and combustion properties of plywood, a novel urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin adhesive was modified through physical blending with styrene-acrylic-SiO2, and flame retardant and bond strength test were carried out. Results showed that a particle size of 60 mesh and a 15% addition of styrene-acrylic-SiO2 had a strong effect on bonding strength and combustion properties of plywood. With these conditions, plywood had the best performance when bonding strength was 1.33 MPa, total heat release was 16.3 MJm-2, and total smoke release was 149.80 m2m-2. [Ch, 4 fig. 4 tab. 8 ref.]
Building expert diagnosis system for bamboo pests based on Lucid multi-way identification
LI Juan1, ZHANG Xiaobin, XUE Jiao, HUANG Junhao, WU Hong
2016, 33(1): 122-129. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.017
[Abstract](2039) [PDF](607)
Bamboo is an economically important forest in subtropical China. With the further intensive bamboo management, bamboo pests have become increasingly serious, posing severe threat to the production and quality of the bamboo plantation. Research on bamboo pests has got a very good understanding of the pest species diagnosis, biology, and pests prevention and control. But bamboo farmers and grass-root agricultural technicians have little knowledge of pests and therefore they need experts to help with diagnosis and then they know how to control the pests. Lucid developed by Queensland University is a excellent software for linking the professional knowledge and technology application. The basic biological information of total 48 bamboo pests was collected via literature review and field investigation, including 12 species feeding on bamboo shoot, 23 species feeding on bamboo leaf and 13 species feeding on bamboo stem; 824 high-resolution pictures were taken or authorized. All the bamboo pests information was well organized in fact sheet fusion database. Moreover, in order to construct an expert diagnosis system by Lucid professional Ⅴ3.5 software, 6 characters including the damage period, the damage parts, preferred bamboo species, the way of damage, the damage symptoms and pest morphological characters, 74 derivative characters, 189 feature statuses and their typical photos were selected. The system provides multi-way retrieving by any familiar pest characters, helps the users for effective identification and diagnosis of bamboo pests, which is expected to provide useful information for effective control of bamboo pests and promote the healthy development of bamboo industry. [Ch, 4 fig. 1 tab. 29 ref.]
An analysis of determinants of natural resources dependence in the communities surrounding Qinling Giant Panda Protection Area
SONG Sha, LIU Qingbo, WEN Yali
2016, 33(1): 130-136. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.018
[Abstract](1549) [PDF](468)
The analysis of determinants of natural resources dependence in the communities surrounding the protection area is significant to reduce the local communities interference on biodiversity conservation. Data were collected in April and August of 2012. Tobit model, Logit model, and OLS model were established to estimate the communities residents income dependence on the natural resources; and Logit model was used to estimate the communities residents non-income dependence. The results indicated that non-agricultural employment was an important livelihood substitute strategy for the collection of commercial non-wood forest resources. When there were more abundant resources, the farmer households would have higher income dependence on resources. The altitude had a positive effect on the farmer households income dependence on resources; households economic conditions had no significant effect, but households debt had a positive effect. The estimation of farmer households non-income resources dependence model further testified the stability and the conclusions of income resource dependence model. [Ch, 4 tab. 17 ref.]
Vigor of old Pinus tabuliformis using the AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model
WANG Qiao, NIE Xin, SUN Dehao, WANG Huatian, MENG Xianpeng, CAO Guiping, LI Jian, HUANG Changbao
2016, 33(1): 137-146. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.019
[Abstract](2132) [PDF](435)
In response to concern for negative effects of air pollution and destroyed environment, a serious worry is now increasing in China. Monitoring forest health is important for the protection of plants. Old and famous trees are a natural human heritage. So, to scientifically and accurately assess the health status of old trees for better protection is necessary for managing the forest, fifteen old Pinus tabuliformis trees in Taishan were chosen, and an analytic hierarchy process AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was used. Fourteen indexes were studied in total including morphological index, growth index, physiological index, and deadwood states. Field investigations were took in the research along with laboratory experiments. Three of the fourteen indexes were studied in the laboratory including the content of chlorophyll, photosynthetic rate and cell membrane permeability. The rest were investigated in the outside. Results showed that all fifteen old P. tabuliformis trees had aging characteristics. Compared to healthy trees, two had low grade senescence with only slight decreases in indexes, higher chlorophyll content,photosynthetic rate and cell membrane permeability, luxuriant foliage, intact bark and several dead shoots. Six showed moderate senescence with an incomplete canopy, dead branches, and decreased photosynthetic capability. Four were unhealthy with sparse needles, a large number of dead main branches and limbs, and damaged cell membrane permeability. According to the vigor of old P. tabuliformis trees, a series of protection measures were put forward including pest control, setting the fences, spreading fertilizer, pruning. [Ch,1 fig. 13 tab. 30 ref.]
Plant distribution statistics based research on plant landscaping in main courtyards of the Grand View Garden
CHEN Danni, GU Cuihua, JI Mengcheng, ZHANG Song, LU Jinyi
2016, 33(1): 147-155. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.020
[Abstract](10785) [PDF](702)
There is not much systematic and explicit research on the plants in the novel A Dream of Red Mansions. The research examined the plants in the novel and selected 68 plants in the Grand View Garden. The plant landscaping in the Garden had 5 major features. Geographic information system (GIS) technology was introduced to conduct spatial orientation and visualization for the plants in the Grand View Garden. Four representative courtyards in the Grand View Garden including Yihong Court (Jia Baoyus residence), Xiaoxiang Court (Lin Daiyus residence), Hengwu Court (Xue Baochais residence) and Daoxiang Court (Li Wans residence) were chosen to show their plant landscape design in the form of GIS map. Such research can provide a reference for the modern garden plants landscaping. [Ch, 4 fig. 5 tab. 14 ref.]
Research advances in water vapor isotopic composition and its application in the hydrological research
WANG Fan, JIANG Hong, NIU Xiaodong
2016, 33(1): 156-165. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.021
[Abstract](3182) [PDF](701)
Stable isotope technique provides a great deal of valuable information for the research of the hydrologic cycle, which could also be extensively used in hydrology, aerology, ecology and other related fields. Recent development in absorption spectroscopy technology has made it possible to make in situ, continuous observations of the 18O and D of atmospheric water vapor. In this review, the study of water vapor isotope composition were described in detail from 5 aspects. Firstly, we summarized the calibration methods for in situ 18O and D measurements made by commercial water vapor isotope analyzers. Secondly, the pattern of water vapor isotope composition were explored. Thirdly, the pattern of deuterium-excess(d) was discussed. Fourthly, through surveying a considerable amount of the documents, we found that the plant transpiration dominated local evapotranspiration both in the forest and in the agricultural ecosystems in arid and semi-arid region. Fifthly, the 3 models of estimation of leaf water 18O enrichment were briefly introduced. As the measurement sites of water vapor isotopic composition are scarce, the establishment of the network and long-term observation will greatly benefit the research of ecological hydrologic cycle. Meanwhile, combining the measurement of water vapor isotopic composition with the observation of fluxes and remote sensing models, will further reveal the pattern and mechanism of water cycle at regional and global scale.[Ch, 1 tab. 81 ref.]
Scientific notes
EAG responses of Asian longhorn beetle Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to volatiles of hickory
DU Hefen, WANG Peixing, XU Huachao, ZHANG Weiwei, WANG Ziwei
2016, 33(1): 166-171. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.022
[Abstract](2248) [PDF](473)
To provide basic information for development of attractants and repellents of Anoplophora glabripennis, electroantennography (EAG) instrumentation was used to examine the EAG response of A. glabripennis adults to nine kinds of Carya cathayensis (hickory) volatiles, including: -pinene, -pinene, ocimene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-xylene, camphene, limonene, camphorand and so on, at five concentrations (10-1, 10-2, 10-3, 10-4, 10-5 molL-1). Significant differences (P<0.05) were present for the feeling strength of the antennae in relation to volatiles from female and male adults. For female adults -pinene elicited the highest EAG response(relative EAG values is about 17.4), for male adults EAG responses to limonene and ocimene were appresent(relative EAG values is about 13.4 and 7.3). In addition, EAG showed a response to different concentrations of volatile matter for tentacles, significantly different among different samples (P<0.05) by LSD method. This study will provide a theoretical foundation for research and development of attractants and repellents of A. glabripennis.[Ch, 2 tab. 19 ref.]
Particle board with soy protein-based adhesives
WU Zhigang, LEI Hong, DU Guanben, WANG Hui, XI Xuedong, CAO Ming, SHEN Gaoli, XIONG Wen
2016, 33(1): 172-176. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.023
[Abstract](2025) [PDF](564)
To improve the internal bonding strength and water resistance of particle board using a soy protein-based adhesive, soy protein was treated with alkali and urea; then phenol formaldehyde resin was added to produce a soy protein-based adhesive (SPF). The SPF adhesive was added to the particle board with and without a cross-linker and followed by copolymerization to study its mechanical properties and thickness swelling rate of water absorption. Analysis included Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Results indicated that adding the SPF adhesive with the cross-linker before copolymerization had better water resistance, which met the GB/T 9846.3-2004 standard for particle board structures in a humid environment (10.0%). With preshrinking phenol formaldehyde as a cross-linker, the internal bonding strength of the particle board met the standards used in furniture and interior decoration requirements (0.40 MPa). The FT-IR and DSC results showed that the cross-linker agent mainly reacted with primary amine. DSC results also showed a strong reaction between the cross-linker and the protein. It inferred that adding cross-linker before the copolymerization was very important, which could improve the internal cohesion of soy protein-based adhesive.[Ch, 2 fig. 1 tab. 9 ref.]
Tissue culture and rapid propagation for stems of Cinnamomum camphora
YE Runyan, TONG Zaikang, ZHANG Junhong, ZHU Yuqiu
2016, 33(1): 177-182. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.01.024
[Abstract](1996) [PDF](490)
To study the effect of naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine 6-BA on the induction and multiplication of multiple shoots for Cinnamomum camphora during the process of primary culture and subculture, stems with axillary buds which sprouted at the beginning of spring were used as explants. To select the optimum medium for subculture, an orthogonal experiment was designed, and an extreme difference analysis and variance analysis (ANOVA) was used. Results showed that the optimal medium for inducing axillary buds was Murashige and Skoog (MS) + 1.00 mgL-1 6-BA + (0.01-0.10 mgL-1) NAA. The orthogonal experiment and ANOVA showed that the best medium for formation of multiple shoots was MS + 1.00 mgL-1 6-BA + 0.10 mgL-1 NAA, and the optimum medium for proliferation of multiple shoots was MS + 0.50-1.00 mg L-1 6-BA. After the aseptic seedling was transferred to the optimum rooting medium (1/2MS + 1.50 mg L-1 NAA), the rooting rate reached above 90%. After 15-20 d of hardening, seedlings were transplanted to a mixed matrix with equal vermiculite and peat where the survival rate was greater than 95%. Thus, an efficient breeding technology for C. camphora was studied laying a technical foundation for industrialization of improved varieties. [Ch, 2 fig. 5 tab. 13 ref.]