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HAO Qichun, XIE Jiquan, DAI Wensheng, LI Keyu, YU Chenliang, YU Weiwu. Effect of foliar fertilization on seed quality of Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’ during seed filling period[J]. Journal of Zhejiang A&F University. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.20230194
Citation: HAO Qichun, XIE Jiquan, DAI Wensheng, LI Keyu, YU Chenliang, YU Weiwu. Effect of foliar fertilization on seed quality of Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’ during seed filling period[J]. Journal of Zhejiang A&F University. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.20230194

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Effect of foliar fertilization on seed quality of Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’ during seed filling period

doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.20230194
  • Received Date: 2023-03-04
  • Accepted Date: 2023-08-07
  • Rev Recd Date: 2023-07-30
  •   Objective  This study aims to explore aspects of Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’ seeds, including appearance, nutritional quality, element content, flower bud differentiation, and expansion and fruit setting, so as to provide a theoretical basis for supplementing tree nutrition and improving seed quality.   Method  During the seed filling period of T. grandis ‘Merrillii’ from June to August, the seeds were treated with water as a control and sprayed with 7 commercial foliar fertilizers (amino acid water-soluble fertilizer, fulvic acid water-soluble fertilizer, active potassium water-soluble fertilizer, high-strength calcium water-soluble fertilizer, liquid boron water-soluble fertilizer, trace element water-soluble fertilizer, and macro-element water-soluble fertilizer). Physiological indicators of seeds in terms of seed morphology, oil content and fatty acid composition, crude protein content, starch content, soluble sugar content, and flowering intensity were measured and their effects on seed quality were analyzed.   Result  Spraying amino acid water-soluble fertilizer and macro-element water-soluble fertilizer significantly increased (P<0.05) the kernel shape index, single kernel mass, nucleation rate, kernel type index, and single kernel mass of seeds, as well as oil content, soluble sugar content, and flowering intensity, and significantly reduced starch content. Among them, the single kernel mass of seeds treated with amino acid water-soluble fertilizer increased by 9.8% compared with the control, while the starch content decreased by 1.9%. The single kernel mass, oil content, and soluble sugar content of seeds treated with macro-element water-soluble fertilizer increased by 9.5%, 11.9%, and 15.9%, respectively, compared with the control. At the same time, spraying amino acid water-soluble fertilizer significantly promoted (P<0.05) the content of taxoleic acid in seeds, which increased by 15.9% compared with the control, while spraying macro-element water-soluble fertilizer significantly (P<0.05) increased the content of unsaturated fatty acids in seeds by 4.2% compared with the control. In addition, high-strength calcium water-soluble fertilizer had a significant promoting effect (P<0.05) on the increase of kernel yield, flowering intensity, and fruit setting rate, which were 3.3%, 17.1%, and 10.9% higher than the control. The active potassium water-soluble fertilizer significantly increased the protein content of seeds by 13.6% compared with the control. Principal component analysis showed that the comprehensive quality score of seeds treated with amino acid water-soluble fertilizer was the highest.   Conclusion  The amino acid water-soluble fertilizer treatment has the best effect, followed by high-strength calcium water-soluble fertilizer and macro-element water-soluble fertilizer. [Ch. 3 fig. 5 tab. 29 ref.]
  • [1] HE Ciying, LOU Heqiang, WU Jiasheng.  Research progress on synthesis and regulation mechanism of Torreya grandis‘Merrillii’ kernel oil . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University, doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.20230224
    [2] YANG Lei, ZHAO Di, HU Yuanyuan, SUO Jinwei, YU Weiwu, WU Jiasheng, LOU Heqiang, SONG Lili.  Comparative analysis of aroma components and oil quality of Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’ nuts with different processing techniques . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University, doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.20210304
    [3] YE Shuyuan, ZENG Yanru, HU Yuanyuan, LONG Wei, WANG Sheping, YU Weiwu.  Relationship between character changing and seed-bearing capacity of initial seed-bearing mother shoots in Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’ . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University, doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.20200622
    [4] WANG Guifang, SUO Jinwei, WANG Zhe, CHENG Hao, HU Yuanyuan, ZHANG Kewei, WU Jiasheng.  Sucrose metabolism and gene expression during seed expansion of Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’ . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University, doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.20210593
    [5] QIAN Yuting, XUE Xiaofeng, ZENG Yanru, CHEN Wenchong, YE Xiaoming, YU Weiwu, DAI Wensheng.  Leaf structure and chlorophyll content in Torreya grandis 'Merrillii' with Nalepella abiesis infestation . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University, doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2020.02.014
    [6] YE Xiaoming, QIAN Yuting, YE Wen, SHEN Huangying, ZENG Yanru, YU Weiwu, DAI Wensheng.  Biological characteristics and species identification of Chlorella sp. with Torreya grandis 'Merrillii' . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University, doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2019.04.001
    [7] GU Hongxia, YE Wen, QIAN Yuting, YE Xiaoming, DAI Wensheng.  Micrografting methods with Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’ . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University, doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2018.01.025
    [8] JIN Houding, YU Weiwu, ZENG Yanru, XIANG Meiyun, DAI Wensheng, DANG Wanyu.  Cutting-based propagation in Torreya grandis 'Merrillii' . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University, doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2017.01.025
    [9] ZENG Songwei, YU Weiwu, JI Changying, YE Bangxuan, XIAO Qinglai.  A peeling machine for Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’ nuts . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University, doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2015.01.020
    [10] YAO Jin, HUANG Jianqin, HU Hengkang, QIU Linyan, ZHU Minhua, ZHANG Qixiang.  Somatic embryogenesis of Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’ . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University, doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.01.019
    [11] WU Lianhai, WU Liming, NI Rongxin, YAN Fuhua.  Economic benefits of Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’ plantings . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University, doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2013.02.023
    [12] WANG Xiao-ming, WANG Ke, QIN Sui-chu, JIANG Yu-gen.  Review of research on favorable environmental factors of Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’ . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University,
    [13] DAI Wen-sheng, LI Zhang-ju, CHENG Xiao-jian, YU Wei-wu, FU Qing-gong.  Soil nutrients in Torreya grandis `Merrillii' plantation . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University,
    [14] DAI Wen-sheng, LI Zhang-ju, CHENG Xiao-jian, YU Wei-wu, FU Qing-gong.  Mineral elements in Torreya grandis 'Merrillii' seeds and their forest soils . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University,
    [15] DAI Wen-sheng, LI Zhang-ju, CHENG Xiao-jian, YU Wei-wu, FU Qing-gong, CHEN Qin-juan.  Development future and strategies of production of Torreya grandis 'Merrillii' in Hangzhou . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University,
    [16] LI Zhang-ju, LUO Cheng-fang, CHEN Xiao-jian, FENG Xiao-jun, YU Wei-wu.  Component analysis and nutrition evaluation of seeds of Torreya grandis 'Merrillii' . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University,
    [17] LI Zhang-ju, CHENGXiao-jian, DAI Wen-sheng, JING Bao-hua, WANG An-guo.  History and status and development of Torreya grandis in Zhejiang Province . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University,
    [18] MENG Hong-fei, JIN Guo-long, WENG Zhong-yuan.  Investigation on resource of ancient Torreya grandis trees in Zhuji City , China . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University,
    [19] GUO Wei-hua.  Torreya grandis :mechanism of fruit drop and measures of preventing fruit drop . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University,
    [20] Ni Deliang, Xu Jianping, Ouyang Zhong, Zou Yulin, Ren Qinliang.  Development and Application of WiId Young Trees of Torreya grandis . Journal of Zhejiang A&F University,
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Effect of foliar fertilization on seed quality of Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’ during seed filling period

doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.20230194

Abstract:   Objective  This study aims to explore aspects of Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’ seeds, including appearance, nutritional quality, element content, flower bud differentiation, and expansion and fruit setting, so as to provide a theoretical basis for supplementing tree nutrition and improving seed quality.   Method  During the seed filling period of T. grandis ‘Merrillii’ from June to August, the seeds were treated with water as a control and sprayed with 7 commercial foliar fertilizers (amino acid water-soluble fertilizer, fulvic acid water-soluble fertilizer, active potassium water-soluble fertilizer, high-strength calcium water-soluble fertilizer, liquid boron water-soluble fertilizer, trace element water-soluble fertilizer, and macro-element water-soluble fertilizer). Physiological indicators of seeds in terms of seed morphology, oil content and fatty acid composition, crude protein content, starch content, soluble sugar content, and flowering intensity were measured and their effects on seed quality were analyzed.   Result  Spraying amino acid water-soluble fertilizer and macro-element water-soluble fertilizer significantly increased (P<0.05) the kernel shape index, single kernel mass, nucleation rate, kernel type index, and single kernel mass of seeds, as well as oil content, soluble sugar content, and flowering intensity, and significantly reduced starch content. Among them, the single kernel mass of seeds treated with amino acid water-soluble fertilizer increased by 9.8% compared with the control, while the starch content decreased by 1.9%. The single kernel mass, oil content, and soluble sugar content of seeds treated with macro-element water-soluble fertilizer increased by 9.5%, 11.9%, and 15.9%, respectively, compared with the control. At the same time, spraying amino acid water-soluble fertilizer significantly promoted (P<0.05) the content of taxoleic acid in seeds, which increased by 15.9% compared with the control, while spraying macro-element water-soluble fertilizer significantly (P<0.05) increased the content of unsaturated fatty acids in seeds by 4.2% compared with the control. In addition, high-strength calcium water-soluble fertilizer had a significant promoting effect (P<0.05) on the increase of kernel yield, flowering intensity, and fruit setting rate, which were 3.3%, 17.1%, and 10.9% higher than the control. The active potassium water-soluble fertilizer significantly increased the protein content of seeds by 13.6% compared with the control. Principal component analysis showed that the comprehensive quality score of seeds treated with amino acid water-soluble fertilizer was the highest.   Conclusion  The amino acid water-soluble fertilizer treatment has the best effect, followed by high-strength calcium water-soluble fertilizer and macro-element water-soluble fertilizer. [Ch. 3 fig. 5 tab. 29 ref.]

HAO Qichun, XIE Jiquan, DAI Wensheng, LI Keyu, YU Chenliang, YU Weiwu. Effect of foliar fertilization on seed quality of Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’ during seed filling period[J]. Journal of Zhejiang A&F University. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.20230194
Citation: HAO Qichun, XIE Jiquan, DAI Wensheng, LI Keyu, YU Chenliang, YU Weiwu. Effect of foliar fertilization on seed quality of Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’ during seed filling period[J]. Journal of Zhejiang A&F University. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.20230194
  • 香榧Torreya grandis ‘Merrillii’是榧树Torreya grandis中的优良变异经人工选育的优良品种[1],是中国特有的珍贵经济干果树种[2]。随着人们生活水平的提高,以香榧为代表的健康休闲类坚果消费需求不断增加,市场不断扩大[3]。近年来,浙江省香榧产业发展迅速,平均每年增长面积达3 127 hm2,10余年来种植面积增长了140%[4]。但当前的香榧林地种植模式较为粗犷,在长期的栽培、繁育过程中,存在较多问题。如为了提高产量,大量施肥,施肥结构不合理,导致环境受到污染[5];林区土壤养分受人为活动影响明显,人工成本高,香榧吸收土壤养分所需时间长[6];通过栽培措施,香榧产量有所增多,但种实品质下降,树体的生长也受到影响[7]。每年6—9月是香榧的种实充实期,种实体积无明显变化,光合作用的产物主要用于种仁发育和内部物质积累[8]。生产上为了避免引起“反青”现象,在香榧种实充实期不施用肥料,但是,在实践中发现不及时补充营养元素会对香榧树体后期生长以及香榧种实的品质产生影响。为提高香榧种实品质,在保证相对一致的生产管理条件下,本研究以香榧种实充实期补肥作为切入点,对香榧种实的外观性状以及营养品质开展研究。研究结果可为筛选优良商品叶面肥,提高香榧种实品质提供理论和生产依据。

    • 试验区位于浙江省杭州市临安区畈龙村香榧基地(31°19′46′′N,120°43′27′′E),亚热带季风气候,气候总体特征为四季分明,空气湿润,雨量丰沛,光照充足。年平均气温为17.1 ℃,极端最高气温为39.4 ℃,极端最低气温为−10.4 ℃,年平均降水量为1706.5 mm,年平均相对湿度为80%,年平均风速为1.6 m·s−1。试验样地0~20 cm土壤中全氮、全磷和全钾的质量分数分别为1.96、0.96、9.95 g·kg−1。样地香榧年产量约为350 kg,每年施肥以复合肥和猪粪为主。

    • 选取香榧基地内立地条件、株高、结实量基本一致的40株15年生香榧为研究对象,在香榧种实充实期(2021年6—8月)喷施叶面肥。设置清水对照 (ck),氨基酸水溶肥 (处理A,活性氨基酸100.0 g·L−1、有机质130.0 g·L−1、锌15.0 g·L−1、硼5.0 g·L−1),黄腐酸水溶肥 (处理F,黄腐酸 500.0 g·kg−1、腐殖酸700.0 g·kg−1、有机质750.0 g·kg−1、氧化钾120.0 g·kg−1),活力钾水溶肥 (处理K,钾400.0 g·kg−1、氮110.0 g·kg−1、磷 40.0 g·kg−1、镁20.0 g·kg−1、硼2.5 g·kg−1、锌1.5 g·kg−1),高力钙水溶肥 (处理CA,钙195.0 g·L−1、硼+锌+铁10.0 g·L−1、镁5.0 g·L−1),液体硼水溶肥 (处理B,硼150.0 g·L−1、锌1.0 g·L−1),微量元素水溶肥 (处理W,铁75.0 g·kg−1、锌30.0 g·kg−1、硼20.0 g·kg−1、镁12.0 g·kg−1、锰12.0 g·kg−1、铜2.0 g·kg−1、钼+钴1.0 g·kg−1),大量元素水溶肥 (处理D,氮250.0 g·kg−1、磷80.0 g·kg−1、钾200.0 g·kg−1、硼+锌4.0 g·kg−1) 8个处理,稀释1 000倍施用,隔20 d喷1次,连续喷施3次,每个处理喷施5株;选择天气晴朗的10:00前或17:00后完成喷施,以叶片和果面滴水为度。叶面肥购于深圳市杜高生物新技术有限公司。

    • 于2021年9月中上旬香榧种实开裂后,分别在每株样树的东西南北4个方向随机采集成熟香榧鲜种实60颗,置于干冰中带回实验室,置于−40 ℃冰箱保存。测完种实表型后将其置于阴凉通风处,等待假种皮自然开裂,用于后续研究。测定内容包括种核纵径、种核横径、核形指数(种核纵径/种核横径)、单核质量、出核率、种仁纵径、种仁横径、仁形指数(种仁纵径/种仁横径)、单仁质量、出仁率及种仁油脂质量分数、蛋白质质量分数、淀粉质量分数、可溶性糖质量分数、脂肪酸组成、矿质元素质量分数共16个种实性状指标[9]。翌年3—5月统计成花强度、膨大率和坐果率。

    • 用精度为0.01 cm的电子游标卡尺测量种核和种仁的纵横径;用万分之一电子天平测量单核质量和单仁质量。

    • 油脂质量分数参照GB/T 14772—2008《食品中粗脂肪的测定》测定;蛋白质质量分数用凯氏定氮法测定;淀粉和可溶性糖质量分数参照蒽酮比色法测定;脂肪酸组分根据GB 5009.168—2016《食品中脂肪酸的测定》测定,将提出的油进行甲酯化,采用峰面积归一化法测定脂肪酸相对含量。

    • 用硫酸-过氧化氢(H2SO4-H2O2)联合消煮法消煮待测样品,氮和磷质量分数采用凯氏定氮法和钼锑抗比色法测定;用硝酸-过氧化氢(HNO3-H2O2)联合消煮法消煮待测样品,钾、铜、锌、铁、锰、钙、镁的质量分数采用ICPA-PRO电感耦合等离子体质谱仪测定。

    • 于2022年5月统计每株样树上部、中部、下部共20根1年生枝的花芽及叶芽的数量,并计算成花强度=(花芽数量/总芽数量)×100%。

    • 于2022年3月统计每株样树上10根枝条的第2代果实数量,从5月开始隔5~10 d统计1次种实数量,直到7月初共统计6次。膨大率=(每次膨大种实数量/ 3月种实数量)×100%,坐果率=(每次种实数量/ 3月种实数量)×100%。

    • 所有数据均测定3个以上生物学重复,取平均值。利用Excel 2022和SPSS 25.0进行数据整理与统计分析,利用单因素方差分析比较不同叶面肥处理下香榧种实之间存在的差异,运用最小显著性差异法进行多重比较,使用主成分分析法对香榧种实品质进行综合评价,采用Graph Pad Prism制图。

    • 表1可知:处理A和处理F对于香榧种实的核形指数、单核质量、单仁质量较对照均有显著(P<0.05)提高;处理D的单仁质量较对照显著(P<0.05)增加了9.5%;处理CA对于香榧种实出仁率的影响比其他叶面肥显示出更大的优势,比对照增加了3.3%。

      处理核形指数单核质量/g出核率/%仁形指数单仁质量/g出仁率/%
      ck 1.844±0.071 b 1.833±0.257 b 20.027±0.647 ab 2.228±0.086 ab 1.209±0.071 b 66.009±0.345 c
      A2.001±0.093 a2.013±0.207 a21.720±0.944 a2.233±0.144 a1.357±0.099 a67.742±0.651 b
      F1.979±0.042 a1.993±0.105 a18.923±0.211 bc2.225±0.053 ab1.333±0.056 a66.864±0.993 bc
      K1.927±0.040 ab1.904±0.107 ab19.386±0.828 bc2.179±0.056 ab1.296±0.074 ab67.184±0.804 b
      B1.961±0.105 ab1.952±0.277 ab18.059±0.724 c2.192±0.125 ab1.291±0.198 ab66.947±0.947 bc
      CA1.962±0.072 ab1.939±0.083 ab19.520±0.864 b2.231±0.088 a1.321±0.057 ab68.197±0.218 a
      W1.936±0.083 ab1.906±0.152 ab21.403±0.455 a2.070±0.093 b1.276±0.104 ab66.981±0.645 bc
      D1.944±0.035 ab1.970±0.065 ab19.952±0.614 b2.190±0.038 ab1.324±0.047 a67.230±0.932 b
        说明:数据为均值±标准差。同一列的不同小写字母表示不同处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。

      Table 1.  Comparison of morphological indexes under different foliar fertilizer treatments of seeds in T. grandis‘Merrillii’

    • 图1可知:处理D、处理A、处理K的香榧种实油脂质量分数分别为53.202%、53.003%和52.151%,比对照分别增加了12.3%、11.9%和10.1%;处理K的香榧种实的蛋白质质量分数为24.937%,比对照增加了13.6%,同时处理B和处理A的香榧种实蛋白质质量分数分别为23.615%和23.362%,较对照分别显著(P<0.05)增加了7.6%和6.4%;处理A、处理K和对照间的香榧种实淀粉质量分数无显著差异,但显著(P<0.05)低于其他处理,最低的是处理A ,为5.467%,低于对照1.9%;处理A和处理D对香榧种实可溶性糖质量分数产生显著(P<0.05)促进作用,分别为4.257%和4.530%,与对照相比分别增加8.9%和15.9%。

      Figure 1.  Multiple comparison of seed quality of T. grandis‘Merrillii’with different foliar fertilizer treatments

    • 表2可知:香榧种实中所含脂肪酸多为硬脂酸、棕榈酸、油酸、亚油酸、亚麻酸、花生一烯酸、花生二烯酸、金松酸这8种脂肪酸,其中不饱和脂肪酸(油酸、亚油酸、亚麻酸、花生一烯酸、花生二烯酸、金松酸)的相对含量远远高于饱和脂肪酸(硬脂酸、棕榈酸)。脂肪酸中亚油酸的相对含量最高(39.512%~43.9%),其次是油酸(35.254%~38.172%)、金松酸(7.591%~8.797%)、棕榈酸(6.706%~8.985%),亚麻酸相对含量最低,为0.279%~0.330%,可见香榧种实中的不饱和脂肪酸主要是亚油酸和油酸。

      处理相对含量/%
      棕榈酸硬脂酸油酸亚油酸亚麻酸
      ck 8.985±0.106 g 3.528±0.107 e 38.172±3.327 a 39.512±2.915 d 0.279±0.008 d
      A8.451±0.115 e2.927±0.127 d35.254±2.426 e42.364±2.700 b0.291±0.013 cd
      F7.965±0.222 d2.297±0.019 ab36.658±2.457 bc42.412±2.858 b0.287±0.009 d
      K8.627±0.323 f3.147±0.237 d37.246±2.431 b40.570±3.552 c0.330±0.016 a
      B6.822±0.413 b2.505±0.214 bc36.848±1.673 bc42.973±2.907 b0.301±0.014 bc
      CA7.045±0.375 c2.622±0.327 c36.910±1.781 bc42.606±3.682 b0.301±0.017 bc
      W6.897±0.408 b2.397±0.112 bc35.862±1.535 de43.950±3.648 a0.303±0.022 bc
      D6.706±0.636 a2.158±0.313 a36.479±2.298 cd43.974±3.358 a0.307±0.025 b
      处理相对含量/%
      花生一烯酸花生二烯酸金松酸饱和脂肪酸不饱和脂肪酸
      ck0.452±0.021 b1.480±0.130 b7.591±0.868 e12.513±2.303 g87.487±5.826 g
      A0.472±0.057 b1.446±0.110 b8.797±0.334 a11.377±2.341 e88.623±6.141 e
      F0.476±0.043 b1.462±0.115 b8.442±0.503 bc10.262±2.309 d89.738±7.509 d
      K0.543±0.045 a1.478±0.186 b8.060±1.046 d11.774±2.558 f88.226±6.007 f
      B0.496±0.044 ab1.543±0.093 b8.513±1.034 bc9.327±1.628 b90.673±7.933 b
      CA0.453±0.062 b1.721±0.080 a8.342±0.987 c9.666±1.703 c90.334±8.103 c
      W0.444±0.012 b1.528±0.096 b8.619±0.923 ab9.294±1.522 b90.706±7.841 b
      D0.457±0.030 b1.592±0.142 ab8.328±0.720 c8.864±0.950 a91.136±8.058 a
        说明:数据为均值±标准差。同列的不同小写字母表示不同处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。

      Table 2.  Composition and contents and fatty acid under different foliar fertilizer treatments of seeds in T. grandis‘Merrillii’

      棕榈酸、硬脂酸和油酸相对含量在对照中最高。棕榈酸和硬脂酸相对含量在处理B和处理W间无显著差异,但它们与其他处理间差异显著(P<0.05),处理D相对含量最低;油酸相对含量在处理F、处理B、处理CA处理间无显著差异,但它们与其他处理间差异显著(P<0.05),处理A相对含量最低;亚油酸相对含量在处理W、处理D间无显著差异,但显著(P<0.05)高于其他处理;亚麻酸和花生一烯酸相对含量在处理K中显著(P<0.05)高于其他处理,其他处理之间无显著差异;处理A的亚麻酸相对含量显著(P<0.05)高于其他处理,其他处理之间无显著差异;金松酸相对含量最高的是处理A,最低的是对照处理。饱和脂肪酸相对含量最低,不饱和脂肪酸相对含量最高的是处理D。从不饱和脂肪酸相对含量来讲,处理D、处理W、处理B、处理CA处理优于其他处理,尽管各脂肪酸成分不同。

    • 香榧种仁中含有丰富的营养元素。从表3可以看出:氮元素质量分数为51.050~54.645 g·kg−1,镁元素质量分数为4.595~5.188 g·kg−1,铁元素质量分数为45.718~68.594 mg·kg−1。氮、镁、铁元素质量分数最高的均为处理A的香榧种仁,比对照分别增加了6.9%、11.6%、5.8%。铜元素质量分数为17.874~22.911 mg·kg−1,锰元素质量分数为27.497~35.295 mg·kg−1,铜、锰质量分数最高的均为处理F的香榧种仁,比对照分别增加了3.9%、28.3%。磷元素质量分数为6.139~6.728 g·kg−1,钙元素质量分数0.706~0.879 g·kg−1,磷和钙质量分数最高的均为处理CA的香榧种仁,比对照分别增加了9.6%和14.0%。

      处理氮/(g·kg−1)磷/(g·kg−1)钾/(g·kg−1)钙/(g·kg−1)镁/(g·kg−1)铜/(mg·kg−1)
      ck 51.108±3.197 d 6.139±0.084 f 12.118±0.523 bcd 0.771±0.083 cd 4.649±0.123 bc 22.055±2.148 b
      A54.645±2.105 a6.463±0.370 c11.704±1.638 cd0.849±0.089 ab5.188±0.319 a19.630±1.800 c
      F52.135±2.729 c6.393±0.251 d12.078±1.442 cd0.706±0.096 e4.886±0.324 abc22.911±0.469 a
      K53.531±1.831 b6.437±0.281 c11.631±1.354 d0.799±0.032 cd4.937±0.528 ab19.363±1.644 c
      B52.328±2.384 c6.454±0.121 c13.006±0.295 a0.755±0.107 d4.595±0.381 c22.114±1.521 b
      CA53.362±1.259 b6.728±0.287 a12.677±0.556 ab0.879±0.074 a5.047±0.276 a18.645±1.501 d
      W51.050±0.650 d6.231±0.269 e12.215±1.537 bc0.814±0.053 bc4.662±0.327 bc17.874±2.282 e
      D52.044±3.550 c6.647±0.225 b12.102±0.511 bcd0.846±0.092 ab5.037±0.255 a22.053±2.801 b

      Table 3.  The element contents of kernel under different foliar fertilizer treatments in T.grandis‘Merrillii’

      处理锌/(mg·kg−1)铁/(mg·kg−1)锰/(mg·kg−1)大量元素/(g·kg−1)微量元素/(mg·kg−1)
      ck 66.105±5.100 e 64.822±6.952 a 27.502±4.345 f 74.894±4.101 d 181.484±9.545 a
      A68.349±6.403 b68.594±6.443 a30.355±5.294 cd78.854±4.521 a186.803±11.940 a
      F66.848±6.474 d57.447±2.518 bc35.295±5.500 a76.198±4.941 c182.501±8.961 b
      K69.018±2.521 ab48.187±4.199 de32.720±1.890 b77.328±4.126 b169.288±9.254d
      B63.794±5.787 f61.254±6.337 b30.903±4.788 c77.138±3.287 b178.065±10.432 c
      CA67.500±4.953 c45.718±1.005 e30.140±2.407 d78.586±2.460 a162.003±8.865 f
      W66.510±5.612 de52.337±6.876 cd27.497±1.880 f74.973±2.936 d164.218±9.650 f
      D70.271±5.607 a58.194±2.229 bc29.113±3.293 e76.675±4.634 c179.412±7.930 c
        说明:数据为均值±标准差。同一列的不同小写字母表示不同处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。
    • 图2所示:处理A、处理F、处理CA、处理D对于花芽比例的提升均有一定作用,且差异显著(P<0.05),其中处理A的成花强度(47.415%)和处理CA的成花强度(47.058%)显著(P<0.05)高于其他处理,较对照分别提高了18.0%和17.1%;次之为处理D的成花强度(44.805%±3.549%)和处理F的成花强度(44.258%±1.375%),较对照分别提高11.5%和10.1%;处理W的成花强度(37.680%±2.332%)最低,比对照减少6.2%。

      Figure 2.  Flowering intensity of T. grandis‘Merrillii’seeds in the next year

    • 图3可以看出:5月13—19日香榧种实的膨大率在波动中呈上升趋势,5月19—23日处理B膨大率仍在继续上升,而其他处理则开始下降;5月23日至6月13日对照和处理K的膨大率先上升后下降,而其他处理则持续下降,在7月1日左右趋于平稳,其中处理CA的下降趋势较其他处理较为平缓。

      Figure 3.  Expansion and fruit-setting rates under different foliar fertilizer treatments of seeds in T. grandis‘Merrillii’

      对香榧种实7月坐果率进行多重比较分析发现:处理A 的坐果率(15.625%)显著(P<0.05)高于其他处理,比对照增加了23.4%,其次是处理CA(14.037%)和处理B (13.507%),比对照分别提高了10.9%和6.7%;最低的是处理F(4.831%),低于对照61.8%。

    • 表4可知:15项指标经主成分分析后提取出5个主成分,特征值均大于1.000,累计方差贡献率为91.701%,说明前5个主成分所含有原本15项指标91.701%的信息。根据主成分分析结果对影响香榧种实品质的各方面因素进行综合评价,利用公式计算综合得分(F):F=0.3892F1+0.2184F2+ 0.1410F3+0.1025F4+0.0660F5,综合主成分F值越高,综合品质表现越好。由表5可见:处理A的综合评分最高,说明喷施氨基酸肥可有效改善香榧种实的品质。此外,处理CA、处理D的香榧种实品质的也受到显著影响,说明钙肥和大量元素肥也可有效改善香榧种实的品质。

      指标主成分指标主成分
      F1F2F3F4F5F1F2F3F4F5
      核形指数 0.911 −0.235 −0.182 0.111 −0.231 可溶性糖质量分数 −0.141 0.204 0.847 0.310 −0.101
      单核质量 0.871 −0.109 −0.196 0.358 −0.236 不饱和脂肪酸相对含量 0.364 −0.729 −0.217 0.074 0.298
      出核率 0.084 −0.156 0.736 0.409 0.082 金松酸相对含量 0.744 −0.482 0.029 0.218 −0.203
      仁形指数 0.292 0.851 −0.367 0.133 0.142 大量元素质量分数 0.893 0.352 0.065 −0.260 0.063
      单仁质量 0.947 −0.119 −0.083 0.154 −0.163 微量元素质量分数 −0.174 0.623 −0.059 0.685 −0.284
      出仁率 0.894 −0.105 0.114 −0.265 0.284 成花强度 0.844 0.442 −0.152 0.085 0.182
      油脂质量分数 0.661 0.093 0.618 −0.090 0.094 坐果率 0.314 0.561 0.356 −0.039 0.429
      蛋白质质量分数 0.234 0.014 0.403 −0.671 −0.556 特征值 6.227 3.494 2.256 1.640 1.055
      淀粉质量分数 −0.125 −0.904 0.148 0.257 0.228 累计贡献率 38.918 60.753 74.855 85.104 91.701

      Table 4.  Load matrix of principal component factor

      处理F1F2F3F4F5F排名
      ck −4.803 2.456 0.201 0.604 0.601 −1.203 7
      A8.5321.6611.5991.234−0.5843.9971
      F0.614−0.514−2.8291.056−0.914−0.2245
      K−0.9090.6241.029−2.176−1.250−0.3786
      B0.5010.089−1.156−0.694−0.455−0.0504
      CA5.5310.188−0.857−1.3461.8952.0602
      W−4.334−3.8061.1520.1300.008−2.3418
      D2.052−0.6980.8621.1910.6990.9363

      Table 5.  Comprehensive evaluation of T. grandis‘Merrillii’seeds after spraying foliar fertilizer

    • 叶面施肥在现代农业中发挥着重要作用,可以改善植物因土壤肥吸收不足而缺乏营养的状况,从而提高肥料的利用效率,但叶面施肥对果实品质的影响存在差异[10]。唐岩等[11]对苹果Malus pumila的研究发现:喷施叶面肥能显著增加苹果果实可溶性固形物和挥发性物质的种类和质量分数,降低可滴定酸。李秋利等[12]研究发现:叶面喷施山梨醇和蔗糖促进了桃Prunus persica果实着色,增加果实可溶性固形物,有利于整体提升桃果实品质。刘松忠等[13]研究发现:对叶片喷施氨基酸肥可显著提高黄金梨Pyrus pyrifolia ‘Hwangkumbae’果实的总糖、蔗糖、果糖和葡萄糖质量分数,降低总酸及苹果酸、酒石酸质量分数。

      香榧种实油脂、蛋白质、淀粉、可溶性糖质量分数以及脂肪酸组成是影响香榧种实品质的重要指标。香榧中蛋白质、油脂质量分数越高,淀粉质量分数越低,香榧种实的口感就会越细腻香脆[14]。叶面喷施适量的氨基酸肥对香榧种实的核形指数、单核质量等有显著的促进效果,且在7种处理中效果最为显著;对于油脂、蛋白质、可溶性糖质量分数的增加和淀粉质量分数的减少也有显著作用。这可能是叶面肥的喷施使得枝叶角质层所含的羟基与氨基酸产生强亲和性[15],将叶片角质层软化渗入营养元素,补充香榧种实在充实期生长发育所需要的营养成分,改善种实品质,促进树体生长发育[16]。同样,叶面追肥时施用氨基酸水溶肥也会有效提高玉米Zea mays[17]、小白菜Brassica campestris[18]、棉花Gossypium hirsutum[19]等的生长指标,增强叶片的光合作用和养分转化,从而实现增产增收。

      钙是细胞壁的重要组成部分,同时也是细胞膜的保护剂,可以增强膜结构的稳定性[20]。此外,钙离子作为植物细胞内的第二信使具有调节细胞内部多种生理活动的功能[21]。有研究表明:叶面喷施钙肥可以快速为植物补充钙素,能有效提高作物坐果率、产量与品质,防止裂果并延长果实的储藏期[2223]。叶面喷施糖醇螯合钙肥不仅显著增加了香榧种实的仁形指数和出仁率,增加花生二烯酸的合成,提高香榧种实内磷元素和镁元素的质量分数,还能促进翌年树体的花芽分化,为开花结实提供更多养分,显著增加膨大率和坐果率,促进香榧幼果的快速膨大,减少僵果、落果,增加产量。该结果与叶面施钙在辣椒Capsicum annuum[2425]、荔枝Litchi chinensis[26]和苹果[27]等水果中的应用效果一致。

      大量元素水溶肥能明显提高香榧种实的单仁质量、油脂质量分数和可溶性糖质量分数,对其他特性也有显著影响。可能是由于本研究使用的大量元素水溶肥除基本的氮、磷、钾元素外还含有硼、锌元素,具备比较均衡全面的养分,这些元素具有不同的生理功能并进行相互作用,促进树体生长发育。其中硼元素促进植物体内碳水化合物的合成、运输和代谢,显著增加果实的单果质量,有效减少果实机械损伤[28];锌元素作为各种酶类(超氧化物歧化酶、乙醇脱氢酶、碳酸酐酶、RNA 聚合酶等)的成分或活化剂,可激活光合作用中与碳代谢有关的多种酶,使之向蔗糖合成途径转移[29]

    • 从本研究结果可知:处理A的综合评分最高,说明喷施氨基酸肥可有效改善香榧种实的品质;此外,大量元素水溶肥对于香榧种实品质的提升有显著的影响,钙肥可以显著影响香榧树体花芽分化、膨大坐果。在生产实践中应根据果树的生长状况进行复合施肥,将叶面肥混合使用,效果可能更佳。

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