2009 Vol. 26, No. 6

Kinetic and combustion properties from a combustion reaction of bamboo strips soaked by fire-retardant material
FU Shen-yuan, CHENG Shu-na, ZHAO Guang-jie, GAO Jian-rong, HU Biao, LUAN Fu-you
2009, 26(6): 767-773.
[Abstract](3621) [PDF](291)
The combustion behavior of bamboo strips with four treatments:(1) soaked by melamine-phenol-formaldehyde(MPF) resin and(NH4)2HPO4,(2) by phenol-formaldehyde(PF)resin,and(NH4)2HPO4,(3) by MPF resin,and (4) by PF resin,at four temperatures (610,681,735,and 796 °C) was studied using a cone calorimeter. When the bamboo strip material was in the combustion process a chemical dynamic method was used to establish the mass loss rate and time for a dynamic model. The mass loss rate,total heat release,rate of heat release,total smoke released,carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide emissions,combustion behavior,and the activation energy(Eα) of the combustion reaction were all analyzed and compared. Results showed that when the mass loss rate of the bamboo strip was greater than 60%,there was an inflection point in the combustion curve. Also, (NH4)2HPO4 improved fire retardant properties of the bamboo strip. When the combustion temperature was 735 ℃,the fire-retardant capability for the bamboo strip was:Treatment 1>Treatment 2>Treatment 3>Treatment 4.[Ch,3 fig. 4 tab. 11 ref.]
Enzyme pretreatments and dynamic wettability of a poplar surface
HAN Shu-guang, ZHOU Zhao-bing, JIANG Hua, ZHANG Yang
2009, 26(6): 774-777.
[Abstract](3373) [PDF](172)
To understand the effects of enzyme pretreatments on the dynamic wettability,changes in dynamic wettability of a poplar surface treated with an enzyme were studied using the dynamic wettability model of a wood surface. Also,effects of enzyme concentration and enzyme pretreatment time on dynamic wettability of a poplar surface were discussed. Results showed that enzyme pretreatments improved the dynamic wettability of a poplar surface with K value increments on the treated poplar surfaces of 11.5% for distilled water,7.3% for glycerol,and 4.1% for methylene iodide. In addition,the dynamic wettability of the poplar surface increased as the dose of the enzyme increased,and for a droplet on the poplar surface,a longer treatment time obtained a higher dynamic wettability.[Ch,2 fig. 3 tab. 8 ref.]
One-year-old seedling traits of Populus deltoides hybrids with P. cathayanaP. szechuanica,and P. purdomii
HU Bin, FAN Jun-feng, GAO Jian-she, ZHOU Yong-xue
2009, 26(6): 778-783.
[Abstract](3427) [PDF](219)
Indoor artificial crosses for two groups of Populus deltoides (I-69 and I-57)(female):I-69 with P. cathayana,P. szechuanica,and P. purdomii(male) and I-57 with P. cathayana and P. szechuanica were carried out in the spring of 2006. Then,in September 2007,growth performance,and infection from Marssonina brunnea fungi on the 1-year-old hybrid seedlings were tested. with a 30 cm×40 cm seedling space design having 10 seedlings per plot and 3 replications using an ANOVA with an LSD test. Results among the five crosses showed that percentage of fruit set and seed germination ranged from 55% to 20% for the I-69 group and 20% to 5% for the I-57 group. Best growth performances were with I-69 × P. szechuanica having a mean hybrid seedling height of 2.87 m and I-69 × P. purdomii(2.38 m) along with root-collar diameters 2.57 and 2.13 cm,respectively. The LSD test also showed that hybrid seedling growth for mean height and root-collar diameter of I-69 was significantly greater(P < 0.01) than the I-57 group. M. brunnea infected 100% of all hybrid seedlings; however,the infection index of the I-69 group was lower. Thus,the I-69 × P. szechuanica,I-69 × P. cathayana,and I-69 × P. purdomii crosses have good resistance to M. brunnea. [Ch,4 tab. 26 ref.]
A 10-year-old provenance trial of Betula platyphylla in the Maoershan area of Heilongjiang Province
GAO Yu-chi, WEI Zhi-gang, YANG Chuan-ping, LIU Gui-feng, LIU Guan-jun
2009, 26(6): 784-791.
[Abstract](3635) [PDF](155)
To select excellent provenances for cellulose timber for Zhangguangcailing area and study the geographical variation rule of Betula platyphylla,research on 14 provenances from a provenance trial of 10-year-old B. platyphylla in Maoershan,Heilongjiang Province was conducted using principle component,canonical correlation,and cluster analyses. The provenance trial used randomized block design,which included 4 blocks and 30 trees for every provenance in a block. Results showed significant differences(P <0.01) in diameter at breast height,tree height,stem volume,and cellulose content. From the genetic parameters of these four characteristics,the principle component analysis revealed three excellent provenances for cellulose timber: Dongfanghong,Maoershan,and Wuyiling. The genetic gain for cellulose content was Dongfanghong:5.3%,Maoershan:10.0%,and Wuyiling:2.9%;whereas for stem volume it was:Dongfanghong:43.3%,Maoershan:38.1%,and Wuyiling:37.0%. The canonical correlation analysis between biological characteristics of B. platyphylla and geographical climatic factors of the different provenances showed that temperature and sunlight were the primary influential factors affecting biological characteristics. The cluster analysis grouped Daxing’anling,Liaodong,and Xiaoxing’anling-Changbaishan provenance areas. The excellent proveances could satisfy the production needs of cellulose timber for Zhangguangcailing area and the research provided theoretical foundation for further genetic improvement and seed allocation of B. platyphylla.[Ch,1 fig. 6 tab. 24 ref.]
Fruit characteristics of Melia azedarach in eastern coastal areas of China
JIAO Zhong-yi, TANG Ling-ling, WANG Bao-song, SUI De-zong
2009, 26(6): 792-796.
[Abstract](3412) [PDF](118)
Eight characteristics(i.e. length,width,and length-width ratio of both drupes and stones along with weight per 1 000 drupes and 1 000 stones)for ten producing areas of Melia azedarach in coastal areas of Jiangsu and Shandong Provinces were measured and analyzed using correlation and cluster analyses. Results showed that each index differed significantly between families both for all producing areas(P<0.05) and within each area(P<0.05). In addition,the coefficient of variation for all producing areas was 2.1% - 18.5% which was less than between families within each producing area. The broad heritability for all producing areas was 60.0% - 96.1% which was also less than between families within each producing area. Correlation and cluster analyses showed that both latitude (r = 0.632) and longitude(r = 0.549) influenced fruit characteristics. Results suggested that there was abundant genetic variation between families for all producing areas as well as within each area. [Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 9 ref.]
Morphological differences in Houttuynia cordata from 23 different provenances in China
WU Ling-shang, SI Jin-ping, LAN Yun-long, ZHU Yan, Lv Da
2009, 26(6): 797-801.
[Abstract](3957) [PDF](145)
To reveal the morphological variation in the main producing areas in China,eight characteristics of the leaves,flowers,fruits,and stems of Houttuynia cordata,namely fructescence length,diameter,and stalk length;flower or fruit number per plant;capsule number;seed number;plant height;and ground diameter;from 23 different provenances were investigated. Then the relationship between them or geographic origin was studied by analysis of correlation. The division of types based on cluster analysis. Results showed major differences(P<0.01) for the eight characteristics within provenances with flower or fruit number per plant varying most(RSD = 82%) followed by plant height and seed number. Meanwhile,morphological characteristics were correlated with each other significantly(P<0.05 or P<0.01). Furthermore,according to the main morphological characteristics of leaves and stems,the 23 provenances could be divided into two types. Therefore,morphological characteristics of H. cordata have a certain genetic basis allowing for a feasible division by type. Nevertheless,when breeding for excellent cultivars of H. cordata more comprehensive factors should be considered.[Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 6 ref.]
Flowering habits in Camellia oleifera
ZENG Yan-ru, LI Zhang-ju, DAI Wen-sheng
2009, 26(6): 802-809.
[Abstract](3809) [PDF](169)
In order to study the flowering period,pollination habit,reason of floral and fruit drops of Camellia oleifera,a trial of C. oleifera was conducted on multiple sites(seven sites in Hunan,Zhejiang,Anhui Province) over years(1969 - 1984). Results showed that genetic and climatic factors influenced the flowering period. Genetic factors were stable and determined the early,mid-or late flowering period; climatic factors,mainly the average atmospheric temperature in September,determined when “autumn” and the flowering period started. Also,there was self-infertility in C. oleifera with artificial pollination having a higher fruit setting percentage than self-pollination;if the flowering period started late there was a large gap between these pollination types. Diallel hybridization between individual trees as well as some special mating combinations resulted in progeny with a fruit-setting percentage higher than that of the maternal or paternal parents. In addition,C. oleifera had a long flowering period. For early and mid-flowering types,the atmospheric temperature was high during the centralized flowering period,the fruit setting percentage was high,and floral drop period was also centralized. For the late flowering type,fruit drop periods were March to October,where fruit drop resulted from poor fertilization and stagnancy of ovule development,and August to October,where fruit drop,mainly from diseases and pests,reached a peak of about 50% of the total fruit dropped and had a great effect on yield. [Ch,8 tab. 9 ref.]
Effects of transfusion of nutrient solution to Cryptomeria fortunei on Mount Tianmu
YANG Shu-zhen, LI Guo-hui, DU Qing-zhou, WEN Guo-sheng
2009, 26(6): 810-814.
[Abstract](3662) [PDF](239)
Various measures have been taken to prevent the spread of the tumor disease of Cryptomeria fortunei on Mount Tianmu,and transfusion of nutrient solution is one of them. This paper studied the effects of transfusion of nutrient solution to C. fortunei by measuring the fresh treetop growth,the relative chlorophyll content,the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and by surveying the tumor distribution pattern. The results showed that from March to October,the relative fresh treetop growth of C. fortunei with nutrient solution was larger than the control by 5.7 per cent. In August SPAD value of the C. fortunei with nutrient solution was larger than the control by 3.7 per cent,and both of them reduced quickly in October.In August the Fv/Fm of the C. fortunei with nutrient solution was 1.29 times as much as that of the control.At present,the diameters of most C. fortunei tumors were between 1 - 3 cm and few were less than 1 cm or larger than 6 cm. The transfusion of nutrient solution has improved the health of the C. fortunei on Mount Tianmu to some extent.[Ch,5 fig. 2 tab. 11 ref.]
Drought resistance in seedlings of Catalpa bungei cultivars
WANG Gai-ping, CEN Xian-chao, PENG Fang-ren, YANG Hong-ning
2009, 26(6): 815-821.
[Abstract](4227) [PDF](162)
In order to provide a theoretical foundation for afforestation in arid and semi-arid regions and to exploit the Catalpa resource,drought resistance in one-year-old seedlings of 7 cultivars of Catalpa bungei and C. ovata were studied using a completely random design with treatments of 0,40,80,and 120 g·L-1 and three replications by applying simulated drought stress with PEG 6000. Using method of subordinate function and a system cluster analysis,growth and physiological indexes related to drought resistance were measured and evaluated. Results showed that ‘Guangye’and ‘Ginsi’ cultivars,and C. ovata had higher drought resistance followed by ‘Zhou 2’ and ‘Nanyang’ and finally the stock,‘Yuanchang’,and ‘Yu 1’. Drought resistance of ‘Zhou 2’ and ‘Nanyang’ decreased with the increasing drought stress,but drought resistance of the other cultivars were not greatly changing in any content of drought stress. The method of subordinate function and system cluster analysis revealed that 40 and 80 g·L-1 PEG 6000 were suitable for evaluation of drought resistance with C. bungei in the seedling stage. [Ch,1 fig. 3 tab. 16 ref.]
Drought resistance in seedlings of five evergreen broadleaf tree species
HAN Yan, LIN Xia-zhen
2009, 26(6): 822-828.
[Abstract](3890) [PDF](128)
In order to develop “water saving garden” and provide a theoretical basis to the green of arid areas. The experiment was conducted with 5 species tree seedlings of evergreen broad-leaved (Prunus zippeliana,Lithocarpus glaber,Cinnamomum camphora,Schima superba,and Photinia glabra × P. fraseri ‘Red Robin’) under different soil drought stresses such as stop watering for 0 day,5 days,10 days,15 days,20 days,30 days and 35 days in pots in order to compare their drought resistant ability. Characteristics and physiological indicators of five tree species were studied with different drought stresses. Results showed that when soil water content for the five evergreen tree species decreased,the leaf relative water deficit increased,the water loss rate decreased,cell membrane permeation increased,and proline content increased. Also the range of different tree species and stress times were not the same. Through comprehensive analysis of these indexes of 5 seedlings,it was concluded that the drought resistant ability of these 5 species decreased in order: C. camphora<S. superba<L. glaber<Photinia glabra × Photinia fraseri‘Red Robin’<Prunus zippeliana.[Ch,1 fig. 5 tab. 21 ref.]
Containerized versus bare-root seedlings of Schima superba for forest regeneration
LIU Wei, ZHOU Shan-song, ZHANG Xian-xiang, FENG Jian-guo, WU Xue-mei
2009, 26(6): 829-834.
[Abstract](3297) [PDF](189)
Comparisons of survival rate,tree height,and diameter at breast height(DBH) growth of Schima superba using containerized and bare-root planting stock were conducted for good,medium,and poor site conditions. Results showed an interaction between site condition and seedling type was highly significant(P<0.01). Survival rate,6-year-old tree height,and DBH growth for containerized seedlings were significantly greater(P<0.01)than bare-root stock. Also,in good sites,survival rate,6-year-old tree height,and DBH growth were significantly higher(P<0.01)than medium sites,which in turn were significantly higher(P<0.01)than poor sites. Moreover,utilizing containerized seedlings cost 14.6% less than bare-root planting stock. We concluded that for artificial regeneration,containerized planting was advantageous as it had higher survival and growth rates and offered better protection at lower costs. [Ch, 5 tab. 26 ref.]
Investigation on cultivation and application of tree peony in Zhejiang and Anhui
ZHENG Yan-wei, FAN Yi-rong, GUO Chen-ying, FAN Qing-jun, ZHANG Qing-bao
2009, 26(6): 835-841.
[Abstract](3814) [PDF](148)
On-the-spot investigation and analysis of cultivars,plant area,management and application of tree peony were conducted in the south of Anhui and Zhejiang in order to provide the basic information and reference for the construction and development of peony industry. The survey recorded 16 traditionalcultivars,of which 10 cultivars were recorded in book of Chinese Tree Peony(Volume of Northwest,Southwest,and South of the Yangtze River),6 were the new records;9 new cultivars were breeds of Fengdan strain. Under natural conditions the growth of traditional cultivars was better than that of introduced cultivars. The adaptability of introduced cultivars was significantly different and the selection of introduced cultivars should be paid attention to. The main application of tree peony in Zhejiang and Anhui was the species-divided garden. But the ways of development were diversified. To develop tree peony in the south of the Yangtze River,it’s necessary to establish a resource base for tree peony cultivars,hence the peony resources collection,standard nomination of cultivars,introduction and cultivation of new cultivars can be carried out in a planned way.[Ch,4 tab. 21 ref.]
Ecological characteristics of soil microbial amount during succession of degraded karst vegetation on the Guizhou Plateau
WEI Yuan, ZHANG Jin-chi, YU Yuan-chun, YU Li-fei
2009, 26(6): 842-848.
[Abstract](3778) [PDF](289)
In order to study the biological characteristics of soil quality during degraded karst vegetation restoration,soil samples were collected from different restoration stages(bare land stage,herbaceous community stage,shrubby community stage and the arboreal community stage)in the Karst Plateau Ecological Synthesis Control Area in Huajiang of Guizhou. By using microbial incubation methods(with methods of dilution plate smearing and statistical analysis),the distributions of soil microbial amount in different soil layers as well as the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere areas,and for different seasons,were studied. The results showed that with restoration of degraded karst vegetation,there was a highly significant increase(P<0.01) in microbial amount(bacteria,fungi,actinomyces,and total microbes)with the arboreal community stage>shrubby community stage>herbaceous community stage>bare land stage. Soil microbial amount significantly decreased(P<0.05) in the soil profile with an increase of soil depth with layer A> layer B. Also,for seasonal change,soil microbial amount(in CFU·g-1)was highest in summer (6.16 × 106 for bacteria,1.11 × 105 for fungi,3.16 × 105 for actinomyces,and 6.59 × 106 for total microbial amount) and lowest in winter(3.42 × 106 for bacteria,0.45 × 105 for fungi,1.75 × 105 for actinomyces,and 3.64 × 106 for total microbial amount). Overall,the seasons were summer>autumn>spring>winter,and statistical analysis showed significant differences(P<0.05). Additionally,microbial amount in the rhizosphere was significantly greater(P<0.05) than the non-rhizosphere. Thus,soil microbial amount increased during vegetation restoration of degraded karst lands,which indicated soil quality gradually improved.[Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 21 ref.]
Detection of Camellia oleifera root rot pathogen with nested-PCR
LI He, SONG Guang-tao, HE Mo-jun, HAO Yan, ZHOU Guo-ying
2009, 26(6): 849-853.
[Abstract](3530) [PDF](138)
A species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for rapid and accurate detection of the pathogenic root rot of diseased Camellia oleifera plant tissues was developed. Based on differences in internal transcribed spacer(ITS) sequences of Fusarium proliferatum,a pair of species-specific primers,GF1/GR2,was designed. Other species of F. proliferatum were used to test the specificity of the primers. The GF1/GR2 primer only amplified a unique 400 bp band from the CSUFT070109 strain,and its detection sensitivity was 1 pg of genomic DNA in 25 μL reaction solution. A nested PCR procedure using ITS1/ITS4 as the first-round primers followed by GF1/GR2 increased detection sensitivity 10 000-fold to 100 ag. This assay detected the pathogen rapidly and accurately meaning methods developed here could simplify both plant disease diagnosis and pathogen monitoring as well as guide plant disease management.[Ch,4 fig. 22 ref.]
Inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi with bamboo tar
WANG Pin-wei, TONG Sen-miao, LIAO Wen-li, MA Jian-yi, SHEN Zhe-hong, YE Liang-ming
2009, 26(6): 854-858.
[Abstract](3746) [PDF](133)
Fungicidal activity of bamboo tar against the phytopathogenic fungi Sphaerotheca fuliginea,Botrytis cinerea,and Alternaria solani,Fusarium graminearum,Rhizoctonia solani,Valsa mali,Sclerotinia sclerotiorum,Pyricularia oryzae,Bipolaris maydis,Fusarium oxysporum f. vasinfectum,Fusarium oxysporum f. cucumerinum,Venturia nashicola,Glomerella cingulata was tested using the colony growth diameter test method and using potted plants in a greenhouse. A comparison of bamboo tar at 2 000 mg·L-1 and methyl 2-[(4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-5-oxo-3-propoxy-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-carboxamido) sulfonyl] benzoate at 200 mg·L-1 using the control was made. Results for bamboo tar showed that against Sphaerotheca fuliginea the preventive effect was 79.1% and the curative effect was 78.4%;whereas for Botrytis cinerea the defensive effect was 42.4% and the curative effect was 46.9%. However,no significant differences were observed between bamboo tar and triadimefon(P<0.05). These results demonstrated that bamboo tar had anti-fungal actions and may be a new potential agricultural fungicide in future.[Ch,5 tab. 15 ref.]
Antibacterial effect of street-side plant arrangement in Huai’an,Jiangsu
LUO Ying, LI Xiao-chu, HUANG Li-bin, HE Xiao-di, CAI Dan-dan, TANG Liang
2009, 26(6): 859-864.
[Abstract](3941) [PDF](251)
To provide basis for plant selection and arrangement on street-side greening in Huai’an City,Jiangsu Province,the antibacterial effect was conducted on different plant arrangements along streets in autumn of 2006 and winter of 2007. The depositing method by nature and bacteria cultivation of beef-protein medium were adopted. Results showed that the best antibacterial growth on Huaihai West Road was a tree layer of Zelkova schneideriana and Cedrus deodara,a shrub layer of Cercis chinensis and Buxus sinica,and a ground cover of Zephyranthes candida with an antibacterial effect of 51.9%. On Beijing North Road a tree layer of Magnolia grandiflora and a shrub layer of Photinia serrulata revealed an antibacterial effect of 47.1%. Thus,depending on the arrangement,antibacterial effect can improve the urban street-side environment in autumn and winter.[Ch,1 fig. 7 tab. 10 ref.]
Comparison of height-diameter models for main species in natural forest of Changbai Mountains
ZHAO Jun-hui, LIU Yan, ZHANG Hui-dong, KANG Xin-gang
2009, 26(6): 865-869.
[Abstract](3598) [PDF](139)
The study of height-diameter model is a basic research in forest growth and yield modeling. It might imply some information for regulation stands by comparing height-diameter models of different tree species in the same forest. The Weibull function was chosen to develop height-diameter models by using 1 680 sample trees of seven main species on Changbai Mountains,including three coniferous species:Picea koraiensis,Abies nephrolepis,and Pinus koraiensis,and four broadleaf species:Betula costata,Tilia amurensis,Acer mono,and Ulmus pumila. The decision coefficient R2 of height-diameter models for coniferous species were above 0.821 and for broadleaf species were between 0.474 - 0.746. When tree diameter was small,the height of broadleaf species was higher than coniferous species,whereas when diameter was large,height for coniferous species was higher. Also,the height increment between adjacent diameter classes was generally greater in coniferous species. Because volume will be greater for taller trees with the same diameter,when regulating the stands,trees with larger height increments should be maintained. Therefore,on Changbai Mountains if only timber production is considered,cutting the main coniferous species having the same diameter should be in the order:Abies nephrolepis,Pinus koraiensis,and Picea koraiensis.[Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 8 ref.]
Land utilization pattern changing and driving force analysis based on remote sensing data in Lin’an
GU Lei, WU Chun-jun, WANG Xin
2009, 26(6): 870-876.
[Abstract](4176) [PDF](153)
Lin’an City of Zhejiang Province was selected as a case study to help understand change of land utilization pattern,dynamic degree,and transfer matrix of all land utilization types. We studied remote sensing data from 1991,1998 and 2007 and topographic maps. And by analyzing the natural condition,economy and social system of Lin’an City,we want to get the change driving force of land utilization pattern. The results showed that farmland coverage declined sharply,forest coverage went low too,but building lot coverage increased greatly,and waterbody added a little. There were obvious difference in land utilization degree,dynamic degree,and transfer degree of land utilization types in Lin’an City. [Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 11 ref.]
Scale effect of landscape pattern indices for the Wuyishan Nature Reserve
ZHANG Chun-ying, LIN Cong-hua, HONG Wei, WU Chen-zhen, HE Chun-ling, CHEN Ying-jiao
2009, 26(6): 877-883.
[Abstract](4189) [PDF](167)
Using a changing pixel scale method in translating vector images to grade images,the effect of scale on landscape pattern indices for the Wuyishan Nature Reserve was studied. To select the best pixel scale fractal indices were compared at different pixel scales. Results showed that the contagion index (CONTAG),the percentage of like adjacency index (PLADJ),the fragmentation index (FN2),and Shannon’s Diversity Index (SHDI) all decreased with increasing pixel scale. Speed was fastest at the 10 - 50 m range and slowest at the 50 - 500 m range. The COHESION,connectivity,Shannon’s Evenness Index (SHEI),and dominance indices had different curves. To translate vector to grade images in the Wuyishan Nature Reserve,a pixel scale of 30 m was best.[Ch,5 fig. 1 tab. 18 ref.]
Index system and standards of quality evaluation of forest tourist areas in Zhejiang Province
CAI Bi-fan, YU Yi-wu, FANG Gong-yong, MENG Ming-hao, ZHU Yun-jie, QIAN Yuan
2009, 26(6): 884-890.
[Abstract](4415) [PDF](167)
In order to analyze the dynamic changes and management effectiveness of all forest tourist areas in Zhejiang Province,and evaluate objectively and fairly the quality of forest tourist areas,the paper adopted the Delphi Method and the Analytical Hierarchy Process to carry out the study of the quality evaluation index system and evaluation standards in Zhejiang. The results indicated that the index system included four layers,namely,the target layer,the project layer,the element layer and index layer,consisting 5 projects,27 elements and 62 indices. Finally the paper offered evaluation standards for all kinds of index.[Ch,9 tab. 12 ref.]
Visitors’ satisfaction of unattended interpretation services in Zhejiang’s national forest parks
BAO Ya-fang, SUN Zhi
2009, 26(6): 891-895.
[Abstract](3672) [PDF](114)
Factor analysis was used to identify factors affecting visitor satisfaction on unattended interpretation services in Zhejiang’s national forest parks. Findings showed that the unattended interpretation services didn’t meet visitors’ needs,especially in the dimension of “parks’ interpretative publications”. What’s more,“interpretative signs’ design placement”was found to be the most important factor contributing to visitors’ interpretative satisfaction. Therefore,it suggested that Zhejiang’s national forest parks should improve the design of parks’ interpretative signs and pay more attention to the placement of signs,increase the input of free interpretative publications.[Ch,3 tab. 9 ref.]
A review of research on wood recognition technology
WANG Hang-jun, ZHANG Guang-qun, QI Heng-nian, LI Wen-zhu
2009, 26(6): 896-902.
[Abstract](3540) [PDF](140)
Three traditional methods and database searching method of wood recognition were introduced. Then the advantages of the method of wood recognition based on computer vision were pointed out. According to the recognition process,this method was divided into three styles:type,feature and classifier. Finally,five aspects for future research in the semantic features extraction,combination of semantic features and texture features,tree species fingerprint search,non-slicing recognition and equipment development to identify were put forward.[Ch,1 fig. 40 ref.]
Prevention and control of birdstrike
SU Xiu, ZHU Xi
2009, 26(6): 903-908.
[Abstract](3667) [PDF](174)
With the development of aviation,birdstrike disasters caused great loss to civil and military aviation. The danger and prevention methods of birdstrike were introduced intensively in this article. The prevention methods included anti-bird impact design of airplanes,birds driving system,modeling of birds and ecological management in airports. It was suggested that integrated management be the key to the prevention and control of birdstrike. The paper was also aimed to combine prevention and control of birdstrike with ecology,aeronautics,geography and environment science. Meanwhile,it was suggested using a simple and useful method to evaluate the risk of birdstrike based on some useful mathematic methods as a quantifiable basis in resolving the birdstrike at airports.[Ch,46 ref.]
Principle,method and application of FORECAST model
JIE Cheng-yue, XIN Zan-hong, XIN Xiao-ying, JIANG Hong, WEI Xiao-hua
2009, 26(6): 909-915.
[Abstract](4536) [PDF](310)
Mathematical model is an important tool to help scientists and good government policy makers with planning and forecasting. In recent decades,large number of mathematical models,experience models and models based on the process have emerged,and made tremendous contributions to the development of modern ecology. Model of forest ecosystem processes is a very important forestry model. FORECAST is a model based on the process of forest ecosystems stand level. It can simulate a variety of effects that management strategies impose on forests,predict the development trend of the structure and function of the forest ecosystem and help us formulate appropriate management strategies for forest ecosystems optimizing management services. This article makes a simple introduction to the development of FORECAST model,principles,methods and practical applications,and its strengths and limitations.[Ch,2 fig. 1 tab. 14 ref.]
A new plant record from Zhejiang discovered in Mount Qingliangfeng: Corylus chinensis
LI Gen-you, YE Xi-yang, MA Dan-dan, ZHANG Hong-wei, ZHANG Fen-yao
2009, 26(6): 916-917.
[Abstract](3490) [PDF](183)
Corylus chinensis Franch.(Betulaceae) discovered in National Nature Reserve of Mount Qingliangfeng,is reported here as a new record from Zhejiang Province.[Ch,1 fig. 9 ref.]